Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1277

Search results for: Centroid Algorithm

1277 Interactive, Topic-Oriented Search Support by a Centroid-Based Text Categorisation

Authors: Mario Kubek, Herwig Unger

Abstract:

Centroid terms are single words that semantically and topically characterise text documents and so may serve as their very compact representation in automatic text processing. In the present paper, centroids are used to measure the relevance of text documents with respect to a given search query. Thus, a new graphbased paradigm for searching texts in large corpora is proposed and evaluated against keyword-based methods. The first, promising experimental results demonstrate the usefulness of the centroid-based search procedure. It is shown that especially the routing of search queries in interactive and decentralised search systems can be greatly improved by applying this approach. A detailed discussion on further fields of its application completes this contribution.

Keywords: Search algorithm, centroid, query, keyword, cooccurrence, categorisation.

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1276 Enhanced Weighted Centroid Localization Algorithm for Indoor Environments

Authors: I. Nižetić Kosović, T. Jagušt

Abstract:

Lately, with the increasing number of location-based applications, demand for highly accurate and reliable indoor localization became urgent. This is a challenging problem, due to the measurement variance which is the consequence of various factors like obstacles, equipment properties and environmental changes in complex nature of indoor environments. In this paper we propose low-cost custom-setup infrastructure solution and localization algorithm based on the Weighted Centroid Localization (WCL) method. Localization accuracy is increased by several enhancements: calibration of RSSI values gained from wireless nodes, repetitive measurements of RSSI to exclude deviating values from the position estimation, and by considering orientation of the device according to the wireless nodes. We conducted several experiments to evaluate the proposed algorithm. High accuracy of ~1m was achieved.

Keywords: Indoor environment, received signal strength indicator, weighted centroid localization, wireless localization.

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1275 Indoor Localization Algorithm and Appropriate Implementation Using Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Adeniran Ademuwagun, Alastair Allen

Abstract:

The relationship dependence between RSS and distance in an enclosed environment is an important consideration because it is a factor that can influence the reliability of any localization algorithm founded on RSS. Several algorithms effectively reduce the variance of RSS to improve localization or accuracy performance. Our proposed algorithm essentially avoids this pitfall and consequently, its high adaptability in the face of erratic radio signal. Using 3 anchors in close proximity of each other, we are able to establish that RSS can be used as reliable indicator for localization with an acceptable degree of accuracy. Inherent in this concept, is the ability for each prospective anchor to validate (guarantee) the position or the proximity of the other 2 anchors involved in the localization and vice versa. This procedure ensures that the uncertainties of radio signals due to multipath effects in enclosed environments are minimized. A major driver of this idea is the implicit topological relationship among sensors due to raw radio signal strength. The algorithm is an area based algorithm; however, it does not trade accuracy for precision (i.e the size of the returned area).

Keywords: Anchor nodes, centroid algorithm, communication graph, received signal strength (RSS).

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1274 Range-Free Localization Schemes for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: R. Khadim, M. Erritali, A. Maaden

Abstract:

Localization of nodes is one of the key issues of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) that gained a wide attention in recent years. The existing localization techniques can be generally categorized into two types: range-based and range-free. Compared with rang-based schemes, the range-free schemes are more costeffective, because no additional ranging devices are needed. As a result, we focus our research on the range-free schemes. In this paper we study three types of range-free location algorithms to compare the localization error and energy consumption of each one. Centroid algorithm requires a normal node has at least three neighbor anchors, while DV-hop algorithm doesn’t have this requirement. The third studied algorithm is the amorphous algorithm similar to DV-Hop algorithm, and the idea is to calculate the hop distance between two nodes instead of the linear distance between them. The simulation results show that the localization accuracy of the amorphous algorithm is higher than that of other algorithms and the energy consumption does not increase too much.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks, Node Localization, Centroid Algorithm, DV–Hop Algorithm, Amorphous Algorithm.

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1273 An Improved K-Means Algorithm for Gene Expression Data Clustering

Authors: Billel Kenidra, Mohamed Benmohammed

Abstract:

Data mining technique used in the field of clustering is a subject of active research and assists in biological pattern recognition and extraction of new knowledge from raw data. Clustering means the act of partitioning an unlabeled dataset into groups of similar objects. Each group, called a cluster, consists of objects that are similar between themselves and dissimilar to objects of other groups. Several clustering methods are based on partitional clustering. This category attempts to directly decompose the dataset into a set of disjoint clusters leading to an integer number of clusters that optimizes a given criterion function. The criterion function may emphasize a local or a global structure of the data, and its optimization is an iterative relocation procedure. The K-Means algorithm is one of the most widely used partitional clustering techniques. Since K-Means is extremely sensitive to the initial choice of centers and a poor choice of centers may lead to a local optimum that is quite inferior to the global optimum, we propose a strategy to initiate K-Means centers. The improved K-Means algorithm is compared with the original K-Means, and the results prove how the efficiency has been significantly improved.

Keywords: Microarray data mining, biological pattern recognition, partitional clustering, k-means algorithm, centroid initialization.

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1272 A Centroid Ranking Approach Based Fuzzy MCDM Model

Authors: T. C. Chu, S.H. Wu

Abstract:

This paper suggests ranking alternatives under fuzzy MCDM (multiple criteria decision making) via an centroid based ranking approach, where criteria are classified to benefit qualitative, benefit quantitative and cost quantitative ones. The ratings of alternatives versus qualitative criteria and the importance weights of all criteria are assessed in linguistic values represented by fuzzy numbers. The membership function for the final fuzzy evaluation value of each alternative can be developed through α-cuts and interval arithmetic of fuzzy numbers. The distance between the original point and the relative centroid is applied to defuzzify the final fuzzy evaluation values in order to rank alternatives. Finally a numerical example demonstrates the computation procedure of the proposed model.

Keywords: Fuzzy MCDM, Criteria, Fuzzy number, Ranking, Relative centroid.

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1271 Bee Parameter Determination via Weighted Centriod Modified Simplex and Constrained Response Surface Optimisation Methods

Authors: P. Luangpaiboon

Abstract:

Various intelligences and inspirations have been adopted into the iterative searching process called as meta-heuristics. They intelligently perform the exploration and exploitation in the solution domain space aiming to efficiently seek near optimal solutions. In this work, the bee algorithm, inspired by the natural foraging behaviour of honey bees, was adapted to find the near optimal solutions of the transportation management system, dynamic multi-zone dispatching. This problem prepares for an uncertainty and changing customers- demand. In striving to remain competitive, transportation system should therefore be flexible in order to cope with the changes of customers- demand in terms of in-bound and outbound goods and technological innovations. To remain higher service level but lower cost management via the minimal imbalance scenario, the rearrangement penalty of the area, in each zone, including time periods are also included. However, the performance of the algorithm depends on the appropriate parameters- setting and need to be determined and analysed before its implementation. BEE parameters are determined through the linear constrained response surface optimisation or LCRSOM and weighted centroid modified simplex methods or WCMSM. Experimental results were analysed in terms of best solutions found so far, mean and standard deviation on the imbalance values including the convergence of the solutions obtained. It was found that the results obtained from the LCRSOM were better than those using the WCMSM. However, the average execution time of experimental run using the LCRSOM was longer than those using the WCMSM. Finally a recommendation of proper level settings of BEE parameters for some selected problem sizes is given as a guideline for future applications.

Keywords: Meta-heuristic, Bee Algorithm, Dynamic Multi-Zone Dispatching, Linear Constrained Response SurfaceOptimisation Method, Weighted Centroid Modified Simplex Method

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1270 Automatic Segmentation of the Clean Speech Signal

Authors: M. A. Ben Messaoud, A. Bouzid, N. Ellouze

Abstract:

Speech Segmentation is the measure of the change point detection for partitioning an input speech signal into regions each of which accords to only one speaker. In this paper, we apply two features based on multi-scale product (MP) of the clean speech, namely the spectral centroid of MP, and the zero crossings rate of MP. We focus on multi-scale product analysis as an important tool for segmentation extraction. The MP is based on making the product of the speech wavelet transform coefficients (WTC). We have estimated our method on the Keele database. The results show the effectiveness of our method. It indicates that the two features can find word boundaries, and extracted the segments of the clean speech.

Keywords: Speech segmentation, Multi-scale product, Spectral centroid, Zero crossings rate.

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1269 Capacitance Models of AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors

Authors: A. Douara, N. Kermas, B. Djellouli

Abstract:

In this study, we report calculations of gate capacitance of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs with nextnano device simulation software. We have used a physical gate capacitance model for III-V FETs that incorporates quantum capacitance and centroid capacitance in the channel. These simulations explore various device structures with different values of barrier thickness and channel thickness. A detailed understanding of the impact of gate capacitance in HEMTs will allow us to determine their role in future 10 nm physical gate length node.

Keywords: AlGaN/GaN, centroid capacitance, gate capacitance, HEMT, quantum capacitance.

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1268 Scheduling Multiple Workflow Using De-De Dodging Algorithm and PBD Algorithm in Cloud: Detailed Study

Authors: B. Arun Kumar, T. Ravichandran

Abstract:

Workflow scheduling is an important part of cloud computing and based on different criteria it decides cost, execution time, and performances. A cloud workflow system is a platform service facilitating automation of distributed applications based on new cloud infrastructure. An aspect which differentiates cloud workflow system from others is market-oriented business model, an innovation which challenges conventional workflow scheduling strategies. Time and Cost optimization algorithm for scheduling Hybrid Clouds (TCHC) algorithm decides which resource should be chartered from public providers is combined with a new De-De algorithm considering that every instance of single and multiple workflows work without deadlocks. To offset this, two new concepts - De-De Dodging Algorithm and Priority Based Decisive Algorithm - combine with conventional deadlock avoidance issues by proposing one algorithm that maximizes active (not just allocated) resource use and reduces Makespan.

Keywords: Workflow Scheduling, cloud workflow, TCHC algorithm, De-De Dodging Algorithm, Priority Based Decisive Algorithm (PBD), Makespan.

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1267 Ranking Fuzzy Numbers Based On Epsilon-Deviation Degree

Authors: Vincent F. Yu, Ha Thi Xuan Chi

Abstract:

Nejad and Mashinchi (2011) proposed a revision for ranking fuzzy numbers based on the areas of the left and the right sides of a fuzzy number. However, this method still has some shortcomings such as lack of discriminative power to rank similar fuzzy numbers and no guarantee the consistency between the ranking of fuzzy numbers and the ranking of their images. To overcome these drawbacks, we propose an epsilon-deviation degree method based on the left area and the right area of a fuzzy number, and the concept of the centroid point. The main advantage of the new approach is the development of an innovative index value which can be used to consistently evaluate and rank fuzzy numbers. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the efficiency and superiority of the proposed method.

Keywords: Ranking fuzzy numbers, Centroid, Deviation degree.

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1266 Investigation on Novel Based Naturally-Inspired Swarm Intelligence Algorithms for Optimization Problems in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: C. Rajan, K. Geetha, C. Rasi Priya, S. Geetha

Abstract:

Nature is the immense gifted source for solving complex problems. It always helps to find the optimal solution to solve the problem. Mobile Ad Hoc NETwork (MANET) is a wide research area of networks which has set of independent nodes. The characteristics involved in MANET’s are Dynamic, does not depend on any fixed infrastructure or centralized networks, High mobility. The Bio-Inspired algorithms are mimics the nature for solving optimization problems opening a new era in MANET. The typical Swarm Intelligence (SI) algorithms are Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), Artificial Bee Colony (ABC), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Modified Termite Algorithm, Bat Algorithm (BA), Wolf Search Algorithm (WSA) and so on. This work mainly concentrated on nature of MANET and behavior of nodes. Also it analyses various performance metrics such as throughput, QoS and End-to-End delay etc.

Keywords: Ant Colony Algorithm, Artificial Bee Colony algorithm, Bio-Inspired algorithm, Modified Termite Algorithm.

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1265 Novel and Different Definitions for Fuzzy Union and Intersection Operations

Authors: Aarthi Chandramohan, M. V. C. Rao

Abstract:

This paper presents three new methodologies for the basic operations, which aim at finding new ways of computing union (maximum) and intersection (minimum) membership values by taking into effect the entire membership values in a fuzzy set. The new methodologies are conceptually simple and easy from the application point of view and are illustrated with a variety of problems such as Cartesian product of two fuzzy sets, max –min composition of two fuzzy sets in different product spaces and an application of an inverted pendulum to determine the impact of the new methodologies. The results clearly indicate a difference based on the nature of the fuzzy sets under consideration and hence will be highly useful in quite a few applications where different values have significant impact on the behavior of the system.

Keywords: Centroid, fuzzy set operations, intersection, triangular norms , triangular S-norms, union.

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1264 Mining Sequential Patterns Using Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithm

Authors: Mourad Ykhlef, Hebah ElGibreen

Abstract:

Mining Sequential Patterns in large databases has become an important data mining task with broad applications. It is an important task in data mining field, which describes potential sequenced relationships among items in a database. There are many different algorithms introduced for this task. Conventional algorithms can find the exact optimal Sequential Pattern rule but it takes a long time, particularly when they are applied on large databases. Nowadays, some evolutionary algorithms, such as Particle Swarm Optimization and Genetic Algorithm, were proposed and have been applied to solve this problem. This paper will introduce a new kind of hybrid evolutionary algorithm that combines Genetic Algorithm (GA) with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) to mine Sequential Pattern, in order to improve the speed of evolutionary algorithms convergence. This algorithm is referred to as SP-GAPSO.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm, Sequential Pattern mining.

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1263 An Algorithm for the Map Labeling Problem with Two Kinds of Priorities

Authors: Noboru Abe, Yoshinori Amai, Toshinori Nakatake, Sumio Masuda, Kazuaki Yamaguchi

Abstract:

We consider the problem of placing labels of the points on a plane. For each point, its position, the size of its label and a priority are given. Moreover, several candidates of its label positions are prespecified, and each of such label positions is assigned a priority. The objective of our problem is to maximize the total sum of priorities of placed labels and their points. By refining a labeling algorithm that can use these priorities, we propose a new heuristic algorithm which is more suitable for treating the assigned priorities.

Keywords: Map labeling, greedy algorithm, heuristic algorithm, priority.

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1262 Multi Objective Micro Genetic Algorithm for Combine and Reroute Problem

Authors: Soottipoom Yaowiwat, Manoj Lohatepanont, Proadpran Punyabukkana

Abstract:

Several approaches such as linear programming, network modeling, greedy heuristic and decision support system are well-known approaches in solving irregular airline operation problem. This paper presents an alternative approach based on Multi Objective Micro Genetic Algorithm. The aim of this research is to introduce the concept of Multi Objective Micro Genetic Algorithm as a tool to solve irregular airline operation, combine and reroute problem. The experiment result indicated that the model could obtain optimal solutions within a few second.

Keywords: Irregular Airline Operation, Combine and RerouteRoutine, Genetic Algorithm, Micro Genetic Algorithm, Multi ObjectiveOptimization, Evolutionary Algorithm.

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1261 A New Evolutionary Algorithm for Cluster Analysis

Authors: B.Bahmani Firouzi, T. Niknam, M. Nayeripour

Abstract:

Clustering is a very well known technique in data mining. One of the most widely used clustering techniques is the kmeans algorithm. Solutions obtained from this technique depend on the initialization of cluster centers and the final solution converges to local minima. In order to overcome K-means algorithm shortcomings, this paper proposes a hybrid evolutionary algorithm based on the combination of PSO, SA and K-means algorithms, called PSO-SA-K, which can find better cluster partition. The performance is evaluated through several benchmark data sets. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms previous approaches, such as PSO, SA and K-means for partitional clustering problem.

Keywords: Data clustering, Hybrid evolutionary optimization algorithm, K-means algorithm, Simulated Annealing (SA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO).

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1260 Elimination of Low Order Harmonics in Multilevel Inverter Using Nature-Inspired Metaheuristic Algorithm

Authors: N. Ould Cherchali, A. Tlemçani, M. S. Boucherit, A. Morsli

Abstract:

Nature-inspired metaheuristic algorithms, particularly those founded on swarm intelligence, have attracted much attention over the past decade. Firefly algorithm has appeared in approximately seven years ago, its literature has enlarged considerably with different applications. It is inspired by the behavior of fireflies. The aim of this paper is the application of firefly algorithm for solving a nonlinear algebraic system. This resolution is needed to study the Selective Harmonic Eliminated Pulse Width Modulation strategy (SHEPWM) to eliminate the low order harmonics; results have been applied on multilevel inverters. The final results from simulations indicate the elimination of the low order harmonics as desired. Finally, experimental results are presented to confirm the simulation results and validate the efficaciousness of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Firefly algorithm, metaheuristic algorithm, multilelvel inverter, SHEPWM.

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1259 Extraction of Symbolic Rules from Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: S. M. Kamruzzaman, Md. Monirul Islam

Abstract:

Although backpropagation ANNs generally predict better than decision trees do for pattern classification problems, they are often regarded as black boxes, i.e., their predictions cannot be explained as those of decision trees. In many applications, it is desirable to extract knowledge from trained ANNs for the users to gain a better understanding of how the networks solve the problems. A new rule extraction algorithm, called rule extraction from artificial neural networks (REANN) is proposed and implemented to extract symbolic rules from ANNs. A standard three-layer feedforward ANN is the basis of the algorithm. A four-phase training algorithm is proposed for backpropagation learning. Explicitness of the extracted rules is supported by comparing them to the symbolic rules generated by other methods. Extracted rules are comparable with other methods in terms of number of rules, average number of conditions for a rule, and predictive accuracy. Extensive experimental studies on several benchmarks classification problems, such as breast cancer, iris, diabetes, and season classification problems, demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach with good generalization ability.

Keywords: Backpropagation, clustering algorithm, constructivealgorithm, continuous activation function, pruning algorithm, ruleextraction algorithm, symbolic rules.

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1258 Solutions of Fuzzy Transportation Problem Using Best Candidates Method and Different Ranking Techniques

Authors: M. S. Annie Christi

Abstract:

Transportation Problem (TP) is based on supply and demand of commodities transported from one source to the different destinations. Usual methods for finding solution of TPs are North-West Corner Rule, Least Cost Method Vogel’s Approximation Method etc. The transportation costs tend to vary at each time. We can use fuzzy numbers which would give solution according to this situation. In this study the Best Candidate Method (BCM) is applied. For ranking Centroid Ranking Technique (CRT) and Robust Ranking Technique have been adopted to transform the fuzzy TP and the above methods are applied to EDWARDS Vacuum Company, Crawley, in West Sussex in the United Kingdom. A Comparative study is also given. We see that the transportation cost can be minimized by the application of CRT under BCM.

Keywords: Best candidates method, centroid ranking technique, robust ranking technique, transportation problem, fuzzy transportation problem.

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1257 Implementation of MPPT Algorithm for Grid Connected PV Module with IC and P&O Method

Authors: Arvind Kumar, Manoj Kumar, Dattatraya H. Nagaraj, Amanpreet Singh, Jayanthi Prattapati

Abstract:

In recent years, the use of renewable energy resources instead of pollutant fossil fuels and other forms has increased. Photovoltaic generation is becoming increasingly important as a renewable resource since it does not cause in fuel costs, pollution, maintenance, and emitting noise compared with other alternatives used in power applications. In this paper, Perturb and Observe and Incremental Conductance methods are used to improve energy conversion efficiency under different environmental conditions. PI controllers are used to control easily DC-link voltage, active and reactive currents. The whole system is simulated under standard climatic conditions (1000 W/m2, 250C) in MATLAB and the irradiance is varied from 1000 W/m2 to 300 W/m2. The use of PI controller makes it easy to directly control the power of the grid connected PV system. Finally the validity of the system will be verified through the simulations in MATLAB/Simulink environment.

Keywords: Incremental conductance algorithm, modeling of PV panel, perturb and observe algorithm, photovoltaic system and simulation results.

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1256 Optimal External Merge Sorting Algorithm with Smart Block Merging

Authors: Mir Hadi Seyedafsari, Iraj Hasanzadeh

Abstract:

Like other external sorting algorithms, the presented algorithm is a two step algorithm including internal and external steps. The first part of the algorithm is like the other similar algorithms but second part of that is including a new easy implementing method which has reduced the vast number of inputoutput operations saliently. As decreasing processor operating time does not have any effect on main algorithm speed, any improvement in it should be done through decreasing the number of input-output operations. This paper propose an easy algorithm for choose the correct record location of the final list. This decreases the time complexity and makes the algorithm faster.

Keywords: External sorting algorithm, internal sortingalgorithm, fast sorting, robust algorithm.

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1255 Integrated Approaches to Enhance Aggregate Production Planning with Inventory Uncertainty Based On Improved Harmony Search Algorithm

Authors: P. Luangpaiboon, P. Aungkulanon

Abstract:

This work presents a multiple objective linear programming (MOLP) model based on the desirability function approach for solving the aggregate production planning (APP) decision problem upon Masud and Hwang-s model. The proposed model minimises total production costs, carrying or backordering costs and rates of change in labor levels. An industrial case demonstrates the feasibility of applying the proposed model to the APP problems with three scenarios of inventory levels. The proposed model yields an efficient compromise solution and the overall levels of DM satisfaction with the multiple combined response levels. There has been a trend to solve complex planning problems using various metaheuristics. Therefore, in this paper, the multi-objective APP problem is solved by hybrid metaheuristics of the hunting search (HuSIHSA) and firefly (FAIHSA) mechanisms on the improved harmony search algorithm. Results obtained from the solution of are then compared. It is observed that the FAIHSA can be used as a successful alternative solution mechanism for solving APP problems over three scenarios. Furthermore, the FAIHSA provides a systematic framework for facilitating the decision-making process, enabling a decision maker interactively to modify the desirability function approach and related model parameters until a good optimal solution is obtained with proper selection of control parameters when compared.

Keywords: Aggregate Production Planning, Desirability Function Approach, Improved Harmony Search Algorithm, Hunting Search Algorithm and Firefly Algorithm.

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1254 Fast and Accurate Reservoir Modeling: Genetic Algorithm versus DIRECT Method

Authors: Mohsen Ebrahimi, Milad M. Rabieh

Abstract:

In this paper, two very different optimization algorithms, Genetic and DIRECT algorithms, are used to history match a bottomhole pressure response for a reservoir with wellbore storage and skin with the best possible analytical model. No initial guesses are available for reservoir parameters. The results show that the matching process is much faster and more accurate for DIRECT method in comparison with Genetic algorithm. It is furthermore concluded that the DIRECT algorithm does not need any initial guesses, whereas Genetic algorithm needs to be tuned according to initial guesses.

Keywords: DIRECT algorithm, Genetic algorithm, Analytical modeling, History match

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1253 A New Method in Detection of Ceramic Tiles Color Defects Using Genetic C-Means Algorithm

Authors: Mahkameh S. Mostafavi

Abstract:

In this paper an algorithm is used to detect the color defects of ceramic tiles. First the image of a normal tile is clustered using GCMA; Genetic C-means Clustering Algorithm; those results in best cluster centers. C-means is a common clustering algorithm which optimizes an objective function, based on a measure between data points and the cluster centers in the data space. Here the objective function describes the mean square error. After finding the best centers, each pixel of the image is assigned to the cluster with closest cluster center. Then, the maximum errors of clusters are computed. For each cluster, max error is the maximum distance between its center and all the pixels which belong to it. After computing errors all the pixels of defected tile image are clustered based on the centers obtained from normal tile image in previous stage. Pixels which their distance from their cluster center is more than the maximum error of that cluster are considered as defected pixels.

Keywords: C-Means algorithm, color spaces, Genetic Algorithm, image clustering.

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1252 Genetic Algorithm with Fuzzy Genotype Values and Its Application to Neuroevolution

Authors: Hidehiko Okada

Abstract:

The author proposes an extension of genetic algorithm (GA) for solving fuzzy-valued optimization problems. In the proposed GA, values in the genotypes are not real numbers but fuzzy numbers. Evolutionary processes in GA are extended so that GA can handle genotype instances with fuzzy numbers. The proposed method is applied to evolving neural networks with fuzzy weights and biases. Experimental results showed that fuzzy neural networks evolved by the fuzzy GA could model hidden target fuzzy functions well despite the fact that no training data was explicitly provided.

Keywords: Evolutionary algorithm, genetic algorithm, fuzzy number, neural network, neuroevolution.

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1251 Secure Hashing Algorithm and Advance Encryption Algorithm in Cloud Computing

Authors: Jaimin Patel

Abstract:

Cloud computing is one of the most sharp and important movement in various computing technologies. It provides flexibility to users, cost effectiveness, location independence, easy maintenance, enables multitenancy, drastic performance improvements, and increased productivity. On the other hand, there are also major issues like security. Being a common server, security for a cloud is a major issue; it is important to provide security to protect user’s private data, and it is especially important in e-commerce and social networks. In this paper, encryption algorithms such as Advanced Encryption Standard algorithms, their vulnerabilities, risk of attacks, optimal time and complexity management and comparison with other algorithms based on software implementation is proposed. Encryption techniques to improve the performance of AES algorithms and to reduce risk management are given. Secure Hash Algorithms, their vulnerabilities, software implementations, risk of attacks and comparison with other hashing algorithms as well as the advantages and disadvantages between hashing techniques and encryption are given.

Keywords: Cloud computing, encryption algorithm, secure hashing algorithm, brute force attack, birthday attack, plaintext attack, man-in-the-middle attack.

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1250 Simulated Annealing Algorithm for Data Aggregation Trees in Wireless Sensor Networks and Comparison with Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Ladan Darougaran, Hossein Shahinzadeh, Hajar Ghotb, Leila Ramezanpour

Abstract:

In ad hoc networks, the main issue about designing of protocols is quality of service, so that in wireless sensor networks the main constraint in designing protocols is limited energy of sensors. In fact, protocols which minimize the power consumption in sensors are more considered in wireless sensor networks. One approach of reducing energy consumption in wireless sensor networks is to reduce the number of packages that are transmitted in network. The technique of collecting data that combines related data and prevent transmission of additional packages in network can be effective in the reducing of transmitted packages- number. According to this fact that information processing consumes less power than information transmitting, Data Aggregation has great importance and because of this fact this technique is used in many protocols [5]. One of the Data Aggregation techniques is to use Data Aggregation tree. But finding one optimum Data Aggregation tree to collect data in networks with one sink is a NP-hard problem. In the Data Aggregation technique, related information packages are combined in intermediate nodes and form one package. So the number of packages which are transmitted in network reduces and therefore, less energy will be consumed that at last results in improvement of longevity of network. Heuristic methods are used in order to solve the NP-hard problem that one of these optimization methods is to solve Simulated Annealing problems. In this article, we will propose new method in order to build data collection tree in wireless sensor networks by using Simulated Annealing algorithm and we will evaluate its efficiency whit Genetic Algorithm.

Keywords: Data aggregation, wireless sensor networks, energy efficiency, simulated annealing algorithm, genetic algorithm.

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1249 Investigation on Bio-Inspired Population Based Metaheuristic Algorithms for Optimization Problems in Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: C. Rajan, K. Geetha, C. Rasi Priya, R. Sasikala

Abstract:

Nature is a great source of inspiration for solving complex problems in networks. It helps to find the optimal solution. Metaheuristic algorithm is one of the nature-inspired algorithm which helps in solving routing problem in networks. The dynamic features, changing of topology frequently and limited bandwidth make the routing, challenging in MANET. Implementation of appropriate routing algorithms leads to the efficient transmission of data in mobile ad hoc networks. The algorithms that are inspired by the principles of naturally-distributed/collective behavior of social colonies have shown excellence in dealing with complex optimization problems. Thus some of the bio-inspired metaheuristic algorithms help to increase the efficiency of routing in ad hoc networks. This survey work presents the overview of bio-inspired metaheuristic algorithms which support the efficiency of routing in mobile ad hoc networks.

Keywords: Ant colony optimization algorithm, Genetic algorithm, naturally inspired algorithms and particle swarm optimization algorithm.

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1248 Comparative Study of IC and Perturb and Observe Method of MPPT Algorithm for Grid Connected PV Module

Authors: Arvind Kumar, Manoj Kumar, Dattatraya H. Nagaraj, Amanpreet Singh, Jayanthi Prattapati

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to study and compare two maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms in a photovoltaic simulation system and also show a simulation study of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for photovoltaic systems using perturb and observe algorithm and Incremental conductance algorithm. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) plays an important role in photovoltaic systems because it maximize the power output from a PV system for a given set of conditions, and therefore maximize the array efficiency and minimize the overall system cost. Since the maximum power point (MPP) varies, based on the irradiation and cell temperature, appropriate algorithms must be utilized to track the (MPP) and maintain the operation of the system in it. MATLAB/Simulink is used to establish a model of photovoltaic system with (MPPT) function. This system is developed by combining the models established of solar PV module and DC-DC Boost converter. The system is simulated under different climate conditions. Simulation results show that the photovoltaic simulation system can track the maximum power point accurately.

Keywords: Incremental conductance Algorithm, Perturb and Observe Algorithm, Photovoltaic System and Simulation Results.

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