Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 283

Search results for: ZnO nano and microstructures

283 High Optical Properties and Rectifying Behavior of ZnO (Nano and Microstructures)/Si Heterostructures

Authors: Ramin Yousefi, Muhamad. Rasat. Muhamad

Abstract:

We investigated a modified thermal evaporation method in the growth process of ZnO nanowires. ZnO nanowires were fabricated on p-type silicon substrates without using a metal catalyst. A simple horizontal double-tube system along with chemical vapor diffusion of the precursor was used to grow the ZnO nanowires. The substrates were placed in different temperature zones, and ZnO nanowires with different diameters were obtained for the different substrate temperatures. In addition to the nanowires, ZnO microdiscs with different diameters were obtained on another substrate, which was placed at a lower temperature than the other substrates. The optical properties and crystalline quality of the ZnO nanowires and microdiscs were characterized by room temperature photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectrometers. The PL and Raman studies demonstrated that the ZnO nanowires and microdiscs grown using such set-up had good crystallinity with excellent optical properties. Rectifying behavior of ZnO/Si heterostructures was characterized by a simple DC circuit.

Keywords: ZnO nano and microstructures, Photoluminescence, Raman, Rectifying behavior.

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282 Investigation of Electrical, Thermal and Structural Properties on Polyacrylonitrile Nano-Fiber

Authors: N. Demirsoy, N. Uçar, A. Önen, N. Kızıldağ, Ö. F. Vurur, O. Eren, İ. Karacan

Abstract:

Polymer composite nano-fibers including (1, 3 wt %) silver nano-particles have been produced by electrospinning method. Polyacrylonitrile/N,N-dimethylformamide (PAN/DMF) solution have been prepared and the amount of silver nitrate have been adjusted to PAN weight. Silver nano-particles were obtained from reduction of silver ions into silver nano-particles by chemical reduction by hydrazine hydroxide (N2H5OH). The different amount of silver salt was loaded into polymer matrix to obtain polyacrylonitrile composite nano-fiber containing silver nano-particles. The effect of the amount of silver nano-particles on the properties of composite nano-fiber web was investigated. Electrical conductivity, mechanical properties, thermal properties were examined by Microtest LCR Meter 6370 (0.01 mΩ-100 MΩ), Tensile tester, Differential scanning calorimeter DSC (Q10) and SEM respectively. Also antimicrobial efficiency test (ASTM E2149-10) was done against to Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. It has been seen that breaking strength, conductivity, antimicrobial effect, enthalpy during cyclization increase by use of silver nano-particles while the diameter of nano-fiber decreases.

Keywords: Composite polyacrylonitrile nano-fiber, electrical conductivity, electrospinning, mechanical and thermal properties, silver nano-particles.

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281 Calcination Temperature of Nano MgO Effect on Base Transesterification of Palm Oil

Authors: Abdul Rahim Yacob, Mohd Khairul Asyraf Amat Mustajab, Nur Syazeila Samadi

Abstract:

Nano MgO has been synthesized by hydration and dehydration method by modifies the commercial MgO. The prepared MgO had been investigated as a heterogeneous base catalyst for transesterification process for biodiesel production using palm oil. TGA, FT-IR and XRD results obtained from this study lie each other and proved in the formation of nano MgO from decomposition of Mg(OH)2. This study proved that the prepared nano MgO was a better base transesterification catalyst compared to commercial MgO. The nano MgO calcined at 600ºC had gives the highest conversion of 51.3% of palm oil to biodiesel.

Keywords: Hydration-dehydration method, nano MgO, transesterification, biodiesel.

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280 Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil over TiO2 Supported nano-ZnO

Authors: Mbala Mukenga, Edison Muzenda, Kalala Jalama, Reinout Meijboom

Abstract:

TiO2 supported nano-ZnO catalyst was prepared by deposition-precipitation and tested for the trans-esterification reaction of soybean oil to biodiesel. The TiO2 support stabilized the nano-ZnO in a dispersed form with limited crystallite size compared to the unsupported ZnO. The final ZnO dispersion and crystallite size and the material transfer resistance in the catalyst significantly influenced the supported nano-ZnO catalyst performance.

Keywords: nano-ZnO, soybean oil, TiO2, trans-esterification

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279 Toxicity Test of Ag+, Nano-Ag0 and Nano- Ag2O Using Green Algae (Chlorella sp.) and Water Flea (Moina macrocopa)

Authors: M. Yoo-iam, R. Chaichana, T. Satapanaiaru

Abstract:

The research objective was to study the toxicity of silver nanoparticles in aquatic organisms. Three forms of free silver ion nanoparticles (Ag+), silver nano particles (nano-Ag0) and silver oxide nanoparticles (nano Ag2O) were examined for toxic effects with Chlorella sp. and Moina macrocopa. The results showed that the toxicity of three silver ion forms to both organisms was examined

Keywords: Chlorella sp, moina nanomacrocopa, silver nanoparticles, toxicity

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278 Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide in Terms of Scrubbing Techniques using Silver Nano-Particles

Authors: SeungKyu Shin, Jeong Hyub Ha, Sung Han, JiHyeon Song

Abstract:

Silver nano-particles have been used for antibacterial purpose and it is also believed to have removal of odorous compounds, oxidation capacity as a metal catalyst. In this study, silver nano-particles in nano sizes (5-30 nm) were prepared on the surface of NaHCO3, the supporting material, using a sputtering method that provided high silver content and minimized conglomerating problems observed in the common AgNO3 photo-deposition method. The silver nano-particles were dispersed by dissolving Ag-NaHCO3 into water, and the dispersed silver nano-particles in the aqueous phase were applied to remove inorganic odor compounds, H2S, in a scrubbing reactor. Hydrogen sulfide in the gas phase was rapidly removed by the silver nano-particles, and the concentration of sulfate (SO4 2-) ion increased with time due to the oxidation reaction by silver as a catalyst. Consequently, the experimental results demonstrated that the silver nano-particles in the aqueous solution can be successfully applied to remove odorous compounds without adding additional energy sources and producing any harmful byproducts

Keywords: Silver nano-particles, Scrubbing, Oxidation, Hydrogen sulfide, Ammonia

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277 Synthesis and Characterization of Surface Functionalized Nanobiocomposite by Nano Hydroxyapatite

Authors: M. Meskinfam , M. S. Sadjadi , H. Jazdarreh

Abstract:

In this study, synthesis of biomemitic patterned nano hydroxyapatite-starch biocomposites using different concentration of starch to evaluate effect of polymer alteration on biocomposites structural properties has been reported. Formation of hydroxyapatite nano particles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Size and morphology of the samples were characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). It seems that by increasing starch content, the more active site of polymer (oxygen atoms) can be provided for interaction with Ca2+ followed by phosphate and hydroxyl group.

Keywords: Biocomposite, Biomimetic, Nano hydroxyapatite, Starch

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276 A Review on Natural Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites

Authors: C. W. Nguong, S. N. B. Lee, D. Sujan

Abstract:

Renewable natural fibres such as oil palm, flax, and pineapple leaf can be utilized to obtain new high performance polymer materials. The reuse of waste natural fibres as reinforcement for polymer is a sustainable option to the environment. However, due to its high hydroxyl content of cellulose, natural fibres are susceptible to absorb water that affects the composite mechanical properties adversely. Research found that Nano materials such as Nano Silica Carbide (n-SiC) and Nano Clay can be added into the polymer composite to overcome this problem by enhancing its mechanical properties in wet condition. The addition of Nano material improves the tensile and wear properties, flexural stressstrain behaviour, fracture toughness, and fracture strength of polymer natural composites in wet and dry conditions.

Keywords: Natural fibres, Nano Silica Carbide, Nano Clay, Wet Condition, Polymer Composites.

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275 Effect of Nanofibers on the Behavior of Cement Mortar and Concrete

Authors: Mostafa Osman, Ata El-kareim Shoeib

Abstract:

The main objective of this paper is study the influence of carbon nano-tubes fibers and nano silica fibers on the characteristic compressive strength and flexural strength on concrete and cement mortar. Twelve tested specimens were tested with square section its dimensions (4040 160) mm, divided into four groups. The first and second group studied the effect of carbon nano-tubes (CNTs) fibers with different percentage equal to 0.0, 0.11%, 0.22%, and 0.33% by weight of cement and effect of nano-silica (nS) fibers with different percentages equal to 0.0, 1.0%, 2.0%, and 3.0% by weight of cement on the cement mortar. The third and fourth groups studied the effect of CNTs fiber with different percentage equal to 0.0%, 0.11%, and 0.22% by weight of cement, and effect of nS fibers with different percentages were equal to 0.0%, 1.0%, and 2.0% by weight of cement on the concrete. The compressive strength and flexural strength at 7, 28, and 90 days is determined. From analysis of tested results concluded that the nano-fibers is more effective when used with cement mortar more than used with concrete because of increasing the surface area, decreasing the pore and the collection of nano-fibers. And also by adding nano-fibers the improvement of flexural strength of concrete and cement mortar is more than improvement of compressive strength.

Keywords: Carbon nano-tubes fibers, nano-silica (nS) fibers, compressive strength, flexural.

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274 Nano-Alumina Sulfuric Acid: An Efficient Catalyst for the Synthesis of α-Aminonitriles Derivatives

Authors: Abbas Teimouri, Alireza Najafi Chermahini, Leila Ghorbanian

Abstract:

An efficient and green protocol for the synthesis of α- aminonitriles derivatives by one-pot reaction of different aldehydes with amines and trimethylsilyl cyanides has been developed using natural alumina, alumina sulfuric acid (ASA), nano-γ-alumina, nanoalumina sulfuric acid (nano-ASA) under microwave irradiation and solvent-free conditions. The advantages of methods are short reaction times, high yields, milder conditions and easy work up. The catalysts can be recovered for the subsequent reactions and reused without any appreciable loss of efficiency.

Keywords: Nano-γ-alumina, nano-alumina sulfuric acid, green synthesis, microwave irradiation, α-aminonitriles derivatives.

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273 GGE-Biplot Analysis of Nano-Titanium Dioxide and Nano-Silica Effects on Sunflower

Authors: Naser Sabaghnia, Mohsen Janmohammadi, Mehdi Mohebodini

Abstract:

Present investigation is performed to evaluate the effects of foliar application of salicylic acid, glycine betaine, ascorbic acid, nano-silica, and nano-titanium dioxide on sunflower. Results showed that the first two principal components were sufficient to create a two-dimensional treatment by trait biplot, and such biplot accounted percentages of 49% and 19%, respectively of the interaction between traits and treatments. The vertex treatments of polygon were ascorbic acid, glycine betaine, nano-TiO2, and control indicated that high performance in some important traits consists of number of days to seed maturity, number of seeds per head, number heads per single plant, hundred seed weight, seed length, seed yield performance, and oil content. Treatments suitable for obtaining the high seed yield were identified in the vector-view function of biplot and displayed nano-silica and nano titanium dioxide as the best treatments suitable for obtaining of high seed yield.

Keywords: Drought stress, nano-silicon dioxide, oil content, TiO2 nanoparticles.

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272 Effect of Nano-SiO2 Solution on the Strength Characteristics of Kaolinite

Authors: Reza Ziaie Moayed, Hamidreza Rahmani

Abstract:

Today, with developments in science and technology, there is an excessive potential for the use of nanomaterials in various fields of geotechnical project such as soil stabilization. This study investigates the effect of Nano-SiO2 solution on the unconfined compression strength and Young's elastic modulus of Kaolinite. For this purpose, nano-SiO2 was mixed with kaolinite in five different contents: 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% by weight of the dry soil and a series of the unconfined compression test with curing time of one-day was selected as laboratory test. Analyses of the tests results show that stabilization of kaolinite with Nano-SiO2 solution can improve effectively the unconfined compression strength of modified soil up to 1.43 times compared to  the pure soil.

Keywords: Kaolinite, nano-SiO2, stabilization, unconfined compression test, Young's modulus.

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271 Effect of Nano-Silver on Growth of Saffron in Flooding Stress

Authors: N. Rezvani, A. Sorooshzadeh, N. Farhadi

Abstract:

Saffron (Crocus sativus) is cultivated as spices, medicinal and aromatic plant species. At autumn season, heavy rainfall can cause flooding stress and inhibits growth of saffron. Thus this research was conducted to study the effect of silver ion (as an ethylene inhibitor) on growth of saffron under flooding conditions. The corms of saffron were soaked with one concentration of nano silver (0, 40, 80 or 120 ppm) and then planting under flooding stress or non flooding stress conditions. Results showed that number of roots, root length, root fresh and dry weight, leaves fresh and dry weight were reduced by 10 day flooding stress. Soaking saffron corms with 40 or 80 ppm concentration of nano silver rewarded the effect of flooding stress on the root number, by increasing it. Furthermore, 40 ppm of nano silver increased root length in stress. Nano silver 80 ppm in flooding stress, increased leaves dry weight.

Keywords: Flooding stress, Nano-silver, Saffron.

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270 The Improvement of 28-day Compressive Strength of Self Compacting Concrete Made by Different Percentages of Recycled Concrete Aggregates using Nano-Silica

Authors: S. Salkhordeh, P. Golbazi, H. Amini

Abstract:

In this study two series of self compacting concrete mixtures were prepared with 100% coarse recycled concrete aggregates and different percentages of 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% fine recycled concrete aggregates. In series I and II the water to binder ratios were 0.50 and 0.45, respectively. The cement content was kept 350 3 m kg for those mixtures that don't have any Nano-Silica. To improve the compressive strength of samples, Nano- Silica replaced with 10% of cement weight in concrete mixtures. By doing the tests, the results showed that, adding Nano-silica to the samples with less percentage of fine recycled concrete aggregates, lead to more increase on the compressive strength.

Keywords: Compressive Strength, Nano-Silica, RecycledConcrete Aggregates, Self Compacting Concrete.

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269 Comparative Studies of the Effects of Microstructures on the Corrosion Behavior of Micro-Alloyed Steels in Unbuffered 3.5 Wt% NaCl Saturated with CO2

Authors: Lawrence I. Onyeji, Girish M. Kale, M. Bijan Kermani

Abstract:

Corrosion problem which exists in every stage of oil and gas production has been a great challenge to the operators in the industry. The conventional carbon steel with all its inherent advantages has been adjudged susceptible to the aggressive corrosion environment of oilfield. This has aroused increased interest in the use of micro alloyed steels for oil and gas production and transportation. The corrosion behavior of three commercially supplied micro alloyed steels designated as A, B, and C have been investigated with API 5L X65 as reference samples. Electrochemical corrosion tests were conducted in an unbuffered 3.5 wt% NaCl solution saturated with CO2 at 30 0C for 24 hours. Pre-corrosion analyses revealed that samples A, B and X65 consist of ferrite-pearlite microstructures but with different grain sizes, shapes and distribution whereas sample C has bainitic microstructure with dispersed acicular ferrites. The results of the electrochemical corrosion tests showed that within the experimental conditions, the corrosion rate of the samples can be ranked as CR(A)< CR(X65)< CR(B)< CR(C). These results are attributed to difference in microstructures of the samples as depicted by ASTM grain size number in accordance with ASTM E112-12 Standard and ferrite-pearlite volume fractions determined by ImageJ Fiji grain size analysis software.

Keywords: Carbon dioxide corrosion, corrosion behavior, micro-alloyed steel, microstructures.

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268 Study of the Effects of Ceramic Nano-Pigments in Cement Mortar Corrosion Caused by Chlorine Ions

Authors: R. Moradpour, S.B. Ahmadi, T. Parhizkar, M. Ghodsian, E. Taheri-Nassaj

Abstract:

Superfine pigments that consist of natural and artificial pigments and are made of mineral soil with special characteristics are used in cementitious materials for various purposes. These pigments can decrease the amount of cement needed without loss of performance and strength and also change the monotonous and turbid colours of concrete into various attractive and light colours. In this study, the mechanical strength and resistance against chloride and halogen attacks of cement mortars containing ceramic nano-pigments in an affected environment are studied. This research suggests utilisation of ceramic nano-pigments between 50 and 1000 nm, obtaining full-depth coloured concrete, preventing chlorine penetration in the concrete up to a certain depth, and controlling corrosion in steel rebar with the Potentiostat (EG&G) apparatus.

Keywords: Nano-structures, Corrosion, Mechanical properties, Nano-pigments.

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267 Effects of Formic Acid on the Chemical State and Morphology of As-synthesized and Annealed ZnO Films

Authors: Chueh-Jung Huang, Chia-Hung Li, Hsueh-Lung Wang, Tsun-Nan Lin

Abstract:

Zinc oxide thin films with various microstructures were grown on substrates by using HCOOH-sols. The reaction mechanism of the sol system was investigated by performing an XPS analysis of as-synthesized films, due to the products of hydrolysis and condensation in the sol system contributing to the chemical state of the as-synthesized films. The chemical structures of the assynthesized films related to the microstructures of the final annealed films were also studied. The results of the Zn 2p3/2, C 1s and O1s XPS patterns indicate that the hydrolysis reaction in the sol system is strongly influenced by the HCOOH agent. The results of XRD and FE-SEM demonstrated the microstructures of the annealed films are related to the content of hydrolyzed zinc hydrate (Zn-OH) species present, and that content of the Zn-OH species in the sol system increases the HCOOH adding, and these Zn-OH species existing in the sol phase are responsible for large ZnO crystallites in the final annealed films.

Keywords: zinc oxide, hydrolysis catalyst, zinc acetate source, formic acid.

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266 Feasibility Investigation of Near Infrared Spectrometry for Particle Size Estimation of Nano Structures

Authors: A. Bagheri Garmarudi, M. Khanmohammadi, N. Khoddami, K. Shabani

Abstract:

Determination of nano particle size is substantial since the nano particle size exerts a significant effect on various properties of nano materials. Accordingly, proposing non-destructive, accurate and rapid techniques for this aim is of high interest. There are some conventional techniques to investigate the morphology and grain size of nano particles such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Vibrational spectroscopy is utilized to characterize different compounds and applied for evaluation of the average particle size based on relationship between particle size and near infrared spectra [1,4] , but it has never been applied in quantitative morphological analysis of nano materials. So far, the potential application of nearinfrared (NIR) spectroscopy with its ability in rapid analysis of powdered materials with minimal sample preparation, has been suggested for particle size determination of powdered pharmaceuticals. The relationship between particle size and diffuse reflectance (DR) spectra in near infrared region has been applied to introduce a method for estimation of particle size. Back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) as a nonlinear model was applied to estimate average particle size based on near infrared diffuse reflectance spectra. Thirty five different nano TiO2 samples with different particle size were analyzed by DR-FTNIR spectrometry and the obtained data were processed by BP- ANN.

Keywords: near infrared, particle size, chemometrics, neuralnetwork, nano structure.

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265 Nanoindentation of Thin Films Prepared by Physical Vapor Deposition

Authors: Dhiflaoui Hafedh, Khlifi Kaouthar, Ben Cheikh Larbi Ahmed

Abstract:

These Monolayer and multilayer coatings of CrN and AlCrN deposited on 100Cr6 (AISI 52100) substrate by PVD magnetron sputtering system. The microstructures of the coatings were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM analysis revealed the presence of domes and craters that are uniformly distributed over all surfaces of the various layers. Nanoindentation measurement of CrN coating showed maximum hardness (H) and modulus (E) of 14 GPa and 190 GPa, respectively. The measured H and E values of AlCrN coatings were found to be 30 GPa and 382 GPa, respectively. The improved hardness in both the coatings was attributed mainly to a reduction in crystallite size and decrease in surface roughness. The incorporation of Al into the CrN coatings has improved both hardness and Young’s modulus.

Keywords: CrN/AlCrN, coatings, hardness, nano-indentation.

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264 S-S Coupling of Thiols to Disulfides Using Ionic Liquid in the Presence of Free Nano-Fe2O3 Catalyst

Authors: Askar Sabet, Abdolrasoul Fakhraee, Motahahre Ramezanpour, Noorallah Alipour

Abstract:

An efficient and green method for oxidation of thiols to the corresponding disulfides is reported using ionic liquid [HSO3N(C2H4OSO3H)3] in the presence of free nano-Fe2O3 at 60°C. Ionic liquid is selective oxidant for S-S Coupling variety aliphatic and aromatic of thiols to corresponding disulfide in the presence of free nano-Fe2O3 as recoverable catalyst. Reaction has been performed in methanol as an inexpensive solvent. This reaction is clean and easy work-up with no side reaction.

Keywords: Thiol, Disulfide, Ionic liquid, Free Nano-Fe2O3, Oxidation, Coupling.

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263 Influence of Nano-ATH on Electrical Performance of LSR for HVDC Insulation

Authors: Ju-Na Hwang, Yong-Jun Park, Min-Hae Park, Kee-Joe Lim

Abstract:

Many studies have been conducted on DC transmission. Of power apparatus for DC transmission, high voltage direct current (HVDC) cable systems are being evaluated because of the increase in power demand and transmission distance. Therefore, dc insulation characteristics of liquid silicone rubber (LSR), which has various advantages such as short curing time and the ease of maintenance, were investigated to assess its performance as a HVDC insulation material for cable joints. The electrical performance of LSR added to nano-aluminum trihydrate (ATH) were confirmed by measurements of the breakdown strength and electrical conductivity. In addition, field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) was used as a means of confirmation of nanofiller dispersion state. The LSR nanocomposite was prepared by compounding LSR filled nano-sized ATH filler. The dc insulation properties of LSR added to nano-sized ATH fillers were found to be superior to those of the LSR without a filler. 

Keywords: Liquid silicone rubber, Nanocomposite, Nano-ATH, HVDC insulation, Cable joints.

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262 Novel Design of Quantum Dot Arrays to Enhance Near-Fields Excitation Resonances

Authors: N. H. Ismail, A. A. A. Nassar, K. H. Baz

Abstract:

Semiconductor crystals smaller than about 10 nm, known as quantum dots, have properties that differ from large samples, including a band gap that becomes larger for smaller particles. These properties create several applications for quantum dots. In this paper new shapes of quantum dot arrays are used to enhance the photo physical properties of gold nano-particles. This paper presents a study of the effect of nano-particles shape, array, and size on their absorption characteristics.

Keywords: Quantum Dots, Nano-Particles, LSPR.

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261 Overall Effect of Nano Clay on the Physical Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Resin

Authors: Alireza BozorgianÏî Navid Majdi Nasab, Hassan Mirzazadeh

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of modified clay on the mechanical efficiency of epoxy resin is examined. Studies by X ray diffraction and microscopic transient electron method show that modified clay distribution in polymer area is intercalated kind. Examination the results of mechanical tests shows that existence of modified clay in epoxy area increases pressure yield strength, tension module and nano composite fracture toughness in relate of pure epoxy. By microscopic examinations it is recognized too that the action of toughness growth of this kind of nano composite is due to crack deflection, formation of new surfaces and fracture of clay piles.

Keywords: Nano clay, Epoxy, Toughness, Composite

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260 Biodiesel Production over nano-MgO Supported on Titania

Authors: Liberty L Mguni, Reinout Meijboom, Kalala Jalama

Abstract:

Nano-MgO was successfully deposited on titania using deposition-precipitation method. The catalyst produced was characterised using FTIR, XRD, BET and XRF and its activity was tested on the transesterification reaction of soybean oil to biodiesel. The catalyst activity improved when the reaction temperature was increasedfrom 150 and 225 OC. It was also observed that increasing the reaction time above 1h had no significant benefit on conversion. The stability fixed MgO on TiO2 was investigated using XRF and ICP-OES. It was observed that MgO loss during the reaction was between 0.5-2.3 percent and that there was no correlation between the reaction temperature and the MgO loss.

Keywords: Nano-MgO, TiO2, transesterification

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259 Dynamic Response of Nano Spherical Shell Subjected to Termo-Mechanical Shock Using Nonlocal Elasticity Theory

Authors: J. Ranjbarn, A. Alibeigloo

Abstract:

In this paper, we present an analytical method for analysis of nano-scale spherical shell subjected to thermo-mechanical shocks based on nonlocal elasticity theory. Thermo-mechanical properties of nano shpere is assumed to be temperature dependent. Governing partial differential equation of motion is solved analytically by using Laplace transform for time domain and power series for spacial domain. The results in Laplace domain is transferred to time domain by employing the fast inverse Laplace transform (FLIT) method. Accuracy of present approach is assessed by comparing the the numerical results with the results of published work in literature. Furtheremore, the effects of non-local parameter and wall thickness on the dynamic characteristics of the nano-sphere are studied.

Keywords: Nano-scale spherical shell, nonlocal elasticity theory, thermomechanical shock.

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258 Dielectric Studies on Nano Zirconium Dioxide Synthesized through Co-Precipitation Process

Authors: K. Geethalakshmi, T. Prabhakaran, J. Hemalatha

Abstract:

Nano sized zirconium dioxide in monoclinic phase (m-ZrO2) has been synthesized in pure form through co-precipitation processing at different calcination temperatures and has been characterized by several techniques such as XRD, FT-IR, UV-Vis Spectroscopy and SEM. The dielectric and capacitance values of the pelletized samples have been examined at room temperature as the functions of frequency. The higher dielectric constant value of the sample having larger grain size proves the strong influence of grain size on the dielectric constant.

Keywords: capacitance, dielectric constant, m-ZrO2, nano zirconia

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257 Desalination of Salt Water by Collision with Surface Coated with Nano Particles

Authors: Hesham Muhammad Ibrahim

Abstract:

This paper introduces and proves new concept of salt dissolving in water as very tiny solid sodium chloride particles of nanovolumes, from this point of view salt water can be desalinated by collision with special surface characterized by smoothness upon nano level, high rigidity, high hardness under appropriate conditions of water launching in the form of thin laminar flow under suitable speed and angle of incidence to get desalinated water.

Keywords: Desalination by collision, nano coating, water desalination, water repellent surface.

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256 Behavior of Cu-WC-Ti Metal Composite Afterusing Planetary Ball Milling

Authors: A.T.Z. Mahamat, A.M. A Rani, Patthi Husain

Abstract:

Copper based composites reinforced with WC and Ti particles were prepared using planetary ball-mill. The experiment was designed by using Taguchi technique and milling was carried out in an air for several hours. The powder was characterized before and after milling using the SEM, TEM and X-ray for microstructure and for possible new phases. Microstructures show that milled particles size and reduction in particle size depend on many parameters. The distance d between planes of atoms estimated from X-ray powder diffraction data and TEM image. X-ray diffraction patterns of the milled powder did not show clearly any new peak or energy shift, but the TEM images show a significant change in crystalline structure of corporate on titanium in the composites.

Keywords: ball milling, microstructures, titanium, tungstencarbides, X-ray

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255 The Thermal Properties of Nano Magnesium Hydroxide Blended with LDPE/EVA/Irganox1010 for Insulator Application

Authors: Ahmad Aroziki Abdul Aziz, Sakinah Mohd Alauddin, Ruzitah Mohd Salleh, Mohammed Iqbal Shueb

Abstract:

This paper illustrates the effect of nano Magnesium Hydroxide (MH) loading on the thermal properties of Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE)/Poly (ethylene-co vinyl acetate) (EVA) nano composite. Thermal studies were conducted, as it understanding is vital for preliminary development of new polymeric systems. Thermal analysis of nanocomposite was conducted using thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Major finding of TGA indicated two main stages of degradation process found at (350 ± 25oC) and (480 ± 25oC) respectively. Nano metal filler expressed better fire resistance as it stand over high degree of temperature. Furthermore, DSC analysis provided a stable glass temperature around 51 (±1oC) and captured double melting point at 84 (±2oC) and 108 (±2oC). This binary melting point reflects the modification of nano filler to the polymer matrix forming melting crystals of folded and extended chain. The percent crystallinity of the samples grew vividly with increasing filler content. Overall, increasing the filler loading improved the degradation temperature and weight loss evidently and a better process and phase stability was captured in DSC.

Keywords: Cable and Wire, LDPE/EVA, Nano MH, Nano Particles, Thermal properties.

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254 Tailoring of ECSS Standard for Space Qualification Test of CubeSat Nano-Satellite

Authors: B. Tiseo, V. Quaranta, G. Bruno, G. Sisinni

Abstract:

There is an increasing demand of nano-satellite development among universities, small companies, and emerging countries. Low-cost and fast-delivery are the main advantages of such class of satellites achieved by the extensive use of commercial-off-the-shelf components. On the other side, the loss of reliability and the poor success rate are limiting the use of nano-satellite to educational and technology demonstration and not to the commercial purpose. Standardization of nano-satellite environmental testing by tailoring the existing test standard for medium/large satellites is then a crucial step for their market growth. Thus, it is fundamental to find the right trade-off between the improvement of reliability and the need to keep their low-cost/fast-delivery advantages. This is particularly even more essential for satellites of CubeSat family. Such miniaturized and standardized satellites have 10 cm cubic form and mass no more than 1.33 kilograms per 1 unit (1U). For this class of nano-satellites, the qualification process is mandatory to reduce the risk of failure during a space mission. This paper reports the description and results of the space qualification test campaign performed on Endurosat’s CubeSat nano-satellite and modules. Mechanical and environmental tests have been carried out step by step: from the testing of the single subsystem up to the assembled CubeSat nano-satellite. Functional tests have been performed during all the test campaign to verify the functionalities of the systems. The test duration and levels have been selected by tailoring the European Space Agency standard ECSS-E-ST-10-03C and GEVS: GSFC-STD-7000A.

Keywords: CubeSat, Nano-satellite, shock, testing, vibration.

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