Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 484

Search results for: localization and mapping

484 Indoor Localization by Pattern Matching Method Based On Extended Database

Authors: Gyumin Hwang, Jihong Lee

Abstract:

This paper studied the CSS-based indoor localization system which is easy to implement, inexpensive to compose the systems, additionally CSS-based indoor localization system covers larger area than other system. However, this system has problem which is affected by reflected distance data. This problem in localization is caused by the multi-path effect. Error caused by multi-path is difficult to be corrected because the indoor environment cannot be described. In this paper, in order to solve the problem by multi-path, we have supplemented the localization system by using pattern matching method based on extended database. Thereby, this method improves precision of estimated. Also this method is verified by experiments in gymnasium. Database was constructed by 1m intervals, and 16 sample data were collected from random position inside the region of DB points. As a result, this paper shows higher accuracy than existing method through graph and table.

Keywords: Chirp Spread Spectrum (CSS), Indoor Localization, Pattern-Matching, Time of Arrival (ToA), Multi-Path, Mahalanobis Distance, Reception Rate, Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM), Laser Range Finder (LRF).

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483 Single-Camera EKF-vSLAM

Authors: ML. Benmessaoud, A. Lamrani, K. Nemra, AK. Souici

Abstract:

This paper presents an Extended Kaman Filter implementation of a single-camera Visual Simultaneous Localization and Mapping algorithm, a novel algorithm for simultaneous localization and mapping problem widely studied in mobile robotics field. The algorithm is vision and odometry-based, The odometry data is incremental, and therefore it will accumulate error over time, since the robot may slip or may be lifted, consequently if the odometry is used alone we can not accurately estimate the robot position, in this paper we show that a combination of odometry and visual landmark via the extended Kalman filter can improve the robot position estimate. We use a Pioneer II robot and motorized pan tilt camera models to implement the algorithm.

Keywords: Mobile Robot, Navigation, vSLAM, EKF, monocular.

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482 Localization for Indoor Service Robot Using Natural Landmark on the Ceiling

Authors: Seung-Hun Kim, Changwoo Park

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a localization of a mobile robot with localization modules which have two ceiling-view cameras in indoor environments. We propose two kinds of localization method. The one is the localization in the local space; we use the line feature and the corner feature between the ceiling and wall. The other is the localization in the large space; we use the natural features such as bulbs, structures on the ceiling. These methods are installed on the embedded module able to mount on the robot. The embedded module has two cameras to be able to localize in both the local space and the large spaces. The experiment is practiced in our indoor test-bed and a government office. The proposed method is proved by the experimental results.

Keywords: Robot, Localization, Indoor, Ceiling vision, Local space, Large space, Complex space.

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481 Enhanced Weighted Centroid Localization Algorithm for Indoor Environments

Authors: I. Nižetić Kosović, T. Jagušt

Abstract:

Lately, with the increasing number of location-based applications, demand for highly accurate and reliable indoor localization became urgent. This is a challenging problem, due to the measurement variance which is the consequence of various factors like obstacles, equipment properties and environmental changes in complex nature of indoor environments. In this paper we propose low-cost custom-setup infrastructure solution and localization algorithm based on the Weighted Centroid Localization (WCL) method. Localization accuracy is increased by several enhancements: calibration of RSSI values gained from wireless nodes, repetitive measurements of RSSI to exclude deviating values from the position estimation, and by considering orientation of the device according to the wireless nodes. We conducted several experiments to evaluate the proposed algorithm. High accuracy of ~1m was achieved.

Keywords: Indoor environment, received signal strength indicator, weighted centroid localization, wireless localization.

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480 Bug Localization on Single-Line Bugs of Apache Commons Math Library

Authors: Cherry Oo, Hnin Min Oo

Abstract:

Software bug localization is one of the most costly tasks in program repair technique. Therefore, there is a high claim for automated bug localization techniques that can monitor programmers to the locations of bugs, with slight human arbitration. Spectrum-based bug localization aims to help software developers to discover bugs rapidly by investigating abstractions of the program traces to make a ranking list of most possible buggy modules. Using the Apache Commons Math library project, we study the diagnostic accuracy using our spectrum-based bug localization metric. Our outcomes show that the greater performance of a specific similarity coefficient, used to inspect the program spectra, is mostly effective on localizing of single line bugs.

Keywords: Software testing, fault localization, program spectra.

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479 Robot Operating System-Based SLAM for a Gazebo-Simulated Turtlebot2 in 2d Indoor Environment with Cartographer Algorithm

Authors: Wilayat Ali, Li Sheng, Waleed Ahmed

Abstract:

The ability of the robot to make simultaneously map of the environment and localize itself with respect to that environment is the most important element of mobile robots. To solve SLAM many algorithms could be utilized to build up the SLAM process and SLAM is a developing area in Robotics research. Robot Operating System (ROS) is one of the frameworks which provide multiple algorithm nodes to work with and provide a transmission layer to robots. Manyof these algorithms extensively in use are Hector SLAM, Gmapping and Cartographer SLAM. This paper describes a ROS-based Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) library Google Cartographer mapping, which is open-source algorithm. The algorithm was applied to create a map using laser and pose data from 2d Lidar that was placed on a mobile robot. The model robot uses the gazebo package and simulated in Rviz. Our research work's primary goal is to obtain mapping through Cartographer SLAM algorithm in a static indoor environment. From our research, it is shown that for indoor environments cartographer is an applicable algorithm to generate 2d maps with LIDAR placed on mobile robot because it uses both odometry and poses estimation. The algorithm has been evaluated and maps are constructed against the SLAM algorithms presented by Turtlebot2 in the static indoor environment.

Keywords: SLAM, ROS, navigation, localization and mapping, Gazebo, Rviz, Turtlebot2, SLAM algorithms, 2d Indoor environment, Cartographer.

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478 Estimating Localization Network Node Positions with a Multi-Robot System

Authors: Mikko Elomaa, Aarne Halme

Abstract:

A novel method using bearing-only SLAM to estimate node positions of a localization network is proposed. A group of simple robots are used to estimate the position of each node. Each node has a unique ID, which it can communicate to a robot close by. Initially the node IDs and positions are unknown. A case example using RFID technology in the localization network is introduced.

Keywords: Localization network, Multi-robot, RFID, SLAM

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477 The Selection of the Nearest Anchor Using Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI)

Authors: Hichem Sassi, Tawfik Najeh, Noureddine Liouane

Abstract:

The localization information is crucial for the operation of WSN. There are principally two types of localization algorithms. The Range-based localization algorithm has strict requirements on hardware, thus is expensive to be implemented in practice. The Range-free localization algorithm reduces the hardware cost. However, it can only achieve high accuracy in ideal scenarios. In this paper, we locate unknown nodes by incorporating the advantages of these two types of methods. The proposed algorithm makes the unknown nodes select the nearest anchor using the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) and choose two other anchors which are the most accurate to achieve the estimated location. Our algorithm improves the localization accuracy compared with previous algorithms, which has been demonstrated by the simulating results.

Keywords: WSN, localization, DV-hop, RSSI.

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476 Multi-Criteria Spatial Analysis for the Localization of Production Structures. Analytic Hierarchy Process and Geographical Information Systems in the Case of Expanding an Industrial Area

Authors: Gianluigi De Mare, Pierluigi Morano, Antonio Nesticò

Abstract:

Among the numerous economic evaluation techniques currently available, Multi-criteria Spatial Analysis lends itself to solving localization problems of property complexes and, in particular, production plants. The methodology involves the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and the mapping overlay technique, which overlaps the different information layers of a territory in order to obtain an overview of the parameters that characterize it. This first phase is used to detect possible settlement surfaces of a new agglomeration, subsequently selected through Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), so as to choose the best alternative. The result ensures the synthesis of a multidimensional profile that expresses both the quantitative and qualitative effects. Each criterion can be given a different weight.

Keywords: Multi-criteria Spatial Analysis, Analytic Hierarchy Process, Geographical Information Systems, localization of industrial areas.

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475 Minimizing of Target Localization Error using Multi-robot System and Particle Filters

Authors: Jana Puchyova

Abstract:

In recent years a number of applications with multirobot systems (MRS) is growing in various areas. But their design is in practice often difficult and algorithms are proposed for the theoretical background and do not consider errors and noise in real conditions, so they are not usable in real environment. These errors are visible also in task of target localization enough, when robots try to find and estimate the position of the target by the sensors. Localization of target is possible also with one robot but as it was examined target finding and localization with group of mobile robots can estimate the target position more accurately and faster. The accuracy of target position estimation is made by cooperation of MRS and particle filtering. Advantage of usage the MRS with particle filtering was tested on task of fixed target localization by group of mobile robots.

Keywords: Multi-robot system, particle filter, position estimation, target localization.

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474 Robust Face Recognition using AAM and Gabor Features

Authors: Sanghoon Kim, Sun-Tae Chung, Souhwan Jung, Seoungseon Jeon, Jaemin Kim, Seongwon Cho

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a face recognition algorithm using AAM and Gabor features. Gabor feature vectors which are well known to be robust with respect to small variations of shape, scaling, rotation, distortion, illumination and poses in images are popularly employed for feature vectors for many object detection and recognition algorithms. EBGM, which is prominent among face recognition algorithms employing Gabor feature vectors, requires localization of facial feature points where Gabor feature vectors are extracted. However, localization method employed in EBGM is based on Gabor jet similarity and is sensitive to initial values. Wrong localization of facial feature points affects face recognition rate. AAM is known to be successfully applied to localization of facial feature points. In this paper, we devise a facial feature point localization method which first roughly estimate facial feature points using AAM and refine facial feature points using Gabor jet similarity-based facial feature localization method with initial points set by the rough facial feature points obtained from AAM, and propose a face recognition algorithm using the devised localization method for facial feature localization and Gabor feature vectors. It is observed through experiments that such a cascaded localization method based on both AAM and Gabor jet similarity is more robust than the localization method based on only Gabor jet similarity. Also, it is shown that the proposed face recognition algorithm using this devised localization method and Gabor feature vectors performs better than the conventional face recognition algorithm using Gabor jet similarity-based localization method and Gabor feature vectors like EBGM.

Keywords: Face Recognition, AAM, Gabor features, EBGM.

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473 A Selective 3-Anchor DV-Hop Algorithm Based On the Nearest Anchor for Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Hichem Sassi, Tawfik Najeh, Noureddine Liouane

Abstract:

Information of nodes’ locations is an important criterion for lots of applications in Wireless Sensor Networks. In the hop-based range-free localization methods, anchors transmit the localization messages counting a hop count value to the whole network. Each node receives this message and calculates its own distance with anchor in hops and then approximates its own position. However the estimative distances can provoke large error, and affect the localization precision. To solve the problem, this paper proposes an algorithm, which makes the unknown nodes fix the nearest anchor as a reference and select two other anchors which are the most accurate to achieve the estimated location. Compared to the DV-Hop algorithm, experiment results illustrate that proposed algorithm has less average localization error and is more effective.

Keywords: Wireless Sensors Networks, Localization problem, localization average error, DV–Hop Algorithm, MATLAB.

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472 On the Analysis of Localization Accuracy of Wireless Indoor Positioning Systems using Cramer's Rule

Authors: Kriangkrai Maneerat, Chutima Prommak

Abstract:

This paper presents an analysis of the localization accuracy of indoor positioning systems using Cramer-s rule via IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor networks. The objective is to study the impact of the methods used to convert the received signal strength into the distance that is used to compute the object location in the wireless indoor positioning system. Various methods were tested and the localization accuracy was analyzed. The experimental results show that the method based on the empirical data measured in the non line-of-sight (NLOS) environment yield the highest localization accuracy; with the minimum error distance less than 3 m.

Keywords: Indoor positioning systems, localization accuracy, wireless networks, Cramer's rule.

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471 On Leak Localization in the Main Branched and Simple Inclined Gas Pipelines

Authors: T. Davitashvili, G. Gubelidze

Abstract:

In this paper two mathematical models for definition of gas accidental escape localization in the gas pipelines are suggested. The first model was created for leak localization in the horizontal branched pipeline and second one for leak detection in inclined section of the main gas pipeline. The algorithm of leak localization in the branched pipeline did not demand on knowledge of corresponding initial hydraulic parameters at entrance and ending points of each sections of pipeline. For detection of the damaged section and then leak localization in this section special functions and equations have been constructed. Some results of calculations for compound pipelines having two, four and five sections are presented. Also a method and formula for the leak localization in the simple inclined section of the main gas pipeline are suggested. Some results of numerical calculations defining localization of gas escape for the inclined pipeline are presented.

Keywords: Branched and inclined gas pipelines, leak detection, mathematical modeling.

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470 Iris Localization using Circle and Fuzzy Circle Detection Method

Authors: Marzieh. Savoj, S. Amirhassan. Monadjemi

Abstract:

Iris localization is a very important approach in biometric identification systems. Identification process usually is implemented in three levels: iris localization, feature extraction, and pattern matching finally. Accuracy of iris localization as the first step affects all other levels and this shows the importance of iris localization in an iris based biometric system. In this paper, we consider Daugman iris localization method as a standard method, propose a new method in this field and then analyze and compare the results of them on a standard set of iris images. The proposed method is based on the detection of circular edge of iris, and improved by fuzzy circles and surface energy difference contexts. Implementation of this method is so easy and compared to the other methods, have a rather high accuracy and speed. Test results show that the accuracy of our proposed method is about Daugman method and computation speed of it is 10 times faster.

Keywords: Convolution, Edge detector filter, Fuzzy circle, Identification

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469 Novel Rao-Blackwellized Particle Filter for Mobile Robot SLAM Using Monocular Vision

Authors: Maohai Li, Bingrong Hong, Zesu Cai, Ronghua Luo

Abstract:

This paper presents the novel Rao-Blackwellised particle filter (RBPF) for mobile robot simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) using monocular vision. The particle filter is combined with unscented Kalman filter (UKF) to extending the path posterior by sampling new poses that integrate the current observation which drastically reduces the uncertainty about the robot pose. The landmark position estimation and update is also implemented through UKF. Furthermore, the number of resampling steps is determined adaptively, which seriously reduces the particle depletion problem, and introducing the evolution strategies (ES) for avoiding particle impoverishment. The 3D natural point landmarks are structured with matching Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) feature pairs. The matching for multi-dimension SIFT features is implemented with a KD-Tree in the time cost of O(log2 N). Experiment results on real robot in our indoor environment show the advantages of our methods over previous approaches.

Keywords: Mobile robot, simultaneous localization and mapping, Rao-Blackwellised particle filter, evolution strategies, scale invariant feature transform.

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468 Model of Obstacle Avoidance on Hard Disk Drive Manufacturing with Distance Constraint

Authors: Rawinun Praserttaweelap, Somyot Kiatwanidvilai

Abstract:

Obstacle avoidance is the one key for the robot system in unknown environment. The robots should be able to know their position and safety region. This research starts on the path planning which are SLAM and AMCL in ROS system. In addition, the best parameters of the obstacle avoidance function are required. In situation on Hard Disk Drive Manufacturing, the distance between robots and obstacles are very serious due to the manufacturing constraint. The simulations are accomplished by the SLAM and AMCL with adaptive velocity and safety region calculation.

Keywords: Obstacle avoidance, simultaneous localization and mapping, adaptive Monte Carlo localization, KLD sampling.

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467 An Energy Efficient Protocol for Target Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Shun-Kai Yang, Kuo-Feng Ssu

Abstract:

Target tracking and localization are important applications in wireless sensor networks. In these applications, sensor nodes collectively monitor and track the movement of a target. They have limited energy supplied by batteries, so energy efficiency is essential for sensor networks. Most existing target tracking protocols need to wake up sensors periodically to perform tracking. Some unnecessary energy waste is thus introduced. In this paper, an energy efficient protocol for target localization is proposed. In order to preserve energy, the protocol fixes the number of sensors for target tracking, but it retains the quality of target localization in an acceptable level. By selecting a set of sensors for target localization, the other sensors can sleep rather than periodically wake up to track the target. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol saves a significant amount of energy and also prolongs the network lifetime.

Keywords: Coverage, energy efficiency, target localization, wireless sensor network.

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466 Improvement over DV-Hop Localization Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Shrawan Kumar, D. K. Lobiyal

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose improved versions of DVHop algorithm as QDV-Hop algorithm and UDV-Hop algorithm for better localization without the need for additional range measurement hardware. The proposed algorithm focuses on third step of DV-Hop, first error terms from estimated distances between unknown node and anchor nodes is separated and then minimized. In the QDV-Hop algorithm, quadratic programming is used to minimize the error to obtain better localization. However, quadratic programming requires a special optimization tool box that increases computational complexity. On the other hand, UDV-Hop algorithm achieves localization accuracy similar to that of QDV-Hop by solving unconstrained optimization problem that results in solving a system of linear equations without much increase in computational complexity. Simulation results show that the performance of our proposed schemes (QDV-Hop and UDV-Hop) is superior to DV-Hop and DV-Hop based algorithms in all considered scenarios.

Keywords: Wireless sensor networks, Error term, DV-Hop algorithm, Localization.

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465 Quantum Localization of Vibrational Mirror in Cavity Optomechanics

Authors: Madiha Tariq, Hena Rabbani

Abstract:

Recently, cavity-optomechanics becomes an extensive research field that has manipulated the mechanical effects of light for coupling of the optical field with other physical objects specifically with regards to dynamical localization. We investigate the dynamical localization (both in momentum and position space) for a vibrational mirror in a Fabry-Pérot cavity driven by a single mode optical field and a transverse probe field. The weak probe field phenomenon results in classical chaos in phase space and spatio temporal dynamics in position |ψ(x)²| and momentum space |ψ(p)²| versus time show quantum localization in both momentum and position space. Also, we discuss the parametric dependencies of dynamical localization for a designated set of parameters to be experimentally feasible. Our work opens an avenue to manipulate the other optical phenomena and applicability of proposed work can be prolonged to turn-able laser sources in the future.

Keywords: Dynamical localization, cavity optomechanics, hamiltonian chaos, probe field.

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464 Range-Free Localization Schemes for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: R. Khadim, M. Erritali, A. Maaden

Abstract:

Localization of nodes is one of the key issues of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) that gained a wide attention in recent years. The existing localization techniques can be generally categorized into two types: range-based and range-free. Compared with rang-based schemes, the range-free schemes are more costeffective, because no additional ranging devices are needed. As a result, we focus our research on the range-free schemes. In this paper we study three types of range-free location algorithms to compare the localization error and energy consumption of each one. Centroid algorithm requires a normal node has at least three neighbor anchors, while DV-hop algorithm doesn’t have this requirement. The third studied algorithm is the amorphous algorithm similar to DV-Hop algorithm, and the idea is to calculate the hop distance between two nodes instead of the linear distance between them. The simulation results show that the localization accuracy of the amorphous algorithm is higher than that of other algorithms and the energy consumption does not increase too much.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks, Node Localization, Centroid Algorithm, DV–Hop Algorithm, Amorphous Algorithm.

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463 Identifying Impact Factors in Technology Transfer with the Aim of Technology Localization

Authors: L.Tahmooresnejad, M.A.Shafia, R.Salami

Abstract:

Technology transfer is a common method for companies to acquire new technology and presents both challenges and substantial benefits. In some cases especially in developing countries, the mere possession of technology does not guarantee a competitive advantage if the appropriate infrastructure is not in place. In this paper, we identify the localization factors needed to provide a better understanding of the conditions necessary for localization in order to benefit from future technology developments. Our theoretical and empirical analyses allow us to identify several factors in the technology transfer process that affect localization and provide leverage in enhancing capabilities and absorptive capacity.The impact factors are categorized within different groups of government, firms, institutes and market, and are verified through the empirical survey of a technology transfer experience. Moreover, statistical analysis has allowed a deeper understanding of the importance of each factor and has enabled each group to prioritize their organizational policies to effectively localize their technology.

Keywords: Absorption Capacity, Adaptation, Technology Transfer, Technology Localization

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462 A Hybrid Distributed Vision System for Robot Localization

Authors: Hsiang-Wen Hsieh, Chin-Chia Wu, Hung-Hsiu Yu, Shu-Fan Liu

Abstract:

Localization is one of the critical issues in the field of robot navigation. With an accurate estimate of the robot pose, robots will be capable of navigating in the environment autonomously and efficiently. In this paper, a hybrid Distributed Vision System (DVS) for robot localization is presented. The presented approach integrates odometry data from robot and images captured from overhead cameras installed in the environment to help reduce possibilities of fail localization due to effects of illumination, encoder accumulated errors, and low quality range data. An odometry-based motion model is applied to predict robot poses, and robot images captured by overhead cameras are then used to update pose estimates with HSV histogram-based measurement model. Experiment results show the presented approach could localize robots in a global world coordinate system with localization errors within 100mm.

Keywords: Distributed Vision System, Localization, Measurement model, Motion model

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461 Visual Search Based Indoor Localization in Low Light via RGB-D Camera

Authors: Yali Zheng, Peipei Luo, Shinan Chen, Jiasheng Hao, Hong Cheng

Abstract:

Most of traditional visual indoor navigation algorithms and methods only consider the localization in ordinary daytime, while we focus on the indoor re-localization in low light in the paper. As RGB images are degraded in low light, less discriminative infrared and depth image pairs are taken, as the input, by RGB-D cameras, the most similar candidates, as the output, are searched from databases which is built in the bag-of-word framework. Epipolar constraints can be used to relocalize the query infrared and depth image sequence. We evaluate our method in two datasets captured by Kinect2. The results demonstrate very promising re-localization results for indoor navigation system in low light environments.

Keywords: Indoor navigation, low light, RGB-D camera, vision based.

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460 Localization of Anatomical Landmarks in Head CT Images for Image to Patient Registration

Authors: M. Ovinis, D. Kerr, K. Bouazza-Marouf, M. Vloeberghs

Abstract:

The use of anatomical landmarks as a basis for image to patient registration is appealing because the registration may be performed retrospectively. We have previously proposed the use of two anatomical soft tissue landmarks of the head, the canthus (corner of the eye) and the tragus (a small, pointed, cartilaginous flap of the ear), as a registration basis for an automated CT image to patient registration system, and described their localization in patient space using close range photogrammetry. In this paper, the automatic localization of these landmarks in CT images, based on their curvature saliency and using a rule based system that incorporates prior knowledge of their characteristics, is described. Existing approaches to landmark localization in CT images are predominantly semi-automatic and primarily for localizing internal landmarks. To validate our approach, the positions of the landmarks localized automatically and manually in near isotropic CT images of 102 patients were compared. The average difference was 1.2mm (std = 0.9mm, max = 4.5mm) for the medial canthus and 0.8mm (std = 0.6mm, max = 2.6mm) for the tragus. The medial canthus and tragus can be automatically localized in CT images, with performance comparable to manual localization, based on the approach presented.

Keywords: Anatomical Landmarks, CT, Localization.

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459 Estimation of Relative Self-Localization Based On Natural Landmark and an Improved SURF

Authors: Xing Xiong, Byung-Jae Choi

Abstract:

It is important for an autonomous mobile robot to know where it is in any time in an indoor environment. In this paper, we design a relative self-localization algorithm. The algorithm compare the interest point in two images and compute the relative displacement and orientation to determent the posture. Firstly, we use the SURF algorithm to extract the interest points of the ceiling. Second, in order to reduce amount of calculation, a replacement SURF is used to extract orientation and description of the interest points. At last, according to the transformation of the interest points in two images, the relative self-localization of the mobile robot will be estimated greatly.

Keywords: Relative Self-Localization Posture, SURF, Natural Landmark, Interest Point.

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458 Localization of Near Field Radio Controlled Unintended Emitting Sources

Authors: Nurbanu Guzey, S. Jagannathan

Abstract:

Locating Radio Controlled (RC) devices using their unintended emissions has a great interest considering security concerns. Weak nature of these emissions requires near field localization approach since it is hard to detect these signals in far field region of array. Instead of only angle estimation, near field localization also requires range estimation of the source which makes this method more complicated than far field models. Challenges of locating such devices in a near field region and real time environment are analyzed in this paper. An ESPRIT like near field localization scheme is utilized for both angle and range estimation. 1-D search with symmetric subarrays is provided. Two 7 element uniform linear antenna arrays (ULA) are employed for locating RC source. Experiment results of location estimation for one unintended emitting walkie-talkie for different positions are given.

Keywords: Localization, angle of arrival (AoA), range estimation, array signal processing, ESPRIT, uniform linear array (ULA).

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457 Spatial Query Localization Method in Limited Reference Point Environment

Authors: Victor Krebss

Abstract:

Task of object localization is one of the major challenges in creating intelligent transportation. Unfortunately, in densely built-up urban areas, localization based on GPS only produces a large error, or simply becomes impossible. New opportunities arise for the localization due to the rapidly emerging concept of a wireless ad-hoc network. Such network, allows estimating potential distance between these objects measuring received signal level and construct a graph of distances in which nodes are the localization objects, and edges - estimates of the distances between pairs of nodes. Due to the known coordinates of individual nodes (anchors), it is possible to determine the location of all (or part) of the remaining nodes of the graph. Moreover, road map, available in digital format can provide localization routines with valuable additional information to narrow node location search. However, despite abundance of well-known algorithms for solving the problem of localization and significant research efforts, there are still many issues that currently are addressed only partially. In this paper, we propose localization approach based on the graph mapped distances on the digital road map data basis. In fact, problem is reduced to distance graph embedding into the graph representing area geo location data. It makes possible to localize objects, in some cases even if only one reference point is available. We propose simple embedding algorithm and sample implementation as spatial queries over sensor network data stored in spatial database, allowing employing effectively spatial indexing, optimized spatial search routines and geometry functions.

Keywords: Intelligent Transportation System, Sensor Network, Localization, Spatial Query, GIS, Graph Embedding.

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456 Indoor Localization Algorithm and Appropriate Implementation Using Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Adeniran Ademuwagun, Alastair Allen

Abstract:

The relationship dependence between RSS and distance in an enclosed environment is an important consideration because it is a factor that can influence the reliability of any localization algorithm founded on RSS. Several algorithms effectively reduce the variance of RSS to improve localization or accuracy performance. Our proposed algorithm essentially avoids this pitfall and consequently, its high adaptability in the face of erratic radio signal. Using 3 anchors in close proximity of each other, we are able to establish that RSS can be used as reliable indicator for localization with an acceptable degree of accuracy. Inherent in this concept, is the ability for each prospective anchor to validate (guarantee) the position or the proximity of the other 2 anchors involved in the localization and vice versa. This procedure ensures that the uncertainties of radio signals due to multipath effects in enclosed environments are minimized. A major driver of this idea is the implicit topological relationship among sensors due to raw radio signal strength. The algorithm is an area based algorithm; however, it does not trade accuracy for precision (i.e the size of the returned area).

Keywords: Anchor nodes, centroid algorithm, communication graph, received signal strength (RSS).

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455 Implementation of Generalized Plasticity in Load-Deformation Behavior of Foundation with Emphasis on Localization Problem

Authors: A. H. Akhaveissy

Abstract:

Nonlinear finite element method with eight noded isoparametric quadrilateral element is used for prediction of loaddeformation behavior including bearing capacity of foundations. Modified generalized plasticity model with non-associated flow rule is applied for analysis of soil-footing system. Also Von Mises and Tresca criterions are used for simulation of soil behavior. Modified generalized plasticity model is able to simulate load-deformation including softening behavior. Localization phenomena are considered by different meshes. Localization phenomena have not been seen in the examples. Predictions by modified generalized plasticity model show good agreement with laboratory data and theoretical prediction in comparison the other models.

Keywords: Localization phenomena, Generalized plasticity, Non-associated Flow Rule

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