Effect of Euphorbia Pulcherrima Leaf and Inflorescence Extract on Various Cytomorphological Parameters of Aspergillus fumigatus
Microorganisms can be removed, inhibited or killed by physical agents, physical processes or chemical agents but they have their inherent disadvantages such as increased resistance against antibiotics etc. Since, plants have endless ability to synthesize aromatic substances which act as the master agents for plant defense mechanisms against microorganisms, insects and herbivores. Thus, secondary metabolites or phytochemicals obtained from plants can be used as agents of disease control nowadays. In the present study effect of different concentrations of acetone fraction of leaves and alcohol fraction of inflorescence of Euphorbia pulcherrima on various cytomorphological parameters i.e. cell number, mycelium width, conidial size, conidiophore size etc. of Aspergillus fumigatus has been studied. Change in mycelium/ hyphal cell width, conidium size, conidiophore size etc. was measured with the help of a previously calibrated oculometer. To study effect on morphology, fungal mycelium along with conidiophore and conidia were stained with cotton blue and mounted in lactophenol and observed microscopically. Inhibitory action of the acetone extract of Euphorbia pulcherrima leaf on growth of Aspergillus fumigatus was investigated. Control containing extract free medium supported profuse growth of the fungus. Although decrease in growth was observed even at 3.95μg/ml but significant inhibition of growth was started at7.81μg/ml concentration of the extract. Complete inhibition was observed at 15.62μg/ml and above. Microscopic examination revealed that at 3.95, 7.81 and 15.62μg/ml extract concentration hyphal cell width was found to be increased from 1.44μm in control to 3.86, 5.24 and 8.98 μm respectively giving a beaded appearance to the mycelium. Vesicle size was reduced from 24.78x20.08μm (control) to 11.34x10.06μm at 3.95μg/ml concentration. At 7.81 and 15.62μg/ml concentration no phialides and sterigmata were observed. Inhibitory action of the alcohol extract of inflorescence on the growth of Aspergillus fumigatus was also studied. Control containing extract free medium supported profuse growth of the fungus. Although decrease in growth was observed even at 3.95μg/ml but complete inhibition was observed at 62.5μg/ml and above. Microscopic examination revealed that hyphal cell width of Aspergillus fumigatus was found to be increased from 1.67μm in control to 5.84μm at MIC i.e. at 62.5μg/ml. Vesicle size was reduced from 44.76x 24.22μm (control) to 11.36x 6.80μm at 15.62μg/ml concentrations. At 31.25 μg/ml and 62.5μg/ml concentration no phialides and sterigmata was found. Spore germination was completely found to be inhibited at 3.95μg/ml concentration. Similarly 92.87% reduction in vesicle size was observed at 15.62μg/ml concentration. It is evident from the results that plant extracts inhibit fungal growth and this inhibition is concentration dependent.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1087660Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1849
 Adams, T. H., Weiser, J. K. and Yu, J. H.1998. Asexual sporulation in Aspergillus nidulans. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev., 12: 3827-3833.
 Fisher, R. and Timberlake, W. E. 1995. Aspergillus nidulans aspA (Anucleate primary sterigmata) encodes a coiled- coid protein required for nuclear positioning and completion of asexual development. J. Cell Biol., 128: 485-498.
 Cluttterback, A. J. 1969. A mutational analysis of conidial development in Aspergillus nidulans. Genetics, 63: 317-327.
 Mohana, D. C., Prasad, P., Vijaykumar, V. and Raveesha, K. A. 2011. Plant Extract Effect On Seed-Borne Pathogenic Fungi from Seeds of Paddy grown in Southern India. J. Pl. Protection Res., 51 (2): 101- 106.
 Farrag, E. S. H.; Moharam, M. H. A.; Ziedan, E. H. 2013. Effect of plant extracts on morphological and pathological potential of seed-borne fungi on cucumber seeds. Int. J. Agric. Technol., 9 (1): 141-149.
 Harborne, J. B. 1984. Methods of Plant Analysis. In: Phytochemical Methods. Chapman and Hall, London, New York, 05-06.
 Kokate, C. K., Purohit, A. P. and Gokhale S. B. 1990. Pharmacognogy. In: Analytic pharmacognosy (7th ed.). Nirali Prakashan, Pune, 122-124.
 Bonjar, G. H. S. 2004. Evaluation of antibacterial properties of Iranian medicinal plants against Micrococcus luteus, Serratia marcescens, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bordetella bronchoseptica. Asian J. Pl. Sci., 3 (1): 82-86.
 Escalada, M. G., Harwood, J. L., Maillard, J. Y. and Ochs, D. 2005. Triclosan inhibition of fatty acid synthesis and its effect on growth of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J. Antimicrob. Chemother., 55: 879-882.
 Baswa, M., Rath, C. C., Dash, S. K. and Mishra, R. K. 2001. Antibacterial activity of Karanj (Pongamia pinnata) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) seed oil: a premilinary report. Microbios, 105 (412): 183-189.
 Rhayour, K., Bouchikhi, T., Tantaoui-Elaraki, A., Sendide, K. and Remmal, A. 2003. The mechanism of bactericidal action of oregano and clove essential oils and of their phenolic major components on E. coli and B. subtilis. J. Essential oil Res., 15 (5): 356-362.
 Sikkema, J., de Bont, J. A. M. and Poolam, B. 1995. Mechanism of membrane toxicity of hydrocarbons. Microbiol. Rev., 59: 201-222.
 Davidson, P. M. 1997. Chemical Preservative and Natural Antimicrobial Compounds. In: Food Microbiology Fundamentals and Frontiers (Doyle, M. P., Beuchat, L. R. and Montville, T. J. eds.). ASM Press, New York, 520-556.
 Kroll, R. G. and Booth, I. R. 1981. The role of potassium transport in the generation of a pH gradient in Escherichia coli. Biochem. J., 198: 691- 698.
 Bakker, E. and Mangerich, W. E. 1981. Interconversion of components of the bacterial proton motive force by electrogenic potassium transport. J. Bacteriol., 36: 67-72.
 Ultee, A., Kets, E. P. W. and Smid, E. J. 1999. Mechanisms of action of carvacrol on the food borne pathogen Bacillus cereus. Appl. Environ. Micobiol., 65 (10): 4606-4610.
 Tsai, H. F., Wheeler, M. H., Chang, Y. C. and Knon-Chung, K. J. 1999. A developmentally regulated gene clusters involved in conidial pigment biosynthesis in Aspergillus fumigatus. J. Bacteriol., 181: 6469-6477.
 Rath, C. C., Das, S. K., Mishra, R. K. and Charyulu, J. K. 2001. Anti-E. coli activity of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) essential oil. Indian Drugs, 38 (3): 106-111.
 Pattnaik, S., Subramanyam, V. R. and Rath, C. C. 1995. Effect of essential oils on the viability and morphology of E. coli. Microbios, 84: 195-199.
 Soylu, E. M., Soylu, S. and Kurt, S. 2006. Antimicrobial activities of oils of various plants against tomato late blight disease agent Phytophthora infestans. Mycopathologia, 161(2): 119-128.
 Ke-Qiang, C. A. O. and Van Bruggen, A. H. C. 2001. Inhibitory effect of several plant extracts and plant products on Phytophthora infestans. J. Agric. Univ. Hebei, 1-9.
 Bianchi, A., Zambonelli, A., D,aulerio, A. Z. and Bellesia, F. 1997. Ultrastructural studies of the effects of Allium sativum on pathogenic fungi in vitro. Plant Disease, 81: 1241-1246.
 Polya, G. 2003. Gene expression, Cell division and Apoptosis. In: Biochemical Targets of Plant Bioactive Compounds. Taylor & Francis, London, 344-345.
 Ya, C., Gaffney, S. H., Lilley, T. H. and Haslam, E. 1988. Carbohydrate Polyphenol Complexation. In: Chemistry and Significance of Condensed Tannins (Hemingway, R. W. and Karchesy, J. J. eds.). Plenum Press, New York, 553.
 Tsuchiya, H., Sato, M., Miyazaki, Y., Fujiwara, S., Taniyaki, S., Ohyama, M., Tanaka, T., and Linuma, M. 1996. Comparative study on the antibacterial activity of phytochemical flavones against methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus. J. Ethnopharmacol., 50: 27-34.
 Nakamura, C. V., Ishida, K., Faccin, L. C., Filho, B. P. D., Cortez, D. A. G., Rozental, S., de Souza, W. and Nakamura, U. 2004. In vitro activity of essential oil from Ocimum gratissimum L. against four Candida species. Res. Microbiol., 155: 579-586.
 Ismaiel, A. A., Rabie, G. H., Kenawey, S. E. M., and Abd EL-Aal, M. A. 2012. Efficacy of Aqueous Garlic Extract on Growth, Aflatoxin B1, production and Cytomorphological abberations of Aspergillus flavus, Causing Human Opthalmic Infection: Topical Treatment of A. flavus Keratitis. Brazilian J. Microbiol., 43 (4): 1355-1364.