%0 Journal Article
	%A Abalaka and  M. E. and  Daniyan and  S. Y. and  Adeyemo and  S. O.
	%D 2011
	%J International Journal of Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences
	%B World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology
	%I Open Science Index 58, 2011
	%T Determination of in Vitro Susceptibility of the Typhoid Pathogens to Synergistic Action of Euphorbia Hirta, Euphorbia Heterophylla and Phyllanthus Niruri for Possible Development of Effective Anti-Typhoid Drugs
	%U https://publications.waset.org/pdf/618
	%V 58
	%X Studies were carried out to determine the in vitro
susceptibility of the typhoid pathogens to combined action of Euphorbia hirta, Euphorbia heterophylla and Phyllanthus niruri. Clinical isolates of the typhoid bacilli were subjected to susceptibility testing using agar diffusion technique and the minimum inhibitory
concentration (MIC) determined with tube dilution technique. These
isolates, when challenged with doses of the extracts from the three
medicinal plants showed zones of inhibition as wide as 26±0.2mm, 22±0.1mm and 18±0.0mm respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) revealed organisms inhibited at varying
concentrations of extracts: E. hirta (S. typhi 0.250mg/ml, S. paratyphi A 0.125mg/ml, S. paratyphi B 0.185mg/ml and S. paratyphi C 0.225mg/ml), E. heterophylla (S. typhi 0.280mg/ml, S. paratyphi A
0.150mg/ml, S. paratyphi B 0.200mg/ml and S. paratyphi C 0.250mg/ml) and P. niruri (S. typhi 0.150mg/ml, S. paratyphi A 0.100mg/ml, S. paratyphi B 0.115mg/ml and S. paratyphi C 0.125mg/ml). The results of the synergy between the three plants in
the ration of 1:1:1 showed very low MICs for the test pathogens as follows S. typhi 0.025mg/ml, S. paratyphi A 0.080mg/ml, S. paratyphi B 0.015mg/ml and S. paratyphi C 0.10mg/ml with the
diameter zone of inhibition (DZI) ranging from 35±0.2mm,
28±0.4mm, 20±0.1mm and 32±0.3mm respectively. The secondary
metabolites were identified using simple methods and HPLC. Organic components such as anthroquinones, different alkaloids,
tannins, 6-ethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2,2,4-trimethyl and steroids were identified. The prevalence of Salmonellae, a deadly infectious disease, is still very high in parts of Nigeria. The synergistic action of these three plants is very high. It is concluded that pharmaceutical companies should take advantage of these findings to develop new
anti-typhoid drugs from these plants.
	%P 511 - 514