Search results for: minimum inhibitory concentration
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2232

Search results for: minimum inhibitory concentration

2232 Inhibitory Effect of Helichrysum arenarium Essential Oil on the Growth of Food Contaminated Microorganisms

Authors: Ali Mohamadi Sani

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial effect of Helichrysum arenarium L. essential oil in "in-vitro" condition on the growth of seven microbial species including Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Saccharomyces cereviciae, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus using micro-dilution method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal or fungicidal concentration (MBC, MFC) were determined for the essential oil at ten concentrations. Finally, the sensitivity of tested microbes to essential oil of H. arenarium was investigated. Results showed that Bacillus subtilis (MIC=781.25 and MBC=6250 µg/ml) was more resistance than two other bacterial species. Among the tested yeasts, Saccharomyces cereviciae (MIC=97.65 and MFC=781.25 µg/ml) was more sensitive than Candida albicans while among the fungal species, growth of Aspergillus parasiticus inhibited at lower concentration of oil than the Aspergillus flavus. The extracted essential oil exhibited the same MIC value in the liquid medium against all fungal strains (48.82 µg/ml), while different activity against A. flavus and A. parasiticus was observed in this medium with MFC values of 6250 and 390.625µg/ml, respectively. The results of the present study indicated that Helichrysum arenarium L essential oil had significant (P<0.05) antimicrobial activity; therefore, it can be used as a natural preservation to increase the shelf life of food products.

 

Keywords: Helichrysum arenarium, Antimicrobial agent, Essential oil, MIC.

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2231 Identification of the Antimicrobial Effect of Liquorice Extracts on Gram-Positive Bacteria: Determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and Mechanism of Action Using a luxABCDE Reporter Strain

Authors: Madiha El Awamie, Catherine Rees

Abstract:

Natural preservatives have been used as alternatives to traditional chemical preservatives; however, a limited number have been commercially developed and many remain to be investigated as sources of safer and effective antimicrobials. In this study, we have been investigating the antimicrobial activity of an extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra (liquorice) that was provided as a waste material from the production of liquorice flavourings for the food industry, and to investigate if this retained the expected antimicrobial activity so it could be used as a natural preservative. Antibacterial activity of liquorice extract was screened for evidence of growth inhibition against eight species of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus subtilis. The Gram-negative bacteria tested include Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium but none of these were affected by the extract. In contrast, for all of the Gram-positive bacteria tested, growth was inhibited as monitored using optical density. However parallel studies using viable count indicated that the cells were not killed meaning that the extract was bacteriostatic rather than bacteriocidal. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration [MIC] and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration [MBC] of the extract was also determined and a concentration of 50 µg ml-1 was found to have a strong bacteriostatic effect on Gram-positive bacteria. Microscopic analysis indicated that there were changes in cell shape suggesting the cell wall was affected. In addition, the use of a reporter strain of Listeria transformed with the bioluminescence genes luxABCDE indicated that cell energy levels were reduced when treated with either 12.5 or 50 µg ml-1 of the extract, with the reduction in light output being proportional to the concentration of the extract used. Together these results suggest that the extract is inhibiting the growth of Gram-positive bacteria only by damaging the cell wall and/or membrane.

Keywords: Antibacterial activity, bioluminescence, Glycyrrhiza glabra, natural preservative.

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2230 Assessing the Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan Nanoparticles by Fluorescence-Labeling

Authors: Laidson P. Gomes, Cristina T. Andrade, Eduardo M. Del Aguila, Cameron Alexander, Vânia M. F. Paschoalin

Abstract:

Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide prepared by the N-deacetylation of chitin. In this study, the physicochemical and antibacterial properties of chitosan nanoparticles, produced by ultrasound irradiation, were evaluated. The physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles were determined by dynamic light scattering and zeta potential analysis. Chitosan nanoparticles inhibited the growth of E. coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were lower than 0.5 mg/mL, and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were similar or higher than MIC values. Confocal laser scanning micrographs (CLSM) were used to observe the interaction between E. coli suspensions mixed with FITC-labeled chitosan polymers and nanoparticles.

Keywords: Chitosan nanoparticles, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, confocal microscopy, antibacterial activity.

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2229 rRNA Maturation Genes (KRR1 and PWP2) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Inhibited by Silver Nanoparticles

Authors: Anjali Haloi, Debabrata Das

Abstract:

Silver nanoparticles inhibit a wide variety of microorganisms. The mechanism of inhibition is not entirely known although it is recognized to be concentration dependent and associated with the disruption of membrane permeability. Data on differential gene expression as a response to nanoparticles could provide insights into the mechanism of this inhibitory effect. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized in yeast growth media using a modification of the Creighton method and characterized with UV-Vis spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In yeasts grown in the presence of silver nanoparticles, we observed that at concentrations below the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 48.51 µg/ml, the total RNA content was steady while the cellular protein content declined rapidly. The analysis of the expression levels of KRR1 and PWP2, two important genes involved in rRNA maturation in yeasts, showed up to 258 and 42-fold decreases, respectively, compared to that of control samples. Whether silver nanoparticles have an adverse effect on ribosome assembly and function could be an area of further investigation.

Keywords: Ag NP, yeast, qRT-PCR, KRR1, PWP2.

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2228 Determination of in Vitro Susceptibility of the Typhoid Pathogens to Synergistic Action of Euphorbia Hirta, Euphorbia Heterophylla and Phyllanthus Niruri for Possible Development of Effective Anti-Typhoid Drugs

Authors: Abalaka, M. E., Daniyan, S. Y., Adeyemo, S. O.

Abstract:

Studies were carried out to determine the in vitro susceptibility of the typhoid pathogens to combined action of Euphorbia hirta, Euphorbia heterophylla and Phyllanthus niruri. Clinical isolates of the typhoid bacilli were subjected to susceptibility testing using agar diffusion technique and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determined with tube dilution technique. These isolates, when challenged with doses of the extracts from the three medicinal plants showed zones of inhibition as wide as 26±0.2mm, 22±0.1mm and 18±0.0mm respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) revealed organisms inhibited at varying concentrations of extracts: E. hirta (S. typhi 0.250mg/ml, S. paratyphi A 0.125mg/ml, S. paratyphi B 0.185mg/ml and S. paratyphi C 0.225mg/ml), E. heterophylla (S. typhi 0.280mg/ml, S. paratyphi A 0.150mg/ml, S. paratyphi B 0.200mg/ml and S. paratyphi C 0.250mg/ml) and P. niruri (S. typhi 0.150mg/ml, S. paratyphi A 0.100mg/ml, S. paratyphi B 0.115mg/ml and S. paratyphi C 0.125mg/ml). The results of the synergy between the three plants in the ration of 1:1:1 showed very low MICs for the test pathogens as follows S. typhi 0.025mg/ml, S. paratyphi A 0.080mg/ml, S. paratyphi B 0.015mg/ml and S. paratyphi C 0.10mg/ml with the diameter zone of inhibition (DZI) ranging from 35±0.2mm, 28±0.4mm, 20±0.1mm and 32±0.3mm respectively. The secondary metabolites were identified using simple methods and HPLC. Organic components such as anthroquinones, different alkaloids, tannins, 6-ethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2,2,4-trimethyl and steroids were identified. The prevalence of Salmonellae, a deadly infectious disease, is still very high in parts of Nigeria. The synergistic action of these three plants is very high. It is concluded that pharmaceutical companies should take advantage of these findings to develop new anti-typhoid drugs from these plants.

Keywords: A Prevalence, Susceptibility, Synergistic, Typhoid pathogens.

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2227 The Impact of Germination and In Vitro Digestion on the Formation of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory Peptides from Lentil Proteins Compared to Whey Proteins

Authors: F. Bamdad, Sh. Dokhani, J. Keramat, R. Zareie

Abstract:

Biologically active peptides are of particular interest in food science and human nutrition because they have been shown to play several physiological roles. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion of lentil and whey proteins in this study produced high angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory activity with 75.5±1.9 and 91.4±2.3% inhibition, respectively. High ACE inhibitory activity was observed in lentil after 5 days of germination (84.3±1.2%). Fractionation by reverse phase chromatography gave inhibitory activities as high as 86.3±2.0 for lentil, 94.8±1.8% for whey and 93.7±1.7% at 5th day of germination. Further purification by HPLC resulted in several inhibitory peptides with IC50 values ranging from 0.064 to 0.164 mg/ml. These results demonstrate that lentil proteins are a good source of peptides with ACE inhibitory activity that can be released by germination or gastrointestinal digestion. Despite the lower bioactivity in comparison with whey proteins, incorporation of lentil proteins in functional food formulations and natural drugs look promising.

Keywords: ACE inhibitory peptides, digestion, germination, lentil proteins, whey proteins

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2226 Germination of Barley as Affected by the Allelopathy of Sisymbrium irio L. and Descurainiasophia (L.) Schur

Authors: Sh. Edrisi, A. Farahbakhsh

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted under controlled conditions to study the effect of water extract of leaves, shoots and roots of either Sisymbrium irio L. =SISIR and or Descurainia sophia (L.) Schur =DESSO on the germination and primary growth of barley. A split-split plot experiment in CRD with three replications was used. The main plots were the type of weed: i.e. SISIR and DESSO and the sub-plots were type of organ: i.e. leaf, stem and root and, the sub-sub plots were concentration of the water extract of each organ of the weeds: i.e. 0, 2, 4 and 8 % w/v. The results showed that the SISIR water extracts had a greater inhibitory effects on the germination and primary growth of barley than those of DESSO water extracts. The water extracts of the leaves of both weeds had the greatest inhibitory effects on the germination and primary growth of barley, compared to those of stems and roots. Increasing the concentration of water extracts of leaves, stems and roots of both weeds up to 8 % caused the greatest inhibitory effects to barley and reduced the germination rate and primary growth of it linearly.

Keywords: Allelopathy, barley, DESSO, SISIR

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2225 Effectiveness of the Flavonoids Isolated from Thymus inodorus by Different Solvents against Some Pathogenis Microorganisms

Authors: N. Behidj, K. Benyounes, T. Dahmane, A. Allem

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of flavonoids isolated from the aerial part of a medicinal plant which is Thymus inodorusby the middle agar diffusion method on following microorganisms. We have Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, AspergillusNiger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans. During this study, flavonoids extracted by stripping with steam are performed. The yields of flavonoids is 7.242% for the aqueous extract and 28.86% for butanol extract, 29.875% for the extract of ethyl acetate and 22.9% for the extract of di - ethyl. The evaluation of the antibacterial effect shows that the diameter of the zone of inhibition varies from one microorganism to another. The operation values obtained show that the bacterial strain P fluoresces, and 3 yeasts and molds; A. Niger, A. fumigatus and C. albicansare the most resistant. But it is noted that, S. aureus is shown more sensitive to crude extracts, the stock solution and the various dilutions. Finally for the minimum inhibitory concentration is estimated only with the crude extract of Thymus inodorus flavonoid.Indeed, these extracts inhibit the growth of Gram + bacteria at a concentration varying between 0.5% and 1%. While for bacteria to Gram -, it is limited to a concentration of 0.5%.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, flavonoids, strains, Thymus inodorus.

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2224 The Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oil and Aqueous, Methanol, Ethanol, Ethyl Acetate and Acetone Extract of Hypericum scabrum

Authors: A. Heshmati, M. Y Alikhani, M. T. Godarzi, M. R. Sadeghimanesh

Abstract:

Herbal essential oil and extracts are a good source of natural antioxidants and antimicrobial compounds. Hypericum is one of the potential sources of these compounds. In this study, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of essential oil and aqueous, methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate and acetone extract of Hypericum scabrum was assessed. Flowers of Hypericum scabrum were collected from the surrounding mountains of Hamadan province and after drying in the shade, the essential oil of the plant was extracted by Clevenger and water, methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate and acetone extract was obtained by maceration method. Essential oil compounds were identified using the GC-Mass. The Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) colorimetric method was used to measure the amount of phenolic acid and flavonoids, respectively. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH and FRAP. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bacterial/fungicide concentration (MBC/MFC) of essential oil and extracts were evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans. The essential oil yield of was 0.35%, the lowest and highest extract yield was related to ethyl acetate and water extract. The most component of essential oil was α-Pinene (46.35%). The methanol extracts had the highest phenolic acid (95.65 ± 4.72 µg galic acid equivalent/g dry plant) and flavonoids (25.39 ± 2.73 µg quercetin equivalent/g dry plant). The percentage of DPPH radical inhibition showed positive correlation with concentrations of essential oil or extract. The methanol and ethanol extract had the highest DDPH radical inhibitory. Essential oil and extracts of Hypericum had antimicrobial activity against the microorganisms studied in this research. The MIC and MBC values for essential oils were in the range of 25-25.6 and 25-50 μg/mL, respectively. For the extracts, these values were 1.5625-100 and 3.125-100 μg/mL, respectively. Methanol extracts had the highest antimicrobial activity. Essential oil and extract of Hypericum scabrum, especially methanol extract, have proper antimicrobial and antioxidant activity, and it can be used to control the oxidation and inhibit the growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. In addition, it can be used as a substitute for synthetic antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, antioxidant, extract, hypericum.

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2223 Extracellular Protein Secreted by Bacillus subtilis ATCC21332 in the Presence of Streptomycin Sulfate

Authors: Hanina M. N., Hairul Shahril M., Ismatul Nurul Asyikin I., Abdul Jalil A. K., Salina M. R., Maryam M. R., Rosfarizan M.

Abstract:

The extracellular proteins secreted by bacteria may be increased in stressful surroundings, such as in the presence of antibiotics. It appears that many antibiotics, when used at low concentrations, have in common the ability to activate or repress gene transcription, which is distinct from their inhibitory effect. There have been comparatively few studies on the potential of antibiotics as a specific chemical signal that can trigger a variety of biological functions. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the effect of Streptomycin Sulfate in regulating extracellular proteins secreted by Bacillus subtilis ATCC21332. Results of Microdilution assay showed that the Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) of Streptomycin Sulfate on B. subtilis ATCC21332 was 2.5 mg/ml. The bacteria cells were then exposed to Streptomycin Sulfate at concentration of 0.01 MIC before being further incubated for 48h to 72 h. The extracellular proteins secreted were then isolated and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Proteins profile revealed that three additional bands with approximate sizes of 30 kDa, 22 kDa and 23 kDa were appeared for the treated bacteria with Streptomycin Sulfate. Thus, B. subtilis ATCC21332 in stressful condition with the presence of Streptomycin Sulfate at low concentration could induce the extracellular proteins secretion.

Keywords: Bacillus subtilis ATCC21332, Streptomycin Sulfate, extracellular proteins.

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2222 In vitro Anti-tubercular Screening of Newly Synthesized Benzimidazole Derivatives

Authors: M. Shahar Yar, M. Mustaqeem Abdullah, Jaseela Majeed

Abstract:

A series of 1-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-3-(substituted phenyl)-2-propen-1-one were allowed to react with hydrazine hydrate and phenyl hydrazine in submitted reactions to get pyrazoline and phenyl pyrazoline derivatives. All the compounds entered for screening at the Tuberculosis Antimicrobial Acquisition and Coordinating Facility (TAACF) for their in vitro antibacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strain (ATCC 27294) using Microplate Alamar Blue Assay (MABA) susceptibility test. The results expressed as MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) in μg/mL. Among the fifteen compounds, eight compounds were found to have MIC values less than 10 μg/mL. These were subjected for cytotoxicity assay in VERO cells to determine CC50 (cytotoxic concentration 50%) values and finally SI (Selectivity Index) were calculated. Compound (XV) 2-[5-(4- fluorophenyl)-1-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-3-pyrazolyl]-1Hbenzimidazole was considered the best candidate of the series that could be a good starting point to develop new lead compounds in the fight against tuberculosis.

Keywords: anti-tubercular activity, benzimidazole, pyrazoline.

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2221 Thermodynamic Study for Aggregation Behavior of Hydrotropic Solution

Authors: Meghal Desai, Jigisha Parikh

Abstract:

Aggregation behavior of sodium salicylate and sodium cumene sulfonate was studied in aqueous solution at different temperature. Specific conductivity and relative viscosity were measured at different temperature to find minimum hydrotropic concentration. The thermodynamic parameters (free energy, enthalpy and entropy) were evaluated in the temperature range of 30°C-70°C. The free energy decreased with increase in temperature. The aggregation was found to be exothermic in nature and favored by positive value of entropy.

Keywords: Hydrotropes, Enthalpy, Entropy, Free Energy, Minimum Hydrotropic Concentration.

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2220 Evaluation of Newly Developed Dot-ELISA Test for Identification of Naja-naja sumantrana and Calloselasma rhodostoma Venom Antigens

Authors: A.S. Sikarwar, S. Ambu, T .H. Wong

Abstract:

Snake bite cases in Malaysia most often involve the species Naja-naja and Calloselasma rhodostoma. In keeping with the need for a rapid snake venom detection kit in a clinical setting, plate and dot-ELISA test for the venoms of Naja-naja sumatrana, Calloselasma rhodostoma and the cobra venom fraction V antigen was developed. Polyclonal antibodies were raised and further used to prepare the reagents for the dot-ELISA test kit which was tested in mice, rabbit and virtual human models. The newly developed dot- ELISA kit was able to detect a minimum venom concentration of 244ng/ml with cross reactivity of one antibody type. The dot-ELISA system was sensitive and specific for all three snake venom types in all tested animal models. The lowest minimum venom concentration detectable was in the rabbit model, 244ng/ml of the cobra venom fraction V antigen. The highest minimum venom concentration was in mice, 1953ng/ml against a multitude of venoms. The developed dot-ELISA system for the detection of three snake venom types was successful with a sensitivity of 95.8% and specificity of 97.9%.

Keywords: ELISA, Venom, SVDK, Naja-naja sumatrana , Calloselasma rhodostoma.

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2219 Allelopathic Effects of Sisymbrium irio L. and Descurainia sophia (L.) Schur on the Germination of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Authors: Sh. Edrisi, A. Farahbakhsh

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted under controlled conditions to study the effect of water extract of leaves, shoots and roots of either Sisymbrium irio L. =SISIR and/or Descurainia sophia (L.) Schur =DESSO on the germination and primary growth of wheat. A split-split plot experiment in CRD with three replications was used. The main plots were the type of weed: i.e. SISIR and DESSO and the sub-plots were type of organ: i.e. leaf, stem and root and, the sub-sub plots were concentration of the water extract of each organ of the weeds: i.e. 0, 2, 4 and 8 % w/v. The plant materials were cut in 2-3 cm pieces and then were ground in a blender. The crushed materials were weighed according to experimental protocol and the final volume was reached to 100 ml in distilled water in dark bottles. All bottles were put on a shaker for 24 hours. The solutions were filtered by muslin cloth. Whatman paper, 9 cm in diameter, were put in petri dishes and twenty seeds of wheat were put on it and 5 ml distilled water or water extract of weeds were added to each petri dish. All petri dishes were put in constant temperature of 15 0C incubator. The results showed that the SISIR water extract had a greater inhibitory effects on germination and primary growth of wheat than those of DESSO water extract. The water extracts of the leaves of both weeds had the greatest inhibitory effects on germination and primary growth of wheat, compared to those of stems and roots. Increasing the concentration of water extract of leaves, stems and roots of both weeds up to 8 % caused the greatest inhibitory effects to wheat and reduced the germination rate and primary growth of it linearly.

Keywords: Allelopathy, DESSO, SISIR, wheat

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2218 Combining Minimum Energy and Minimum Direct Jerk of Linear Dynamic Systems

Authors: V. Tawiwat, P. Jumnong

Abstract:

Both the minimum energy consumption and smoothness, which is quantified as a function of jerk, are generally needed in many dynamic systems such as the automobile and the pick-and-place robot manipulator that handles fragile equipments. Nevertheless, many researchers come up with either solely concerning on the minimum energy consumption or minimum jerk trajectory. This research paper proposes a simple yet very interesting when combining the minimum energy and jerk of indirect jerks approaches in designing the time-dependent system yielding an alternative optimal solution. Extremal solutions for the cost functions of the minimum energy, the minimum jerk and combining them together are found using the dynamic optimization methods together with the numerical approximation. This is to allow us to simulate and compare visually and statistically the time history of state inputs employed by combining minimum energy and jerk designs. The numerical solution of minimum direct jerk and energy problem are exactly the same solution; however, the solutions from problem of minimum energy yield the similar solution especially in term of tendency.

Keywords: Optimization, Dynamic, Linear Systems, Jerks.

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2217 On Minimum Cycle Bases of the Wreath Product of Wheels with Stars

Authors: M. M. M. Jaradat, M. K. Al-Qeyyam

Abstract:

The length of a cycle basis of a graph is the sum of the lengths of its elements. A minimum cycle basis is a cycle basis with minimum length. In this work, a construction of a minimum cycle basis for the wreath product of wheels with stars is presented. Moreover, the length of minimum cycle basis and the length of its longest cycle are calculated.

Keywords: Cycle space, minimum cycle basis, wreath product.

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2216 Protein Production by Bacillus Subtilis Atcc 21332 in the Presence of Cymbopogon Essential Oils

Authors: Hanina M. N., Hairul Shahril M., Mohd Fazrullah Innsan M. F., Ismatul Nurul Asyikin I., Abdul Jalil A. K, Salina M. R., Ahmad I.B.

Abstract:

Proteins levels produced by bacteria may be increased in stressful surroundings, such as in the presence of antibiotics. It appears that many antimicrobial agents or antibiotics, when used at low concentrations, have in common the ability to activate or repress gene transcription, which is distinct from their inhibitory effect. There have been comparatively few studies on the potential of antibiotics or natural compounds in nature as a specific chemical signal that can trigger a variety of biological functions. Therefore, this study was focusing on the effect of essential oils from Cymbopogon flexuosus and C. nardus in regulating proteins production by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 21332. The Minimum Inhibition Concentrations (MICs) of both essential oils on B. subtilis were determined by using microdilution assay, resulting 0.2% and 1.56% for each C. flexuosus and C. nardus subsequently. The bacteria were further exposed to each essential oils at concentration of 0.01XMIC for 2 days. The proteins were then isolated and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Protein profile showed that a band with approximate size of 250 kD was appeared for the treated bacteria with essential oils. Thus, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 21332 in stressful condition with the presence of essential oils at low concentration could induce the protein production.

Keywords: Bacillus subtilis ATCC 21332, Cymbopogon essential oils, protein

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2215 Influence of Hydrocarbons on Plant Cell Ultrastructure and Main Metabolic Enzymes

Authors: T. Sadunishvili, E. Kvesitadze, M. Betsiashvili, N. Kuprava, G. Zaalishvili, G. Kvesitadze

Abstract:

Influence of octane and benzene on plant cell ultrastructure and enzymes of basic metabolism, such as nitrogen assimilation and energy generation have been studied. Different plants: perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa); crops- maize (Zea mays L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); shrubs – privet (Ligustrum sempervirens) and trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliate); trees - poplar (Populus deltoides) and white mulberry (Morus alba L.) were exposed to hydrocarbons of different concentrations (1, 10 and 100 mM). Destructive changes in bean and maize leaves cells ultrastructure under the influence of benzene vapour were revealed at the level of photosynthetic and energy generation subcellular organells. Different deviations at the level of subcellular organelles structure and distribution were observed in alfalfa and ryegrass root cells under the influence of benzene and octane, absorbed through roots. The level of destructive changes is concentration dependent. Benzene at low 1 and 10 mM concentration caused the increase in glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity in maize roots and leaves and in poplar and mulberry shoots, though to higher extent in case of lower, 1mM concentration. The induction was more intensive in plant roots. The highest tested 100mM concentration of benzene was inhibitory to the enzyme in all plants. Octane caused induction of GDH in all grassy plants at all tested concentrations; however the rate of induction decreased parallel to increase of the hydrocarbon concentration. Octane at concentration 1 mM caused induction of GDH in privet, trifoliate and white mulberry shoots. The highest, 100mM octane was characterized by inhibitory effect to GDH activity in all plants. Octane had inductive effect on malate dehydrogenase in almost all plants and tested concentrations, indicating the intensification of Trycarboxylic Acid Cycle. The data could be suggested for elaboration of criteria for plant selection for phytoremediation of oil hydrocarbons contaminated soils.

Keywords: Higher plants, hydrocarbons, cell ultrastructure, glutamate and malate dehydrogenases.

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2214 Antidiabetic and Antioxidative Activities of Butyrolactone I from Aspergillus terreus MC751

Authors: Rizna Triana Dewi, Sanro Tachibana, Ahmad Darmawan

Abstract:

The bioassay-guided isolation and purification of an ethyl acetate extract of Aspergillus terreus MC751 led to the characterization of butyrolactone I as an antidiabetic and antioxidant. The antidiabetic activity of butyrolactone I was evaluated by α- glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition assays. Butyrolactone I demonstrated significant concentration-dependent, mixed-type inhibitory activity against yeast α-glucosidase with an IC50 of 54μM. However, the compound exhibited less activity against rat intestinal α-glucosidase and α-amylase. This is the first report on α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of butyrolactone I. The antioxidative activity of butyrolactone I was evaluated based on scavenging effects on 1,1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (IC50 =51 μM) and hydrogen peroxide (IC50= 141 μM) radicals as well as a reducing power assay. The results suggest that butyrolactone I is a promising antidiabetic as well as antioxidant and should be considered for clinical trials.

Keywords: Aspergillus terreus MC751, antidiabetic, antioxidant, Butyrolactone I.

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2213 Experimental Investigation and Optimization of Nanoparticle Mass Concentration and Heat Input of Loop Heat Pipe

Authors: P. Gunnasegaran, M. Z. Abdullah, M. Z. Yusoff, Nur Irmawati

Abstract:

This study presents experimental and optimization of nanoparticle mass concentration and heat input based on the total thermal resistance (Rth) of loop heat pipe (LHP), employed for PCCPU cooling. In this study, silica nanoparticles (SiO2) in water with particle mass concentration ranged from 0% (pure water) to 1% is considered as the working fluid within the LHP. The experimental design and optimization is accomplished by the design of experimental tool, Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The results show that the nanoparticle mass concentration and the heat input have significant effect on the Rth of LHP. For a given heat input, the Rth is found to decrease with the increase of the nanoparticle mass concentration up to 0.5% and increased thereafter. It is also found that the Rth is decreased when the heat input is increased from 20W to 60W. The results are optimized with the objective of minimizing the Rth, using Design-Expert software, and the optimized nanoparticle mass concentration and heat input are 0.48% and 59.97W, respectively, the minimum thermal resistance being 2.66 (ºC/W).

Keywords: Loop heat pipe, nanofluid, optimization, thermal resistance.

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2212 Anti-periodic Solutions for Cohen-Grossberg Shunting Inhibitory Neural Networks with Delays

Authors: Yongkun Li, Tianwei Zhang, Shufa Bai

Abstract:

By using the method of coincidence degree theory and constructing suitable Lyapunov functional, several sufficient conditions are established for the existence and global exponential stability of anti-periodic solutions for Cohen-Grossberg shunting inhibitory neural networks with delays. An example is given to illustrate our feasible results.

Keywords: Anti-periodic solution, coincidence degree, global exponential stability, Cohen-Grossberg shunting inhibitory cellular neural networks.

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2211 Inhibitory Effects of Ambrosia trifida L. on the Development of Root Hairs and Protein Patterns of Radicles

Authors: Ji-Hyon Kil, Kew-Cheol Shim, Kyoung-Ae Park, Kyoungho Kim

Abstract:

Ambrosia trifida L. is designated as invasive alien species by the Act on the Conservation and Use of Biodiversity by the Ministry of Environment, Korea. The purpose of present paper was to investigate the inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts of A.trifida on the development of root hairs of Triticum aestivum L., and Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng and the electrophoretic protein patterns of their radicles. The development of root hairs was inhibited by increasing of aqueous extract concentrations. Through SDS-PAGE, the electrophoretic protein bands of extracted proteins from their radicles were appeared in controls, but protein bands of specific molecular weight disappeared or weakened in treatments. In conclusion, inhibitory effects of A. trifida made two receptor species changed morphologically, and at the molecular level in early growth stage.

Keywords: Ambrosia trifida L., invasive alien species, inhibitory effect, root hair, electrophoretic protein, radicle.

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2210 Investigation of Cytotoxic Compounds in Ethyl Acetate and Chloroform Extracts of Nigella sativa by Sulforhodamine-B Assay-Guided Fractionation

Authors: Harshani Uggallage, Kapila D. Dissanayaka

Abstract:

A Sulforhodamine-B assay-guided fractionation on Nigella sativa seeds was conducted to determine the presence of cytotoxic compounds against human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. Initially, a freeze-dried sample of Nigella sativa seeds was sequentially extracted into solvents of increasing polarities. Crude extracts from the sequential extraction of Nigella sativa seeds in chloroform and ethyl acetate showed the highest cytotoxicity. The combined mixture of these two extracts was subjected to bioassay guided fractionation using a modified Kupchan method of partitioning, followed by Sephadex® LH-20 chromatography. This chromatographic separation process resulted in a column fraction with a convincing IC50 (half-maximal inhibitory concentration) value of 13.07 µg/ml, which is considerable for developing therapeutic drug leads against human hepatoma. Reversed phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was finally conducted for the same column fraction and the result indicates the presence of one or several main cytotoxic compounds against human HepG2 cells.

Keywords: Cytotoxic compounds, half-maximal inhibitory concentration, high-performance liquid chromatography, human HepG2 cells, Nigella sativa seeds, Sulforhodamine-B assay-guided fractionation.

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2209 Computational Design of Inhibitory Agents of BMP-Noggin Interaction to Promote Osteogenesis

Authors: Shaila Ahmed, Raghu Prasad Rao Metpally, Sreedhara Sangadala, Boojala Vijay B Reddy

Abstract:

Bone growth factors, such as Bone Morphogenic Protein-2 (BMP-2) have been approved by the FDA to replace grafting for some surgical interventions, but the high dose requirement limits its use in patients. Noggin, an extracellular protein, blocks the effect of BMP-2 by binding to BMP. Preventing the BMP-2/noggin interaction will help increase the free concentration of BMP-2 and therefore should enhance its efficacy to induce bone formation. The work presented here involves computational design of novel small molecule inhibitory agents of BMP-2/noggin interaction, based on our current understanding of BMP-2, and its known putative ligands (receptors and antagonists). A successful acquisition of such an inhibitory agent of BMP-2/noggin interaction would allow clinicians to reduce the dose required of BMP-2 protein in clinical applications to promote osteogenesis. The available crystal structures of the BMPs, its receptors, and the binding partner noggin were analyzed to identify the critical residues involved in their interaction. In presenting this study, LUDI de novo design method was utilized to perform virtual screening of a large number of compounds from a commercially available library against the binding sites of noggin to identify the lead chemical compounds that could potentially block BMP-noggin interaction with a high specificity.

Keywords: Transforming growth factor-beta, Bone morphogenic proteins, Noggin, LUDI de novo design method, CAP small molecules.

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2208 A Study of Under Actuator Dynamic System by Comparing between Minimum Energy and Minimum Jerk Problems

Authors: Tawiwat V., Phermsak S., Noppasit C.

Abstract:

This paper deals with under actuator dynamic systems such as spring-mass-damper system when the number of control variable is less than the number of state variable. In order to apply optimal control, the controllability must be checked. There are many objective functions to be selected as the goal of the optimal control such as minimum energy, maximum energy and minimum jerk. As the objective function is the first priority, if one like to have the second goal to be applied; however, it could not fit in the objective function format and also avoiding the vector cost for the objective, this paper will illustrate the problem of under actuator dynamic systems with the easiest to deal with comparing between minimum energy and minimum jerk.

Keywords: Under actuator, Dynamic optimal control, Minimumjerk, Minimum energy.

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2207 Effect of Euphorbia Pulcherrima Leaf and Inflorescence Extract on Various Cytomorphological Parameters of Aspergillus fumigatus

Authors: Arti Goel, Kanika Sharma

Abstract:

Microorganisms can be removed, inhibited or killed by physical agents, physical processes or chemical agents but they have their inherent disadvantages such as increased resistance against antibiotics etc. Since, plants have endless ability to synthesize aromatic substances which act as the master agents for plant defense mechanisms against microorganisms, insects and herbivores. Thus, secondary metabolites or phytochemicals obtained from plants can be used as agents of disease control nowadays. In the present study effect of different concentrations of acetone fraction of leaves and alcohol fraction of inflorescence of Euphorbia pulcherrima on various cytomorphological parameters i.e. cell number, mycelium width, conidial size, conidiophore size etc. of Aspergillus fumigatus has been studied. Change in mycelium/ hyphal cell width, conidium size, conidiophore size etc. was measured with the help of a previously calibrated oculometer. To study effect on morphology, fungal mycelium along with conidiophore and conidia were stained with cotton blue and mounted in lactophenol and observed microscopically. Inhibitory action of the acetone extract of Euphorbia pulcherrima leaf on growth of Aspergillus fumigatus was investigated. Control containing extract free medium supported profuse growth of the fungus. Although decrease in growth was observed even at 3.95μg/ml but significant inhibition of growth was started at7.81μg/ml concentration of the extract. Complete inhibition was observed at 15.62μg/ml and above. Microscopic examination revealed that at 3.95, 7.81 and 15.62μg/ml extract concentration hyphal cell width was found to be increased from 1.44μm in control to 3.86, 5.24 and 8.98 μm respectively giving a beaded appearance to the mycelium. Vesicle size was reduced from 24.78x20.08μm (control) to 11.34x10.06μm at 3.95μg/ml concentration. At 7.81 and 15.62μg/ml concentration no phialides and sterigmata were observed. Inhibitory action of the alcohol extract of inflorescence on the growth of Aspergillus fumigatus was also studied. Control containing extract free medium supported profuse growth of the fungus. Although decrease in growth was observed even at 3.95μg/ml but complete inhibition was observed at 62.5μg/ml and above. Microscopic examination revealed that hyphal cell width of Aspergillus fumigatus was found to be increased from 1.67μm in control to 5.84μm at MIC i.e. at 62.5μg/ml. Vesicle size was reduced from 44.76x 24.22μm (control) to 11.36x 6.80μm at 15.62μg/ml concentrations. At 31.25 μg/ml and 62.5μg/ml concentration no phialides and sterigmata was found. Spore germination was completely found to be inhibited at 3.95μg/ml concentration. Similarly 92.87% reduction in vesicle size was observed at 15.62μg/ml concentration. It is evident from the results that plant extracts inhibit fungal growth and this inhibition is concentration dependent. 

Keywords: Antimicrobial Activity, Aspergillus fumigatus, cytomorphology, Euphorbia pulcherrima.

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2206 In vitro Study of Antibacterial Activity of Cymbopogon citratus

Authors: C.K. Hindumathy

Abstract:

Alcohol and water extracts of Cymbopogon citratus was investigated for anti-bacterial properties and phytochemical constituents. The extract was screened against four gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris) and two grampositive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus at four different concentrations (1:1, 1:5, 1:10 and 1:20) using disc diffusion method. The antibacterial examination was by disc diffusion techniques, while the photochemical constituents were investigated using standard chemical methods. Results showed that the extracts inhibited the growth of standard and local strains of the organisms used. The treatments were significantly different (P = 0.05). The minimum inhibitory concentration of the extracts against the tested microorganisms ranged between 150mg/ml and 50mg/ml. The alcohol extracts were found to be generally more effective than the water extract. The photochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids and phenol but absence of cardiac and cyanogenic glycosides. The presence of alkaloid and phenols were inferred as being responsible for the anti-bacterial properties of the extracts.

Keywords: Cymbopogon citratus; gram negative and grampositive

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2205 Development of a 3D Mathematical Model for a Doxorubicin Controlled Release System using Pluronic Gel for Breast Cancer Treatment

Authors: W. Kaowumpai, D. Koolpiruck, K. Viravaidya

Abstract:

Female breast cancer is the second in frequency after cervical cancer. Surgery is the most common treatment for breast cancer, followed by chemotherapy as a treatment of choice. Although effective, it causes serious side effects. Controlled-release drug delivery is an alternative method to improve the efficacy and safety of the treatment. It can release the dosage of drug between the minimum effect concentration (MEC) and minimum toxic concentration (MTC) within tumor tissue and reduce the damage of normal tissue and the side effect. Because an in vivo experiment of this system can be time-consuming and labor-intensive, a mathematical model is desired to study the effects of important parameters before the experiments are performed. Here, we describe a 3D mathematical model to predict the release of doxorubicin from pluronic gel to treat human breast cancer. This model can, ultimately, be used to effectively design the in vivo experiments.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, Doxorubicin, Controlled ReleaseSystem, Diffusion and Convection Equation.

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2204 Comparison between Minimum Direct and Indirect Jerks of Linear Dynamic Systems

Authors: Tawiwat Veeraklaew, Nathasit Phathana-im, Songkit Heama

Abstract:

Both the minimum energy consumption and smoothness, which is quantified as a function of jerk, are generally needed in many dynamic systems such as the automobile and the pick-and-place robot manipulator that handles fragile equipments. Nevertheless, many researchers come up with either solely concerning on the minimum energy consumption or minimum jerk trajectory. This research paper proposes a simple yet very interesting relationship between the minimum direct and indirect jerks approaches in designing the time-dependent system yielding an alternative optimal solution. Extremal solutions for the cost functions of direct and indirect jerks are found using the dynamic optimization methods together with the numerical approximation. This is to allow us to simulate and compare visually and statistically the time history of control inputs employed by minimum direct and indirect jerk designs. By considering minimum indirect jerk problem, the numerical solution becomes much easier and yields to the similar results as minimum direct jerk problem.

Keywords: Optimization, Dynamic, Linear Systems, Jerks.

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2203 Investigations of Metals and Metal-Antibrowning Agents Effects on Polyphenol Oxidase Activity from Red Poppy Leaf

Authors: G. Arabaci

Abstract:

Heavy metals are one of the major groups of contaminants in the environment and many of them are toxic even at very low concentration in plants and animals. However, some metals play important roles in the biological function of many enzymes in living organisms. Metals such as zinc, iron, and cooper are important for survival and activity of enzymes in plants, however heavy metals can inhibit enzyme which is responsible for defense system of plants. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is a copper-containing metalloenzyme which is responsible for enzymatic browning reaction of plants. Enzymatic browning is a major problem for the handling of vegetables and fruits in food industry. It can be increased and effected with many different futures such as metals in the nature and ground. In the present work, PPO was isolated and characterized from green leaves of red poppy plant (Papaverr hoeas). Then, the effect of some known antibrowning agents which can form complexes with metals and metals were investigated on the red poppy PPO activity. The results showed that glutathione was the most potent inhibitory effect on PPO activity. Cu(II) and Fe(II) metals increased the enzyme activities however, Sn(II) had the maximum inhibitory effect and Zn(II) and Pb(II) had no significant effect on the enzyme activity. In order to reduce the effect of heavy metals, the effects of metal-antibrowning agent complexes on the PPO activity were determined. EDTA and metal complexes had no significant effect on the enzyme. L-ascorbic acid and metal complexes decreased but L-ascorbic acid-Cu(II)-complex had no effect. Glutathione–metal complexes had the best inhibitory effect on Red poppy leaf PPO activity.

Keywords: Inhibition, metal, red poppy, Polyphenol oxidase (PPO).

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