Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2158

Search results for: Minimum Hydrotropic Concentration.

2158 Thermodynamic Study for Aggregation Behavior of Hydrotropic Solution

Authors: Meghal Desai, Jigisha Parikh

Abstract:

Aggregation behavior of sodium salicylate and sodium cumene sulfonate was studied in aqueous solution at different temperature. Specific conductivity and relative viscosity were measured at different temperature to find minimum hydrotropic concentration. The thermodynamic parameters (free energy, enthalpy and entropy) were evaluated in the temperature range of 30°C-70°C. The free energy decreased with increase in temperature. The aggregation was found to be exothermic in nature and favored by positive value of entropy.

Keywords: Hydrotropes, Enthalpy, Entropy, Free Energy, Minimum Hydrotropic Concentration.

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2157 Evaluation of Newly Developed Dot-ELISA Test for Identification of Naja-naja sumantrana and Calloselasma rhodostoma Venom Antigens

Authors: A.S. Sikarwar, S. Ambu, T .H. Wong

Abstract:

Snake bite cases in Malaysia most often involve the species Naja-naja and Calloselasma rhodostoma. In keeping with the need for a rapid snake venom detection kit in a clinical setting, plate and dot-ELISA test for the venoms of Naja-naja sumatrana, Calloselasma rhodostoma and the cobra venom fraction V antigen was developed. Polyclonal antibodies were raised and further used to prepare the reagents for the dot-ELISA test kit which was tested in mice, rabbit and virtual human models. The newly developed dot- ELISA kit was able to detect a minimum venom concentration of 244ng/ml with cross reactivity of one antibody type. The dot-ELISA system was sensitive and specific for all three snake venom types in all tested animal models. The lowest minimum venom concentration detectable was in the rabbit model, 244ng/ml of the cobra venom fraction V antigen. The highest minimum venom concentration was in mice, 1953ng/ml against a multitude of venoms. The developed dot-ELISA system for the detection of three snake venom types was successful with a sensitivity of 95.8% and specificity of 97.9%.

Keywords: ELISA, Venom, SVDK, Naja-naja sumatrana , Calloselasma rhodostoma.

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2156 Combining Minimum Energy and Minimum Direct Jerk of Linear Dynamic Systems

Authors: V. Tawiwat, P. Jumnong

Abstract:

Both the minimum energy consumption and smoothness, which is quantified as a function of jerk, are generally needed in many dynamic systems such as the automobile and the pick-and-place robot manipulator that handles fragile equipments. Nevertheless, many researchers come up with either solely concerning on the minimum energy consumption or minimum jerk trajectory. This research paper proposes a simple yet very interesting when combining the minimum energy and jerk of indirect jerks approaches in designing the time-dependent system yielding an alternative optimal solution. Extremal solutions for the cost functions of the minimum energy, the minimum jerk and combining them together are found using the dynamic optimization methods together with the numerical approximation. This is to allow us to simulate and compare visually and statistically the time history of state inputs employed by combining minimum energy and jerk designs. The numerical solution of minimum direct jerk and energy problem are exactly the same solution; however, the solutions from problem of minimum energy yield the similar solution especially in term of tendency.

Keywords: Optimization, Dynamic, Linear Systems, Jerks.

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2155 Assessing the Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan Nanoparticles by Fluorescence-Labeling

Authors: Laidson P. Gomes, Cristina T. Andrade, Eduardo M. Del Aguila, Cameron Alexander, Vânia M. F. Paschoalin

Abstract:

Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide prepared by the N-deacetylation of chitin. In this study, the physicochemical and antibacterial properties of chitosan nanoparticles, produced by ultrasound irradiation, were evaluated. The physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles were determined by dynamic light scattering and zeta potential analysis. Chitosan nanoparticles inhibited the growth of E. coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were lower than 0.5 mg/mL, and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were similar or higher than MIC values. Confocal laser scanning micrographs (CLSM) were used to observe the interaction between E. coli suspensions mixed with FITC-labeled chitosan polymers and nanoparticles.

Keywords: Chitosan nanoparticles, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, confocal microscopy, antibacterial activity.

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2154 Experimental Investigation and Optimization of Nanoparticle Mass Concentration and Heat Input of Loop Heat Pipe

Authors: P. Gunnasegaran, M. Z. Abdullah, M. Z. Yusoff, Nur Irmawati

Abstract:

This study presents experimental and optimization of nanoparticle mass concentration and heat input based on the total thermal resistance (Rth) of loop heat pipe (LHP), employed for PCCPU cooling. In this study, silica nanoparticles (SiO2) in water with particle mass concentration ranged from 0% (pure water) to 1% is considered as the working fluid within the LHP. The experimental design and optimization is accomplished by the design of experimental tool, Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The results show that the nanoparticle mass concentration and the heat input have significant effect on the Rth of LHP. For a given heat input, the Rth is found to decrease with the increase of the nanoparticle mass concentration up to 0.5% and increased thereafter. It is also found that the Rth is decreased when the heat input is increased from 20W to 60W. The results are optimized with the objective of minimizing the Rth, using Design-Expert software, and the optimized nanoparticle mass concentration and heat input are 0.48% and 59.97W, respectively, the minimum thermal resistance being 2.66 (ºC/W).

Keywords: Loop heat pipe, nanofluid, optimization, thermal resistance.

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2153 On Minimum Cycle Bases of the Wreath Product of Wheels with Stars

Authors: M. M. M. Jaradat, M. K. Al-Qeyyam

Abstract:

The length of a cycle basis of a graph is the sum of the lengths of its elements. A minimum cycle basis is a cycle basis with minimum length. In this work, a construction of a minimum cycle basis for the wreath product of wheels with stars is presented. Moreover, the length of minimum cycle basis and the length of its longest cycle are calculated.

Keywords: Cycle space, minimum cycle basis, wreath product.

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2152 Identification of the Antimicrobial Effect of Liquorice Extracts on Gram-Positive Bacteria: Determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and Mechanism of Action Using a luxABCDE Reporter Strain

Authors: Madiha El Awamie, Catherine Rees

Abstract:

Natural preservatives have been used as alternatives to traditional chemical preservatives; however, a limited number have been commercially developed and many remain to be investigated as sources of safer and effective antimicrobials. In this study, we have been investigating the antimicrobial activity of an extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra (liquorice) that was provided as a waste material from the production of liquorice flavourings for the food industry, and to investigate if this retained the expected antimicrobial activity so it could be used as a natural preservative. Antibacterial activity of liquorice extract was screened for evidence of growth inhibition against eight species of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus subtilis. The Gram-negative bacteria tested include Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium but none of these were affected by the extract. In contrast, for all of the Gram-positive bacteria tested, growth was inhibited as monitored using optical density. However parallel studies using viable count indicated that the cells were not killed meaning that the extract was bacteriostatic rather than bacteriocidal. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration [MIC] and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration [MBC] of the extract was also determined and a concentration of 50 µg ml-1 was found to have a strong bacteriostatic effect on Gram-positive bacteria. Microscopic analysis indicated that there were changes in cell shape suggesting the cell wall was affected. In addition, the use of a reporter strain of Listeria transformed with the bioluminescence genes luxABCDE indicated that cell energy levels were reduced when treated with either 12.5 or 50 µg ml-1 of the extract, with the reduction in light output being proportional to the concentration of the extract used. Together these results suggest that the extract is inhibiting the growth of Gram-positive bacteria only by damaging the cell wall and/or membrane.

Keywords: Antibacterial activity, bioluminescence, Glycyrrhiza glabra, natural preservative.

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2151 A Study of Under Actuator Dynamic System by Comparing between Minimum Energy and Minimum Jerk Problems

Authors: Tawiwat V., Phermsak S., Noppasit C.

Abstract:

This paper deals with under actuator dynamic systems such as spring-mass-damper system when the number of control variable is less than the number of state variable. In order to apply optimal control, the controllability must be checked. There are many objective functions to be selected as the goal of the optimal control such as minimum energy, maximum energy and minimum jerk. As the objective function is the first priority, if one like to have the second goal to be applied; however, it could not fit in the objective function format and also avoiding the vector cost for the objective, this paper will illustrate the problem of under actuator dynamic systems with the easiest to deal with comparing between minimum energy and minimum jerk.

Keywords: Under actuator, Dynamic optimal control, Minimumjerk, Minimum energy.

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2150 Development of a 3D Mathematical Model for a Doxorubicin Controlled Release System using Pluronic Gel for Breast Cancer Treatment

Authors: W. Kaowumpai, D. Koolpiruck, K. Viravaidya

Abstract:

Female breast cancer is the second in frequency after cervical cancer. Surgery is the most common treatment for breast cancer, followed by chemotherapy as a treatment of choice. Although effective, it causes serious side effects. Controlled-release drug delivery is an alternative method to improve the efficacy and safety of the treatment. It can release the dosage of drug between the minimum effect concentration (MEC) and minimum toxic concentration (MTC) within tumor tissue and reduce the damage of normal tissue and the side effect. Because an in vivo experiment of this system can be time-consuming and labor-intensive, a mathematical model is desired to study the effects of important parameters before the experiments are performed. Here, we describe a 3D mathematical model to predict the release of doxorubicin from pluronic gel to treat human breast cancer. This model can, ultimately, be used to effectively design the in vivo experiments.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, Doxorubicin, Controlled ReleaseSystem, Diffusion and Convection Equation.

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2149 Comparison of The Fertilizer Properties of Ash Fractions from Medium-Sized (32 MW) and Small-Sized (6 MW) Municipal District Heating Plants

Authors: Hannu Nurmesniemi, Mikko Mäkelä, Risto Pöykiö, Olli Dahl

Abstract:

Due to the low heavy metal concentrations, the bottom ash from a 32 MW municipal district heating plant was determined to be a potential forest fertilizer as such. However, additional Ca would be needed, because its Ca concentration of 1.9- % (d.w.) was lower than the statutory Finnish minimum limit value of 6.0-% (d.w.) for Ca in forest fertilizer. Due to the elevated As concentration (53.0 mg/kg; d.w.) in the fly ash from the 32 MW municipal district heating plant, and Cr concentration (620 mg/kg; d.w.) in the ash fraction (i.e. mixture of the bottom ash and fly ash) from the 6 MW municipal district heating plant, which exceed the limit values of 30 mg/kg (d.w.) and 300 mg/kg (d.w.) for As and Cr, respectively, these residues are not suitable as forest fertilizers. Although these ash fractions cannot be used as a forest fertilizer as such, they can be used for the landscaping of landfills or in industrial and other areas that are closed to the public. However, an environmental permit is then needed.

Keywords: Ash, fertilizer, peat, forest residue, waste

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2148 Microbial Assessment of Fenugreek Paste during Storage and Antimicrobial Effect of Greek Clover, Trigonella foenum-graecum

Authors: Zerrin Erginkaya, Gözde Konuray

Abstract:

In this study, antimicrobial effect of Greek clover was determined with usage of MIC (minimum inhibition concentration) and agar diffusion method. Moreover, pH, water activity and microbial change were determined during storage of fenugreek paste. At first part of our study, microbial load of spices was evaluated. Two different fenugreek pastes were produced with mixing of Greek clover, spices, garlic and water. Fenugreek pastes were stored at 4 °C. At the second part, antimicrobial effect of Greek clover was determined on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Debaryomyces hansenii, Aspergillus parasiticus, Candida rugosa, Mucor spp., when the concentrations of Greek clover were 8%, 12% and 16%. According to the results obtained, mould growth was determined at 15th and 30th days of storage in first and second fenugreek samples, respectively. Greek clover showed only antifungal effect on Aspergillus parasiticus at previously mentioned concentrations.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, fenugreek, Greek clover, minimum inhibition concentration.

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2147 Inhibitory Effect of Helichrysum arenarium Essential Oil on the Growth of Food Contaminated Microorganisms

Authors: Ali Mohamadi Sani

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial effect of Helichrysum arenarium L. essential oil in "in-vitro" condition on the growth of seven microbial species including Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Saccharomyces cereviciae, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus using micro-dilution method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal or fungicidal concentration (MBC, MFC) were determined for the essential oil at ten concentrations. Finally, the sensitivity of tested microbes to essential oil of H. arenarium was investigated. Results showed that Bacillus subtilis (MIC=781.25 and MBC=6250 µg/ml) was more resistance than two other bacterial species. Among the tested yeasts, Saccharomyces cereviciae (MIC=97.65 and MFC=781.25 µg/ml) was more sensitive than Candida albicans while among the fungal species, growth of Aspergillus parasiticus inhibited at lower concentration of oil than the Aspergillus flavus. The extracted essential oil exhibited the same MIC value in the liquid medium against all fungal strains (48.82 µg/ml), while different activity against A. flavus and A. parasiticus was observed in this medium with MFC values of 6250 and 390.625µg/ml, respectively. The results of the present study indicated that Helichrysum arenarium L essential oil had significant (P<0.05) antimicrobial activity; therefore, it can be used as a natural preservation to increase the shelf life of food products.

 

Keywords: Helichrysum arenarium, Antimicrobial agent, Essential oil, MIC.

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2146 Comparison between Minimum Direct and Indirect Jerks of Linear Dynamic Systems

Authors: Tawiwat Veeraklaew, Nathasit Phathana-im, Songkit Heama

Abstract:

Both the minimum energy consumption and smoothness, which is quantified as a function of jerk, are generally needed in many dynamic systems such as the automobile and the pick-and-place robot manipulator that handles fragile equipments. Nevertheless, many researchers come up with either solely concerning on the minimum energy consumption or minimum jerk trajectory. This research paper proposes a simple yet very interesting relationship between the minimum direct and indirect jerks approaches in designing the time-dependent system yielding an alternative optimal solution. Extremal solutions for the cost functions of direct and indirect jerks are found using the dynamic optimization methods together with the numerical approximation. This is to allow us to simulate and compare visually and statistically the time history of control inputs employed by minimum direct and indirect jerk designs. By considering minimum indirect jerk problem, the numerical solution becomes much easier and yields to the similar results as minimum direct jerk problem.

Keywords: Optimization, Dynamic, Linear Systems, Jerks.

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2145 An Effective Algorithm for Minimum Weighted Vertex Cover Problem

Authors: S. Balaji, V. Swaminathan, K. Kannan

Abstract:

The Minimum Weighted Vertex Cover (MWVC) problem is a classic graph optimization NP - complete problem. Given an undirected graph G = (V, E) and weighting function defined on the vertex set, the minimum weighted vertex cover problem is to find a vertex set S V whose total weight is minimum subject to every edge of G has at least one end point in S. In this paper an effective algorithm, called Support Ratio Algorithm (SRA), is designed to find the minimum weighted vertex cover of a graph. Computational experiments are designed and conducted to study the performance of our proposed algorithm. Extensive simulation results show that the SRA can yield better solutions than other existing algorithms found in the literature for solving the minimum vertex cover problem.

Keywords: Weighted vertex cover, vertex support, approximation algorithms, NP-complete problem.

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2144 Application of Nano Cutting Fluid under Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) Technique to Improve Grinding of Ti – 6Al – 4V Alloy

Authors: Dinesh Setti, Sudarasan Ghosh, P. Venkateswara Rao

Abstract:

Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) technique obtained a significant attention in machining processes to reduce environmental loads caused by usage of conventional cutting fluids. Recently nanofluids are finding an extensive application in the field of mechanical engineering because of their superior lubrication and heat dissipation characteristics. This paper investigates the use of a nanofluid under MQL mode to improve grinding characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Taguchi-s experimental design technique has been used in the present investigation and a second order model has been established to predict grinding forces and surface roughness. Different concentrations of water based Al2O3 nanofluids were applied in the grinding operation through MQL setup developed in house and the results have been compared with those of conventional coolant and pure water. Experimental results showed that grinding forces reduced significantly when nano cutting fluid was used even at low concentration of the nano particles and surface finish has been found to improve with higher concentration of the nano particles.

Keywords: MQL, Nanofluid, Taguchi method, Ti-6Al-4V.

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2143 Comparative Analysis of Concentration in Insurance Markets in New EU Member States

Authors: T. Pavic Kramaric, M. Kitic

Abstract:

The purpose of this article is to analyze the market structure as well as the degree of concentration in insurance markets in new EU member states. The analysis was conducted using several most commonly used concentration indicators such as concentration ratio, Herfindahl-Hirschman index and entropy index. These indicators were calculated for the 2000-2010 period on the basis of total gross written premium as the most relevant indicator of market power in insurance markets. The results of the analysis showed that in all observed countries the level of concentration decreased, though with significantly different intensity. Yet, in some countries, the level of concentration remains very high.

Keywords: insurance market, concentration, new EU member states

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2142 An Approach to the Solving Non-Steiner Minimum Link Path Problem

Authors: V. Tereshchenko, A. Tregubenko

Abstract:

In this study we survey the method for fast finding a minimum link path between two arbitrary points within a simple polygon, which can pass only through the vertices, with preprocessing.

Keywords: Minimum link path, simple polygon, Steiner points, optimal algorithm.

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2141 Effect of Sperm Concentration and Length of Storage at 5 C on Motility of Goat Spermatozoa

Authors: Sri Wahjuningsih, Hermanto, Nuryadi, Agus Budiarto, Panji Bhintoro

Abstract:

The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of different concentration of spermatozoa and length of storage in 5 0C on sperm motility. Semen was collected using artificial vagina from goat aged 2 to 2.5 years. Fresh goat semen with sperm motility ≥ 70% was used as material. Semen was divided into 4 treatments of concentration (40 x 10 6 / ml, 50 x 106/ml, 60x106/ml, 70x106/ml) with length of storage 0,12,24,36 h. in 5 0C. There were interactions (P <0.05) between concentration and length of storage on individual motility of spermatozoa. Concentration of spermatozoa and length of storage affect the motility of individual (P <0.05). It was concluded that Sperm motility will decrease with increasing concentration and length of storage in 5 0C. Concentration of sperm 40x106/ ml and length of storage 0 h in 50C showed the highest motility of spermatozoa

Keywords: Goat, Length of storage, Motility, Sperm Concentration

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2140 Level of Concentration in Banking Markets and Length of EU Membership

Authors: Ivan Pavic, Fran Galetic, Tomislava Pavic Kramaric

Abstract:

The purpose of this article is to analyze the degree of concentration in the banking market in EU member states as well as to determine the impact of the length of EU membership on the degree of concentration. In that sense several analysis were conducted, specifically, panel analysis, calculation of correlation coefficient and regression analysis of the impact of the length of EU membership on the degree of concentration. Panel analysis was conducted to determine whether there is a similar trend of concentration in three groups of countries - countries with a low, moderate and high level of concentration. The conducted panel analysis showed that in EU countries with a moderate level of concentration, the level of concentration decreases. The calculation of correlation showed that, to some extent, with other influential factors, the length of EU membership negatively affects the market concentration of the banking market. Using the regression analysis for investigation of the influence of the length of EU membership on the level of concentration in the banking sector in a particular country, the results reveal that there is a negative effect of the length in EU membership on market concentration, although it is not significantly influential variable.

Keywords: Banking sector, concentration, EU

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2139 A Study of the Change of Damping Coefficient Regarding Minimum Displacement

Authors: Tawiwat V., Narongkorn D., Auttapoom L.

Abstract:

This research proposes the change of damping coefficient regarding minimum displacement. From the mass with external forced and damper problem, when is the constant external forced transmitted to the understructure in the difference angle between 30 and 60 degrees. This force generates the vibration as general known; however, the objective of this problem is to have minimum displacement. As the angle is changed and the goal is the same; therefore, the damper of the system must be varied while keeping constant spring stiffness. The problem is solved by using nonlinear programming and the suitable changing of the damping coefficient is provided.

Keywords: Damping coefficient, Optimal control, Minimum Displacement and Vibration

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2138 Optimization of the Process of Osmo – Convective Drying of Edible Button Mushrooms using Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

Authors: Behrouz Mosayebi Dehkordi

Abstract:

Simultaneous effects of temperature, immersion time, salt concentration, sucrose concentration, pressure and convective dryer temperature on the combined osmotic dehydration - convective drying of edible button mushrooms were investigated. Experiments were designed according to Central Composite Design with six factors each at five different levels. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimum processing conditions that yield maximum water loss and rehydration ratio and minimum solid gain and shrinkage in osmotic-convective drying of edible button mushrooms. Applying surfaces profiler and contour plots optimum operation conditions were found to be temperature of 39 °C, immersion time of 164 min, salt concentration of 14%, sucrose concentration of 53%, pressure of 600 mbar and drying temperature of 40 °C. At these optimum conditions, water loss, solid gain, rehydration ratio and shrinkage were found to be 63.38 (g/100 g initial sample), 3.17 (g/100 g initial sample), 2.26 and 7.15%, respectively.

Keywords: Dehydration, Mushroom, Optimization, Osmotic, Response Surface Methodology

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2137 Optimization the Process of Osmo – Convective Drying of Edible Button Mushrooms using Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

Authors: Behrouz Mosayebi Dehkordi

Abstract:

Simultaneous effects of temperature, immersion time, salt concentration, sucrose concentration, pressure and convective dryer temperature on the combined osmotic dehydration - convective drying of edible button mushrooms were investigated. Experiments were designed according to Central Composite Design with six factors each at five different levels. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimum processing conditions that yield maximum water loss and rehydration ratio and minimum solid gain and shrinkage in osmotic-convective drying of edible button mushrooms. Applying surfaces profiler and contour plots optimum operation conditions were found to be temperature of 39 °C, immersion time of 164 min, salt concentration of 14%, sucrose concentration of 53%, pressure of 600 mbar and drying temperature of 40 °C. At these optimum conditions, water loss, solid gain, rehydration ratio and shrinkage were found to be 63.38 (g/100 g initial sample), 3.17 (g/100 g initial sample), 2.26 and 7.15%, respectively.

Keywords: Dehydration, mushroom, optimization, osmotic, response surface methodology.

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2136 An Iterative Method for the Symmetric Arrowhead Solution of Matrix Equation

Authors: Minghui Wang, Luping Xu, Juntao Zhang

Abstract:

In this paper, according to the classical algorithm LSQR for solving the least-squares problem, an iterative method is proposed for least-squares solution of constrained matrix equation. By using the Kronecker product, the matrix-form LSQR is presented to obtain the like-minimum norm and minimum norm solutions in a constrained matrix set for the symmetric arrowhead matrices. Finally, numerical examples are also given to investigate the performance.

Keywords: Symmetric arrowhead matrix, iterative method, like-minimum norm, minimum norm, Algorithm LSQR.

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2135 Minimum Data of a Speech Signal as Special Indicators of Identification in Phonoscopy

Authors: Nazaket Gazieva

Abstract:

Voice biometric data associated with physiological, psychological and other factors are widely used in forensic phonoscopy. There are various methods for identifying and verifying a person by voice. This article explores the minimum speech signal data as individual parameters of a speech signal. Monozygotic twins are believed to be genetically identical. Using the minimum data of the speech signal, we came to the conclusion that the voice imprint of monozygotic twins is individual. According to the conclusion of the experiment, we can conclude that the minimum indicators of the speech signal are more stable and reliable for phonoscopic examinations.

Keywords: Biometric voice prints, fundamental frequency, phonogram, speech signal, temporal characteristics.

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2134 Reducing Sugar Production from Durian Peel by Hydrochloric Acid Hydrolysis

Authors: Matura Unhasirikul, Nuanphan Naranong, Woatthichai Narkrugsa

Abstract:

Agricultural waste is mainly composed of cellulose and hemicelluloses which can be converted to sugars. The inexpensive reducing sugar from durian peel was obtained by hydrolysis with HCl concentration at 0.5-2.0% (v/v). The hydrolysis range of time was for 15-60 min when the mixture was autoclaved at 121 °C. The result showed that acid hydrolysis efficiency (AHE) highest to 80.99% at condition is 2.0%concentration for 15 min. Reducing sugar highest to 56.07 g/litre at condition is 2.0% concentration for 45min. Total sugar highest to 59.83 g/litre at condition is 2.0%concentration for 45min, which was not significant (p < 0.05) with condition 2.0% concentration for 30 min and 1.5 % concentration for 45 and 60 min. The increase in concentration increased AHE, reducing sugar and total sugar. The hydrolysis time had no effect on AHE, reducing sugar and total sugar. The maximum reducing sugars of each concentration were at hydrolysis time 45 min .The hydrolysated were analysis by HPLC, the results revealed that the principle of sugar were glucose, fructose and xylose.

Keywords: acid hydrolysis efficiency (AHE), reducing sugar, total sugar

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2133 Mathematical Simulation of Acid Concentration Effects during Acid Nitric Leaching of Cobalt from a Mixed Cobalt-Copper Oxide

Authors: Ek Ngoy, A F Mulaba-Bafubiandi

Abstract:

Cobalt was acid nitric leached from a mixed cobaltcopper oxide with variable acid concentration. Resulting experimental data were used to analyze effects of increase in acid concentration, based on a shrinking core model of the process. The mathematical simulation demonstrated that the time rate of the dissolution mechanism is an increasing function of acid concentration. It was also shown that the magnitude of the acid concentration effect is time dependent and the increase in acid concentration is more effective at earlier stage of the dissolution than at later stage. The remaining process parameters are comprehensively affected by acid concentration and their interaction is synergetic.

Keywords: Acid effect, Cobalt, Cobalt-copper oxide, Leaching, Simulation

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2132 Multivariable Predictive PID Control for Quadruple Tank

Authors: Qamar Saeed, Vali Uddin, Reza Katebi

Abstract:

In this paper multivariable predictive PID controller has been implemented on a multi-inputs multi-outputs control problem i.e., quadruple tank system, in comparison with a simple multiloop PI controller. One of the salient feature of this system is an adjustable transmission zero which can be adjust to operate in both minimum and non-minimum phase configuration, through the flow distribution to upper and lower tanks in quadruple tank system. Stability and performance analysis has also been carried out for this highly interactive two input two output system, both in minimum and non-minimum phases. Simulations of control system revealed that better performance are obtained in predictive PID design.

Keywords: Proportional-integral-derivative Control, GeneralizedPredictive Control, Predictive PID Control, Multivariable Systems

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2131 Effect of Concentration of Sodium Borohydrate on the Synthesis of Silicon Nanoparticles via Microemulsion Route

Authors: W. L. Liong, Srimala Sreekantan, Sabar D. Hutagalung

Abstract:

The effect of concentration of reduction agent of sodium borohydrate (NaBH4) on the properties of silicon nanoparticles synthesized via microemulsion route is reported. In this work, the concentration of the silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) that served as silicon source with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) as stabilizer and surfactant, respectively, are keep fixed. Four samples with varied concentration of NaBH4 from 0.05 M to 0.20 M were synthesized. It was found that the lowest concentration of NaBH4 gave better formation of silicon nanoparticles.

Keywords: Microelmusion, nanoparticles, reduction, silicon

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2130 Effectiveness of the Flavonoids Isolated from Thymus inodorus by Different Solvents against Some Pathogenis Microorganisms

Authors: N. Behidj, K. Benyounes, T. Dahmane, A. Allem

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of flavonoids isolated from the aerial part of a medicinal plant which is Thymus inodorusby the middle agar diffusion method on following microorganisms. We have Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, AspergillusNiger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans. During this study, flavonoids extracted by stripping with steam are performed. The yields of flavonoids is 7.242% for the aqueous extract and 28.86% for butanol extract, 29.875% for the extract of ethyl acetate and 22.9% for the extract of di - ethyl. The evaluation of the antibacterial effect shows that the diameter of the zone of inhibition varies from one microorganism to another. The operation values obtained show that the bacterial strain P fluoresces, and 3 yeasts and molds; A. Niger, A. fumigatus and C. albicansare the most resistant. But it is noted that, S. aureus is shown more sensitive to crude extracts, the stock solution and the various dilutions. Finally for the minimum inhibitory concentration is estimated only with the crude extract of Thymus inodorus flavonoid.Indeed, these extracts inhibit the growth of Gram + bacteria at a concentration varying between 0.5% and 1%. While for bacteria to Gram -, it is limited to a concentration of 0.5%.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, flavonoids, strains, Thymus inodorus.

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2129 Extracellular Protein Secreted by Bacillus subtilis ATCC21332 in the Presence of Streptomycin Sulfate

Authors: Hanina M. N., Hairul Shahril M., Ismatul Nurul Asyikin I., Abdul Jalil A. K., Salina M. R., Maryam M. R., Rosfarizan M.

Abstract:

The extracellular proteins secreted by bacteria may be increased in stressful surroundings, such as in the presence of antibiotics. It appears that many antibiotics, when used at low concentrations, have in common the ability to activate or repress gene transcription, which is distinct from their inhibitory effect. There have been comparatively few studies on the potential of antibiotics as a specific chemical signal that can trigger a variety of biological functions. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the effect of Streptomycin Sulfate in regulating extracellular proteins secreted by Bacillus subtilis ATCC21332. Results of Microdilution assay showed that the Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) of Streptomycin Sulfate on B. subtilis ATCC21332 was 2.5 mg/ml. The bacteria cells were then exposed to Streptomycin Sulfate at concentration of 0.01 MIC before being further incubated for 48h to 72 h. The extracellular proteins secreted were then isolated and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Proteins profile revealed that three additional bands with approximate sizes of 30 kDa, 22 kDa and 23 kDa were appeared for the treated bacteria with Streptomycin Sulfate. Thus, B. subtilis ATCC21332 in stressful condition with the presence of Streptomycin Sulfate at low concentration could induce the extracellular proteins secretion.

Keywords: Bacillus subtilis ATCC21332, Streptomycin Sulfate, extracellular proteins.

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