Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 31093
Influence of Hydrocarbons on Plant Cell Ultrastructure and Main Metabolic Enzymes
Abstract:Influence of octane and benzene on plant cell ultrastructure and enzymes of basic metabolism, such as nitrogen assimilation and energy generation have been studied. Different plants: perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa); crops- maize (Zea mays L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); shrubs – privet (Ligustrum sempervirens) and trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliate); trees - poplar (Populus deltoides) and white mulberry (Morus alba L.) were exposed to hydrocarbons of different concentrations (1, 10 and 100 mM). Destructive changes in bean and maize leaves cells ultrastructure under the influence of benzene vapour were revealed at the level of photosynthetic and energy generation subcellular organells. Different deviations at the level of subcellular organelles structure and distribution were observed in alfalfa and ryegrass root cells under the influence of benzene and octane, absorbed through roots. The level of destructive changes is concentration dependent. Benzene at low 1 and 10 mM concentration caused the increase in glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity in maize roots and leaves and in poplar and mulberry shoots, though to higher extent in case of lower, 1mM concentration. The induction was more intensive in plant roots. The highest tested 100mM concentration of benzene was inhibitory to the enzyme in all plants. Octane caused induction of GDH in all grassy plants at all tested concentrations; however the rate of induction decreased parallel to increase of the hydrocarbon concentration. Octane at concentration 1 mM caused induction of GDH in privet, trifoliate and white mulberry shoots. The highest, 100mM octane was characterized by inhibitory effect to GDH activity in all plants. Octane had inductive effect on malate dehydrogenase in almost all plants and tested concentrations, indicating the intensification of Trycarboxylic Acid Cycle. The data could be suggested for elaboration of criteria for plant selection for phytoremediation of oil hydrocarbons contaminated soils.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1060006Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1642
 Leahy, J.G. and R. R. Colwell, "Microbial degradation of hydrocarbons in the environment", Microbio. Rev., vol. 54, pp. 305-315, 1990.
 Ferro, A., J. Kennedy, W. Doucette, S. Nelson, G. Jauregui, B. McFarland, and B. Bugbee, "Fate of benzene in soils planted with alfalfa: Uptake, volatilization, and degradation", in Phytoremediation of Soil and Water Contaminants, E.L. Kruger, T.A. Anderson, J.R. Coats, Eds, American Chemical Society: Washington, D.C., 1997, pp. 223-237.
 Harms, H., Bokern, M., Kolb, M., Bock, C., "Transformation of organic contaminants by different plant systems", in Phytoremediation. Transfor┬¼mation and control of contaminants, McCutcheon, S.C., Schnoor, J.L. Eds. Wiley-Interscience, Hoboken, New Jersey, 2003, pp. 285-316, 2003.
 Qiu, X., T.W. Leland, S.I. Shah, D.L. Sorensen, and E.W. Kendall, "Field study: Grass remediation for clay soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons", in Phytoremediation of Soil and Water Contaminants, E.L. Kruger, T.A. Anderson, J.R. Coats, Eds., American Chemical Society: Washington, D.C, 1997, pp. 186-199.
 Sandermann, H. "Plant metabolism of xenobiotics", Trends. Biochem. Sci., vol. 17, pp. 82-84, 1992.
 Tsao, D.T. Phytoremediation. Advances in Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 2003.
 Wiltse, C.C., W.L. Rooney, Z. Chen, A.P. Schwab, and M.K. Banks. "Greenhouse evaluation of agronomic and crude oil-phytoremediation potential among alfalfa genotypes", J. Env. Qual., vol.27, pp. 169-173, 1998.
 Bartha, R. "Biotechnology of petroleum pollutant biodegradation", Micro. Ecol., vol.12, pp. 155-17, 1986.
 Durmishidze S, Ugrekhelidze D. "Enzymatic cleavage of the aromatic ring of benzene and simple phenols in plants", in Proc. 6th FEBS Meeting, Madrid, 1969, p.915.
 Mitaishvili T., Scalla R., Ugrekhelidze D., Tsereteli B., Sadunishvili T., Kvesitadze G. "Transformation of aromatic compounds in plants grown under aseptic conditions", Zeitsschrift fur Naturforschung, 60c, pp. 97- 102, 2005.
 Betsiashvili M., Sadunishvili T., Amashukeli N., Tsulukidze N., Shapovalova N., Dzamukashvili N., Nutsubidze N."Effect of aromatic hydrocarbons on main metabolic and energetic enzymes in maize, ryegrass and kidney bean seedlings", Bull.Georgian Acad. Sci., vol. 170, pp.172-174, 2004.
 Chrikishvili D, Sadunishvili T, Zaalishvili G."Benzoic acid transformation via conjugation with peptides and final fate of conjugates in higher plants", Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saety., vol.64, 3, pp. 390-399, 2006.
 Kvesitadze G., Gordeziani M., Khatisashvili G., Sadunishvili T., Ramsden J.J. "Review: Some aspects of the enzymatic basis of phytoremediation", Journal of Biological Physics and Chemistry, vol.1, 2, pp. 49-57, 2001.
 Zaalishvili, G., Sadunishvili, T., Scalla, R. Laurent, F. and Kvesitadze, G. "Electron Microscopic Investigation of Nitrobenzene Distribution and Effect on Plant Root Tip Cells Ultrastructure", Ecotoxicol. Environ. Safety, vol. 52, 3, pp. 190-197, 2002.
 Kvesitadze G., Kokonashvili G., Sadunishvili T. "Enzymes of nitrogen and energy metabolism from the liver of spiny dogfish and in the preparation Katrex", Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology, vol.29, 1, pp.131-137, 1993.
 Sadunishvili, T., Gvarliani N., Nutsubidze, N., Kvesitadze, G. "Effect of methionine sulfoximine on nitrogen metabolism and externally supplied ammonium assimilation in Kidney bean". Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., vol. 34, pp. 70-75, 1996.
 Bradford M. "A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitativation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding", Anal. Biochem., vol. 72, pp. 248-254, 1976.
 Kvesitadze, G., Khatisashvili, G., Sadunishvili, T., Ramsden, J.J. Biochemical Mechanisms of Detoxification in Higher Plants. Basis of Phytoremediation. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 2006.
 Buadze, O., Kvesitadze, G. "Effect of low-molecular-weght alkanes on the cell photosynthetic apparatus", Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., vol. 38, pp. 36-44, 1997.
 Buadze, O., Sadunishvili, T., Kvesitadze, G. "The effect of 1,2- benzantracene and 3,4-benzpyrene on the ultrastructure of maize cells", International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, vol. 41, pp.119-125, 1998.
 Zaalishvili, G., Lomidze, E., Buadze, O., Sadunishvili, T. Tkhelidze, P., Kvesitadze, G. "Electron microscopic investigation of benzidine effect on maize root tip cells ultrastructure, DNA synthesis and calcium homeostasis", International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, vol. 46, 2, pp.133-140, 2000.
 Miflin B.J. and Habash D.Z. "The role of glutamine synthetase and glutamate dehydrogenase in nitrogen assimilation and possibilities for improvement in the nitrogen utilization of crops", Journal of Experimental Botany, vol. 53, No. 370, pp. 979-987, 2002.