Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 596

Search results for: Electromagnetic Band Gap

596 Efficiency Improvement for Conventional Rectangular Horn Antenna by Using EBG Technique

Authors: S. Kampeephat, P. Krachodnok, R. Wongsan

Abstract:

The conventional rectangular horn has been used for microwave antenna a long time. Its gain can be increased by enlarging the construction of horn to flare exponentially. This paper presents a study of the shaped woodpile Electromagnetic Band Gap (EBG) to improve its gain for conventional horn without construction enlargement. The gain enhancement synthesis method for shaped woodpile EBG that has to transfer the electromagnetic fields from aperture of a horn antenna through woodpile EBG is presented by using the variety of shaped woodpile EBGs such as planar, triangular, quadratic, circular, gaussian, cosine, and squared cosine structures. The proposed technique has the advantages of low profile, low cost for fabrication and light weight. The antenna characteristics such as reflection coefficient (S11), radiation patterns and gain are simulated by utilized A Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software. With the proposed concept, an antenna prototype was fabricated and experimented. The S11 and radiation patterns obtained from measurements show a good impedance matching and a gain enhancement of the proposed antenna. The gain at dominant frequency of 10 GHz is 25.6 dB, application for X- and Ku-Band Radar, that higher than the gain of the basic rectangular horn antenna around 8 dB with adding only one appropriated EBG structures.

Keywords: Conventional Rectangular Horn Antenna, Electromagnetic Band Gap, Gain Enhancement, X- and Ku-Band Radar.

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595 Design of Compact Dual-Band Planar Antenna for WLAN Systems

Authors: Anil Kumar Pandey

Abstract:

A compact planar monopole antenna with dual-band operation suitable for wireless local area network (WLAN) application is presented in this paper. The antenna occupies an overall area of 18 ×12 mm2. The antenna is fed by a coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission line and it combines two folded strips, which radiates at 2.4 and 5.2 GHz. In the proposed antenna, by optimally selecting the antenna dimensions, dual-band resonant modes with a much wider impedance matching at the higher band can be produced. Prototypes of the obtained optimized design have been simulated using EM solver. The simulated results explore good dual-band operation with -10 dB impedance bandwidths of 50 MHz and 2400 MHz at bands of 2.4 and 5.2 GHz, respectively, which cover the 2.4/5.2/5.8 GHz WLAN operating bands. Good antenna performances such as radiation patterns and antenna gains over the operating bands have also been observed. The antenna with a compact size of 18×12×1.6 mm3 is designed on an FR4 substrate with a dielectric constant of 4.4.

Keywords: CPW fed antenna, dual-band, electromagnetic simulation, wireless local area network, WLAN.

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594 Investigation of Utilizing L-Band Horn Antenna in Landmine Detection

Authors: Ahmad H. Abdelgwad, Ahmed A. Nashat

Abstract:

Landmine detection is an important and yet challenging problem remains to be solved. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a powerful and rapidly maturing technology for subsurface threat identification. The detection methodology of GPR depends mainly on the contrast of the dielectric properties of the searched target and its surrounding soil. This contrast produces a partial reflection of the electromagnetic pulses that are being transmitted into the soil and then being collected by the GPR.  One of the most critical hardware components for the performance of GPR is the antenna system. The current paper explores the design and simulation of a pyramidal horn antenna operating at L-band frequencies (1- 2 GHz) to detect a landmine. A prototype model of the GPR system setup is developed to simulate full wave analysis of the electromagnetic fields in different soil types. The contrast in the dielectric permittivity of the landmine and the sandy soil is the most important parameter to be considered for detecting the presence of landmine. L-band horn antenna is proved to be well-versed in the investigation of landmine detection.

Keywords: Full wave analysis, ground penetrating radar, horn antenna design, landmine detection.

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593 Shielding Effectiveness of Rice Husk and CNT Composites in X-Band Frequency

Authors: Y. S. Lee, F. Malek, E. M. Cheng, W. W. Liu, F. H. Wee, M. N. Iqbal, Z. Liyana, B. S. Yew, F. S. Abdullah

Abstract:

This paper presents the electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness of rice husk and carbon nanotubes (RHCNTs) composites in the X-band region (8.2-12.4 GHz). The difference weight ratio of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were mix with the rice husk. The rectangular waveguide technique was used to measure the complex permittivity of the RHCNTs composites materials. The complex permittivity is represented in terms of both the real and imaginary parts of permittivity in X-band frequency. The conductivity of RHCNTs shows increasing when the ratio of CNTs mixture increases. The composites materials were simulated using Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio simulation software. The shielding effectiveness of RHCNTs and pure rice husk was compared. The highest EMI SE of 30 dB is obtained for RHCNTs composites of 10 wt % CNTs with 10mm thickness.

Keywords: EMI Shielding effectiveness, Carbon nanotube, Composite materials, Waveguide, X-band.

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592 Design of a Dual Polarized Resonator Antenna for Mobile Communication System

Authors: N. Fhafhiem, P. Krachodnok, R. Wongsan

Abstract:

This paper proposes the development and design of double layer metamaterials based on electromagnetic band gap (EBG) rods as a superstrate of a resonator antenna to enhance required antenna characteristics for the mobile base station. The metallic rod type metamaterial can partially reflect wave of a primary radiator. The antenna was designed and analyzed by a simulation result from CST Microwave Studio and designed technique could be confirmed by a measurement results from prototype antenna that agree with simulation results. The results indicate that the antenna can also generate a dual polarization by using a 45˚ oriented curved strip dipole located at the center of the reflector plane with double layer superstrate. It can be used to simplify the feed system of an antenna. The proposed antenna has a bandwidth covering the frequency range of 1920 – 2200 MHz, the gain of the antenna increases up to 14.06 dBi. In addition, an interesting sectoral 60˚ pattern is presented in horizontal plane.

Keywords: Metamaterial, electromagnetic band gap, dual polarization, resonator antenna.

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591 Design of Ka-Band Satellite Links in Indonesia

Authors: Zulfajri Basri Hasanuddin

Abstract:

There is an increasing demand for broadband services in Indonesia. Therefore, the answer is the use of Ka-Band which has some advantages such as wider bandwidth, the higher transmission speeds, and smaller size of antenna in the ground. However, rain attenuation is the primary factor in the degradation of signal at the Kaband. In this paper, the author will determine whether the Ka-band frequency can be implemented in Indonesia which has high intensity of rainfall.

Keywords: Ka-Band, Link Budget, Link Availability, BER, Eb/No, C/N.

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590 Analysis of Wave Propagation in Two-dimensional Phononic Crystals with Hollow Cylinders

Authors: Zi-Gui Huang, Tsung-Tsong Wu

Abstract:

Large full frequency band gaps of surface and bulk acoustic waves in two-dimensional phononic band structures with hollow cylinders are addressed in this paper. It is well-known that absolute frequency band gaps are difficultly obtained in a band structure consisted of low-acoustic-impedance cylinders in high-acoustic-impedance host materials such as PMMA/Ni band structures. Phononic band structures with hollow cylinders are analyzed and discussed to obtain large full frequency band gaps not only for bulk modes but also for surface modes. The tendency of absolute frequency band gaps of surface and bulk acoustic waves is also addressed by changing the inner radius of hollow cylinders in this paper. The technique and this kind of band structure are useful for tuning the frequency band gaps and the design of acoustic waveguides.

Keywords: Phononic crystals, Band gap, SAW, BAW.

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589 Identification of Impact of Electromagnetic Fields at Low and High Frequency on Human Body

Authors: P. Sowa

Abstract:

The article reviews the current state of large-scale studies about the impact of electromagnetic field on natural environment. The scenario of investigations – simulation of natural conditions at the workplace, taking into consideration the influence both low and high frequency electromagnetic fields is shown.The biological effects of low and high frequency electromagnetic fields are below presented. Results of investigation with animals are shown. The norms and regulations concerning the levels of electromagnetic field intensity are reviewed.

Keywords: Electromagnetic field and environment, biological effects of electric field on human body, simulation of natural condition at workplace

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588 A Canadian Leaf Shaped Triple Band Patch Antenna with DGS for X and C-Band Applications

Authors: R. Kiruthika, T. Shanmuganantham

Abstract:

A shaped single feed microstrip antenna is realized for C-Band and X-Band applications. The frequency range of C-band and X-band varies from 4 to 8 Gigahertz and 8 to 12 Gigahertz. The antenna operates under three frequency bands, one under C band and two under X-band applications. Defect on the ground called DGS (Defected Ground Structure) is made to enhance the distinctiveness of the antenna parameters. The design consists of DGS provided to improve the antenna performance. The substrate material used is of the Flame Retardant grade-4 (FR4) epoxy having high mechanical and electrical strength. The design and analysis was done using the FEM (Finite Element Method) based Ansoft HFSS (High Frequency Structural Simulator) Version 12. For the resonant frequencies of 5.21, 9.17 and 10.45, a value of reflection coefficient obtained is of -39.0, -16.0 and -30.7 dB respectively. Other constraints of antenna such as bandwidth, gain, directivity and Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) are also conferred.

Keywords: Flame retardant-4 epoxy, finite element method, return loss, directivity.

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587 Meshed Antenna for Ku-band Wireless Communication

Authors: Chokri Baccouch, Chayma Bahhar, Hedi Sakli, Nizar Sakli

Abstract:

In this article, we present the combination of an antenna patch structure with a photovoltaic cell in one device for telecommunication applications in isolated environments. The radiating patch element of a patch antenna was replaced by a solar cell. DC current generation is the original feature of the solar cell, but now it was additionally able to receive and transmit electromagnetic waves. A mathematical model which serves in the minimization of power losses of the cell and therefore the improvement in conversion performance was studied. Simulation results of this antenna show a resonance at a frequency of 16.55 GHz in Ku-band with a gain of 4.24 dBi.

Keywords: Electric power collected, optical and electrical losses, optimization of the grid of collection, patch antenna, photovoltaic cell.

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586 High Gain Mobile Base Station Antenna Using Curved Woodpile EBG Technique

Authors: P. Kamphikul, P. Krachodnok, R. Wongsan

Abstract:

This paper presents the gain improvement of a sector antenna for mobile phone base station by using the new technique to enhance its gain for microstrip antenna (MSA) array without construction enlargement. The curved woodpile Electromagnetic Band Gap (EBG) has been utilized to improve the gain instead. The advantages of this proposed antenna are reducing the length of MSAs array but providing the higher gain and easy fabrication and installation. Moreover, it provides a fan-shaped radiation pattern, wide in the horizontal direction and relatively narrow in the vertical direction, which appropriate for mobile phone base station. The paper also presents the design procedures of a 1x8 MSAs array associated with U-shaped reflector for decreasing their back and side lobes. The fabricated curved woodpile EBG exhibits bandgap characteristics at 2.1 GHz and is utilized for realizing a resonant cavity of MSAs array. This idea has been verified by both the Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software and experimental results. As the results, the fabricated proposed antenna achieves a high gain of 20.3 dB and the half-power beam widths in the E- and H-plane of 36.8 and 8.7 degrees, respectively. Good qualitative agreement between measured and simulated results of the proposed antenna was obtained.

Keywords: Gain Improvement, Microstrip Antenna Array, Electromagnetic Band Gap, Base Station.

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585 Multi Band Frequency Synthesizer Based on ISPD PLL with Adapted LC Tuned VCO

Authors: Bilel Gassara, Mahmoud Abdellaoui, Nouri Masmoud

Abstract:

The 4G front-end transceiver needs a high performance which can be obtained mainly with an optimal architecture and a multi-band Local Oscillator. In this study, we proposed and presented a new architecture of multi-band frequency synthesizer based on an Inverse Sine Phase Detector Phase Locked Loop (ISPD PLL) without any filters and any controlled gain block and associated with adapted multi band LC tuned VCO using a several numeric controlled capacitive branches but not binary weighted. The proposed architecture, based on 0.35μm CMOS process technology, supporting Multi-band GSM/DCS/DECT/ UMTS/WiMax application and gives a good performances: a phase noise @1MHz -127dBc and a Factor Of Merit (FOM) @ 1MHz - 186dB and a wide band frequency range (from 0.83GHz to 3.5GHz), that make the proposed architecture amenable for monolithic integration and 4G multi-band application.

Keywords: GSM/DCS/DECT/UMTS/WiMax, ISPD PLL, keep and capture range, Multi-Band, Synthesizer, Wireless.

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584 A New Approach to Signal Processing for DC-Electromagnetic Flowmeters

Authors: Michael Schukat

Abstract:

Electromagnetic flowmeters with DC excitation are used for a wide range of fluid measurement tasks, but are rarely found in dosing applications with short measurement cycles due to the achievable accuracy. This paper will identify a number of factors that influence the accuracy of this sensor type when used for short-term measurements. Based on these results a new signal-processing algorithm will be described that overcomes the identified problems to some extend. This new method allows principally a higher accuracy of electromagnetic flowmeters with DC excitation than traditional methods.

Keywords: Electromagnetic Flowmeter, Kalman Filter, ShortMeasurement Cycles, Signal Estimation

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583 Electromagnetic Field Modeling in Human Tissue

Authors: Iliana Marinova, Valentin Mateev

Abstract:

For investigations of electromagnetic field distributions in biological structures by Finite Element Method (FEM), a method for automatic 3D model building of human anatomical objects is developed. Models are made by meshed structures and specific electromagnetic material properties for each tissue type. Mesh is built according to specific FEM criteria for achieving good solution accuracy. Several FEM models of anatomical objects are built. Formulation using magnetic vector potential and scalar electric potential (A-V, A) is used for modeling of electromagnetic fields in human tissue objects. The developed models are suitable for investigations of electromagnetic field distributions in human tissues exposed in external fields during magnetic stimulation, defibrillation, impedance tomography etc.

Keywords: electromagnetic field, finite element method, humantissue.

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582 Polarization Insensitive Absorber with Increased Bandwidth Using Multilayer Metamaterial

Authors: Srilaxmi Gangula, MahaLakshmi Vinukonda, Neeraj Rao

Abstract:

A wide band polarization insensitive metamaterial absorber with bandwidth enhancement in X and C band is proposed. The structure proposed here consists of a periodic unit cell of resonator arrangements in double layer. The proposed structure shows near unity absorption at frequencies of 6.21 GHz and 10.372 GHz spreading over a bandwidth of 1 GHz and 6.21 GHz respectively in X and C bands. The proposed metamaterial absorber is designed so as to increase the bandwidth. The proposed structure is also independent for TE and TM polarization. Because of its simple implementation, near unity absorption and wide bandwidth this dual band polarization insensitive metamaterial absorber can be used for EMI/EMC applications.

Keywords: Absorber, C-band, meta material, multilayer, X-band.

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581 Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Characteristics for Stainless Wire Mesh and Number of Plies of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic

Authors: Min Sang Lee, Hee Jae Shin, In Pyo Cha, Hyun Kyung Yoon, Seong Woo Hong, Min Jae Yu, Hong Gun Kim, Lee Ku Kwac

Abstract:

In this paper, the electromagnetic shielding characteristics of an up-to-date typical carbon filler material, carbon fiber used with a metal mesh were investigated. Carbon fiber 12k-prepregs, where carbon fibers were impregnated with epoxy, were laminated with wire meshes, vacuum bag-molded and hardened to manufacture hybrid-type specimens, with which an electromagnetic shield test was performed in accordance with ASTM D4935-10, through which was known as the most excellent reproducibility is obtainable among electromagnetic shield tests. In addition, glass fiber prepregs whose electromagnetic shielding effect were known as insignificant were laminated and formed with wire meshes to verify the validity of the electromagnetic shield effect of wire meshes in order to confirm the electromagnetic shielding effect of metal meshes corresponding existing carbon fiber 12k-prepregs. By grafting carbon fibers, on which studies are being actively underway in the environmental aspects and electromagnetic shielding effect, with hybrid-type wire meshes that were analysed through the tests, in this study, the applicability and possibility are proposed.

Keywords: Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP), Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP), Stainless Wire Mesh, Electromagnetic Shielding.

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580 Characterization of Complex Electromagnetic Environment Created by Multiple Sources of Electromagnetic Radiation

Authors: C. Temaneh-Nyah, J. Makiche, J. Nujoma

Abstract:

This paper considers the characterization of a complex electromagnetic environment due to multiple sources of electromagnetic radiation as a five-dimensional surface which can be described by a set of several surface sections including: instant EM field intensity distribution maps at a given frequency and altitude, instantaneous spectrum at a given location in space and the time evolution of the electromagnetic field spectrum at a given point in space. This characterization if done over time can enable the exposure levels of Radio Frequency Radiation at every point in the analysis area to be determined and results interpreted based on comparison of the determined RFR exposure level with the safe guidelines for general public exposure given by recognized body such as the International commission on non-ionizing radiation protection (ICNIRP), Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE), the National Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA).

Keywords: Electromagnetic Environment, Electric Field Strength, Mathematical Models.

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579 Performance Enhancement of DWDM Systems Using HTE Configuration HTE Configuration for 1479-1555nm Wavelength Range

Authors: Inderpreet Kaur, Neena Gupta

Abstract:

In this paper, the gain spectrum of EDFA has been broadened by implementing HTE configuration for S and C band. On using this configuration an amplification bandwidth of 76nm ranging from 1479nm to 1555nm with a peak gain of 26dB has been obtained.

Keywords: C band, DWDM system, EDFA, Gain, HTE, Hybrid Fiber Amplifier, S band.

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578 Design, Analysis and Modeling of Dual Band Microstrip Loop Antenna Using Defective Ground Plane

Authors: R. Bansal, A. Jain, M. Kumar, R. S. Meena

Abstract:

Present wireless communication demands compact and intelligent devices with multitasking capabilities at affordable cost. The focus in the presented paper is on a dual band antenna for wireless communication with the capability of operating at two frequency bands with same structure. Two resonance frequencies are observed with the second operation band at 4.2GHz approximately three times the first resonance frequency at 1.5GHz. Structure is simple loop of microstrip line with characteristic impedance 50 ohms. The proposed antenna is designed using defective ground structure (DGS) and shows the nearly one third reductions in size as compared to without DGS. This antenna was simulated on electromagnetic (EM) simulation software and fabricated using microwave integrated circuit technique on RT-Duroid dielectric substrate (εr= 2.22) of thickness (H=15 mils). The designed antenna was tested on automatic network analyzer and shows the good agreement with simulated results. The proposed structure is modeled into an equivalent electrical circuit and simulated on circuit simulator. Subsequently, theoretical analysis was carried out and simulated. The simulated, measured, equivalent circuit response, and theoretical results shows good resemblance. The bands of operation draw many potential applications in today’s wireless communication.

Keywords: Defective Ground plane, Dual band, Loop Antenna, Microstrip antenna, Resonance frequency.

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577 Ultra-Wideband Slot Antenna with Notched Band for World Interoperability for Microwave Access

Authors: Rezaul Azim, A. Toaha Mobashsher, M. Tariqul Islam

Abstract:

In this paper a novel ultra-wideband (UWB) slot antenna with band notch characteristics for world interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) is proposed. The designed antenna consists of a rectangular radiating patch and a ground plane with tapered shape slot. To realize a notch band, a curved parasitic element has been etched out along with the radiating patch. It is observed that by adjusting the length, thickness and position of the parasitic element, the proposed antenna can achieved an impedance bandwidth of 8.01GHz (2.84 to 10.85GHz) with a notched band of 3.28-3.85GHz. Compared to the recently reported band notch antennas, the proposed antenna has a simple configuration to realize band notch characteristics in order to mitigate the potential interference between WiMAX and UWB system. Furthermore, a stable radiation pattern and moderate gain except at the notched band makes the proposed antenna suitable for various UWB applications. 

Keywords: Band notch, Filter element, Ultra-wideband (UWB), WiMAX.

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576 The Calculation of Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) in Substations of Shopping Centers

Authors: Adnan Muharemovic, Hidajet Salkic, Mario Klaric, Irfan Turkovic, Aida Muharemovic

Abstract:

In nature, electromagnetic fields always appear like atmosphere static electric field, the earth's static magnetic field and the wide-rang frequency electromagnetic field caused by lightening. However, besides natural electromagnetic fields (EMF), today human beings are mostly exposed to artificial electromagnetic fields due to technology progress and outspread use of electrical devices. To evaluate nuisance of EMF, it is necessary to know field intensity for every frequency which appears and compare it with allowed values. Low frequency EMF-s around transmission and distribution lines are time-varying quasi-static electromagnetic fields which have conservative component of low frequency electrical field caused by charges and eddy component of low frequency magnetic field caused by currents. Displacement current or field delay are negligible, so energy flow in quasi-static EMF involves diffusion, analog like heat transfer. Electrical and magnetic field can be analyzed separately. This paper analysis the numerical calculations in ELF-400 software of EMF in distribution substation in shopping center. Analyzing the results it is possible to specify locations exposed to the fields and give useful suggestion to eliminate electromagnetic effect or reduce it on acceptable level within the non-ionizing radiation norms and norms of protection from EMF.

Keywords: Electromagnetic Field, Density of Electromagnetic Flow, Place of Proffesional Exposure, Place of Increased Sensitivity

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575 Developing a Statistical Model for Electromagnetic Environment for Mobile Wireless Networks

Authors: C. Temaneh Nyah

Abstract:

The analysis of electromagnetic environment using deterministic mathematical models is characterized by the impossibility of analyzing a large number of interacting network stations with a priori unknown parameters, and this is characteristic, for example, of mobile wireless communication networks. One of the tasks of the tools used in designing, planning and optimization of mobile wireless network is to carry out simulation of electromagnetic environment based on mathematical modelling methods, including computer experiment, and to estimate its effect on radio communication devices. This paper proposes the development of a statistical model of electromagnetic environment of a mobile wireless communication network by describing the parameters and factors affecting it including the propagation channel and their statistical models.

Keywords: Electromagnetic Environment, Statistical model, Wireless communication network.

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574 Proximity-Inset Fed Triple Band Antenna for Global Position System with High Gain

Authors: The Nan Chang, Ping-Tang Yu, Jyun-Ming Lin

Abstract:

A triple band circularly polarized antenna covering 1.17, 1.22, and 1.57 GHz is presented. To extend to the triple-band operation, we need to add one more ring while maintaining the mechanism to independently control each ring. The inset-part in the feeding scheme is used to excite the band at 1.22 GHz, while the proximate-part of the feeding scheme is used to excite not only the band at 1.57 GHz but also the band at 1.17 GHz. This is achieved by up-vertically coupled with one ring to radiate at 1.57 GHz and down-vertically coupled another ring to radiate at 1.17 GHz. It is also noted that the inset-part in our feeding scheme is by horizontal coupling. Furthermore, to increase the gain at all three bands, three air-layers are added to make the total height of the antenna be 7.8 mm. The total thickness of the three air-layers is 3 mm. The gains of the three bands are all greater than 5 dBiC after adding the air-layers.

Keywords: Circular polarization, global position system, triband antenna, high gain.

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573 FEM Investigation of Induction Heating System for Pipe Brazing

Authors: Ilona I. Iatcheva, Rumena D. Stancheva, Mario Metodiev

Abstract:

The paper deals with determination of electromagnetic and temperature field distribution of induction heating system used for pipe brazing. The problem is considered as coupled – time harmonic electromagnetic and transient thermal field. It has been solved using finite element method. The detailed maps of electromagnetic and thermal field distribution have been obtained. The good understanding of the processes in the considered system ensures possibilities for control, management and increasing the efficiency of the welding process.

Keywords: Electromagnetic field, temperature field, finiteelement method, induction heating, pipe brazing.

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572 An Efficient Separation for Convolutive Mixtures

Authors: Salah Al-Din I. Badran, Samad Ahmadi, Dylan Menzies, Ismail Shahin

Abstract:

This paper describes a new efficient blind source separation method; in this method we uses a non-uniform filter bank and a new structure with different sub-bands. This method provides a reduced permutation and increased convergence speed comparing to the full-band algorithm. Recently, some structures have been suggested to deal with two problems: reducing permutation and increasing the speed of convergence of the adaptive algorithm for correlated input signals. The permutation problem is avoided with the use of adaptive filters of orders less than the full-band adaptive filter, which operate at a sampling rate lower than the sampling rate of the input signal. The decomposed signals by analysis bank filter are less correlated in each sub-band than the input signal at full-band, and can promote better rates of convergence.

Keywords: Blind source separation (BSS), estimates, full-band, mixtures, Sub-band.

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571 Dynamics and Control of a Chaotic Electromagnetic System

Authors: Shun-Chang Chang

Abstract:

In this paper, different nonlinear dynamics analysis techniques are employed to unveil the rich nonlinear phenomena of the electromagnetic system. In particular, bifurcation diagrams, time responses, phase portraits, Poincare maps, power spectrum analysis, and the construction of basins of attraction are all powerful and effective tools for nonlinear dynamics problems. We also employ the method of Lyapunov exponents to show the occurrence of chaotic motion and to verify those numerical simulation results. Finally, two cases of a chaotic electromagnetic system being effectively controlled by a reference signal or being synchronized to another nonlinear electromagnetic system are presented.

Keywords: bifurcation, Poincare map, Lyapunov exponent, chaotic motion.

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570 Effect of Band Contact on the Temperature Distribution for Dry Friction Clutch

Authors: Oday I. Abdullah, J. Schlattmann

Abstract:

In this study, the two dimensional heat conduction problem for the dry friction clutch disc is modeled mathematically analysis and is solved numerically using finite element method, to determine the temperature field when band contacts occurs between the rubbing surfaces during the operation of an automotive clutch. Temperature calculation have been made for contact area of different band width and the results obtained compared with these attained when complete contact occurs. Furthermore, the effects of slipping time and sliding velocity function are investigated as well. Both single and repeated engagements made at regular interval are considered.

Keywords: Band contact, dry friction clutch, frictional heating, temperature field, 2D FEM.

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569 Design and Simulation of Electromagnetic Flow Meter for Circular Pipe Type

Authors: M. Karamifard, M. Kazeminejad, A. Maghsoodloo

Abstract:

Electromagnetic flow meter by measuring the varying of magnetic flux, which is related to the velocity of conductive flow, can measure the rate of fluids very carefully and precisely. Electromagnetic flow meter operation is based on famous Faraday's second Law. In these equipments, the constant magnetostatic field is produced by electromagnet (winding around the tube) outside of pipe and inducting voltage that is due to conductive liquid flow is measured by electrodes located on two end side of the pipe wall. In this research, we consider to 2-dimensional mathematical model that can be solved by numerical finite difference (FD) solution approach to calculate induction potential between electrodes. The fundamental concept to design the electromagnetic flow meter, exciting winding and simulations are come out by using MATLAB and PDE-Tool software. In the last stage, simulations results will be shown for improvement and accuracy of technical provision.

Keywords: Electromagnetic Flow Meter, Induction Voltage, Finite Difference

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568 A Spatial Hypergraph Based Semi-Supervised Band Selection Method for Hyperspectral Imagery Semantic Interpretation

Authors: Akrem Sellami, Imed Riadh Farah

Abstract:

Hyperspectral imagery (HSI) typically provides a wealth of information captured in a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum for each pixel in the image. Hence, a pixel in HSI is a high-dimensional vector of intensities with a large spectral range and a high spectral resolution. Therefore, the semantic interpretation is a challenging task of HSI analysis. We focused in this paper on object classification as HSI semantic interpretation. However, HSI classification still faces some issues, among which are the following: The spatial variability of spectral signatures, the high number of spectral bands, and the high cost of true sample labeling. Therefore, the high number of spectral bands and the low number of training samples pose the problem of the curse of dimensionality. In order to resolve this problem, we propose to introduce the process of dimensionality reduction trying to improve the classification of HSI. The presented approach is a semi-supervised band selection method based on spatial hypergraph embedding model to represent higher order relationships with different weights of the spatial neighbors corresponding to the centroid of pixel. This semi-supervised band selection has been developed to select useful bands for object classification. The presented approach is evaluated on AVIRIS and ROSIS HSIs and compared to other dimensionality reduction methods. The experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of our approach compared to many existing dimensionality reduction methods for HSI classification.

Keywords: Hyperspectral image, spatial hypergraph, dimensionality reduction, semantic interpretation, band selection, feature extraction.

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567 Design and Layout of a X-Band MMIC Power Amplifier in a Phemt Technology

Authors: Renbin Dai, Rana Arslan Ali Khan

Abstract:

The design of Class A and Class AB 2-stage X band Power Amplifier is described in this report. This power amplifier is part of a transceiver used in radar for monitoring iron characteristics in a blast furnace. The circuit was designed using foundry WIN Semiconductors. The specification requires 15dB gain in the linear region, VSWR nearly 1 at input as well as at the output, an output power of 10 dBm and good stable performance in the band 10.9-12.2 GHz. The design was implemented by using inter-stage configuration, the Class A amplifier was chosen for driver stage i.e. the first amplifier focusing on the gain and the output amplifier conducted at Class AB with more emphasis on output power.

Keywords: Power amplifier, Class AB, Class A, MMIC, 2-stage, X band.

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