Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 739

Search results for: kinect sensor.

739 Automation of the Maritime UAV Command, Control, Navigation Operations, Simulated in Real-Time Using Kinect Sensor: A Feasibility Study

Authors: Regius Asiimwe, Amir Anvar

Abstract:

This paper describes the process used in the automation of the Maritime UAV commands using the Kinect sensor. The AR Drone is a Quadrocopter manufactured by Parrot [1] to be controlled using the Apple operating systems such as iPhones and Ipads. However, this project uses the Microsoft Kinect SDK and Microsoft Visual Studio C# (C sharp) software, which are compatible with Windows Operating System for the automation of the navigation and control of the AR drone. The navigation and control software for the Quadrocopter runs on a windows 7 computer. The project is divided into two sections; the Quadrocopter control system and the Kinect sensor control system. The Kinect sensor is connected to the computer using a USB cable from which commands can be sent to and from the Kinect sensors. The AR drone has Wi-Fi capabilities from which it can be connected to the computer to enable transfer of commands to and from the Quadrocopter. The project was implemented in C#, a programming language that is commonly used in the automation systems. The language was chosen because there are more libraries already established in C# for both the AR drone and the Kinect sensor. The study will contribute toward research in automation of systems using the Quadrocopter and the Kinect sensor for navigation involving a human operator in the loop. The prototype created has numerous applications among which include the inspection of vessels such as ship, airplanes and areas that are not accessible by human operators.

Keywords: UAV, AR drone, Kinect Sensors, Automation, Real time, C sharp, Microsoft Kinect SDK.

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738 Laban Movement Analysis Using Kinect

Authors: Ran Bernstein, Tal Shafir, Rachelle Tsachor, Karen Studd, Assaf Schuster

Abstract:

Laban Movement Analysis (LMA), developed in the dance community over the past seventy years, is an effective method for observing, describing, notating, and interpreting human movement to enhance communication and expression in everyday and professional life. Many applications that use motion capture data might be significantly leveraged if the Laban qualities will be recognized automatically. This paper presents an automated recognition method of Laban qualities from motion capture skeletal recordings and it is demonstrated on the output of Microsoft’s Kinect V2 sensor.

Keywords: Laban Movement Analysis, Kinect, Machine Learning.

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737 Applying Multiple Kinect on the Development of a Rapid 3D Mannequin Scan Platform

Authors: Shih-Wen Hsiao, Yi-Cheng Tsao

Abstract:

In the field of reverse engineering and creative industries, applying 3D scanning process to obtain geometric forms of the objects is a mature and common technique. For instance, organic objects such as faces and nonorganic objects such as products could be scanned to acquire the geometric information for further application. However, although the data resolution of 3D scanning device is increasing and there are more and more abundant complementary applications, the penetration rate of 3D scanning for the public is still limited by the relative high price of the devices. On the other hand, Kinect, released by Microsoft, is known for its powerful functions, considerably low price, and complete technology and database support. Therefore, related studies can be done with the applying of Kinect under acceptable cost and data precision. Due to the fact that Kinect utilizes optical mechanism to extracting depth information, limitations are found due to the reason of the straight path of the light. Thus, various angles are required sequentially to obtain the complete 3D information of the object when applying a single Kinect for 3D scanning. The integration process which combines the 3D data from different angles by certain algorithms is also required. This sequential scanning process costs much time and the complex integration process often encounter some technical problems. Therefore, this paper aimed to apply multiple Kinects simultaneously on the field of developing a rapid 3D mannequin scan platform and proposed suggestions on the number and angles of Kinects. In the content, a method of establishing the coordination based on the relation between mannequin and the specifications of Kinect is proposed, and a suggestion of angles and number of Kinects is also described. An experiment of applying multiple Kinect on the scanning of 3D mannequin is constructed by Microsoft API, and the results show that the time required for scanning and technical threshold can be reduced in the industries of fashion and garment design.

Keywords: 3D scan, depth sensor, fashion and garment design, mannequin, multiple kinect sensor.

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736 Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Exercises of Upper Extremities Assessment Using Microsoft Kinect Sensor and Color Marker in a Virtual Reality Environment

Authors: M. Owlia, M. H. Azarsa, M. Khabbazan, A. Mirbagheri

Abstract:

Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises are a series of stretching techniques that are commonly used in rehabilitation and exercise therapy. Assessment of these exercises for true maneuvering requires extensive experience in this field and could not be down with patients themselves. In this paper, we developed software that uses Microsoft Kinect sensor, a spherical color marker, and real-time image processing methods to evaluate patient’s performance in generating true patterns of movements. The software also provides the patient with a visual feedback by showing his/her avatar in a Virtual Reality environment along with the correct path of moving hand, wrist and marker. Primary results during PNF exercise therapy of a patient in a room environment shows the ability of the system to identify any deviation of maneuvering path and direction of the hand from the one that has been performed by an expert physician.

Keywords: Image processing, Microsoft Kinect, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, upper extremities assessment, virtual reality.

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735 Capture and Feedback in Flying Disc Throw with use of Kinect

Authors: Yasuhisa Tamura, Koji Yamaoka, Masataka Uehara, Takeshi Shima

Abstract:

This paper proposes a three-dimensional motion capture and feedback system of flying disc throwing action learners with use of Kinect device. Rather than conventional 3-D motion capture system, Kinect has advantages of cost merit, easy system development and operation. A novice learner of flying disc is trained to keep arm movement in steady height, to twist the waist, and to stretch the elbow according to the waist angle. The proposing system captures learners- body movement, checks their skeleton positions in pre-motion / motion / post-motion in several ways, and displays feedback messages to refine their actions.

Keywords: Flying disc, throwing movement, Kinect, capture, feedback

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734 Stereotypical Motor Movement Recognition Using Microsoft Kinect with Artificial Neural Network

Authors: M. Jazouli, S. Elhoufi, A. Majda, A. Zarghili, R. Aalouane

Abstract:

Autism spectrum disorder is a complex developmental disability. It is defined by a certain set of behaviors. Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) frequently engage in stereotyped and repetitive motor movements. The objective of this article is to propose a method to automatically detect this unusual behavior. Our study provides a clinical tool which facilitates for doctors the diagnosis of ASD. We focus on automatic identification of five repetitive gestures among autistic children in real time: body rocking, hand flapping, fingers flapping, hand on the face and hands behind back. In this paper, we present a gesture recognition system for children with autism, which consists of three modules: model-based movement tracking, feature extraction, and gesture recognition using artificial neural network (ANN). The first one uses the Microsoft Kinect sensor, the second one chooses points of interest from the 3D skeleton to characterize the gestures, and the last one proposes a neural connectionist model to perform the supervised classification of data. The experimental results show that our system can achieve above 93.3% recognition rate.

Keywords: ASD, stereotypical motor movements, repetitive gesture, kinect, artificial neural network.

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733 Interactive Shadow Play Animation System

Authors: Bo Wan, Xiu Wen, Lingling An, Xiaoling Ding

Abstract:

The paper describes a Chinese shadow play animation system based on Kinect. Users, without any professional training, can personally manipulate the shadow characters to finish a shadow play performance by their body actions and get a shadow play video through giving the record command to our system if they want. In our system, Kinect is responsible for capturing human movement and voice commands data. Gesture recognition module is used to control the change of the shadow play scenes. After packaging the data from Kinect and the recognition result from gesture recognition module, VRPN transmits them to the server-side. At last, the server-side uses the information to control the motion of shadow characters and video recording. This system not only achieves human-computer interaction, but also realizes the interaction between people. It brings an entertaining experience to users and easy to operate for all ages. Even more important is that the application background of Chinese shadow play embodies the protection of the art of shadow play animation.

Keywords: Gesture recognition, Kinect, shadow play animation, VRPN.

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732 A Wireless Sensor Network Protocol for a Car Parking Space Monitoring System

Authors: Jung-Ho Moon, Myung-Gon Yoon, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

This paper presents a wireless sensor network protocol for a car parking monitoring system. A wireless sensor network for the purpose is composed of multiple sensor nodes, a sink node, a gateway, and a server. Each of the sensor nodes is equipped with a 3-axis AMR sensor and deployed in the center of a parking space. The sensor node reads its sensor values periodically and transmits the data to the sink node if the current and immediate past sensor values show a difference exceeding a threshold value. The operations of the sink and sensor nodes are described in detail along with flow diagrams. The protocol allows a low-duty cycle operation of the sensor nodes and a flexible adjustment of the threshold value used by the sensor nodes.

Keywords: Car parking monitoring, sensor node, wireless sensor network, network protocol.

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731 Highly Flexible Modularized Sensor Platform

Authors: Kai-Chao Yang, Chun-Ming Huang, Chih-Chiao Yang, Chien-Ming Wu

Abstract:

Sensors have been used in various kinds of academic fields and applications. In this article, we propose the idea of modularized sensors that combine multiple sensor modules into a unique sensor. We divide a sensor into several units according to functionalities. Each unit has different sensor modules, which share the same type of connectors and can be serially and arbitrarily connected each other. A user can combine different sensor modules into a sensor platform according to requirements. Compared with current modularized sensors, the proposed sensor platform is highly flexible and reusable. We have implemented the prototype of the proposed sensor platform, and the experimental results show the proposed platform can work correctly.

Keywords: Sensor device, sensor fusion.

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730 Autonomous Robots- Visual Perception in Underground Terrains Using Statistical Region Merging

Authors: Omowunmi E. Isafiade, Isaac O. Osunmakinde, Antoine B. Bagula

Abstract:

Robots- visual perception is a field that is gaining increasing attention from researchers. This is partly due to emerging trends in the commercial availability of 3D scanning systems or devices that produce a high information accuracy level for a variety of applications. In the history of mining, the mortality rate of mine workers has been alarming and robots exhibit a great deal of potentials to tackle safety issues in mines. However, an effective vision system is crucial to safe autonomous navigation in underground terrains. This work investigates robots- perception in underground terrains (mines and tunnels) using statistical region merging (SRM) model. SRM reconstructs the main structural components of an imagery by a simple but effective statistical analysis. An investigation is conducted on different regions of the mine, such as the shaft, stope and gallery, using publicly available mine frames, with a stream of locally captured mine images. An investigation is also conducted on a stream of underground tunnel image frames, using the XBOX Kinect 3D sensors. The Kinect sensors produce streams of red, green and blue (RGB) and depth images of 640 x 480 resolution at 30 frames per second. Integrating the depth information to drivability gives a strong cue to the analysis, which detects 3D results augmenting drivable and non-drivable regions in 2D. The results of the 2D and 3D experiment with different terrains, mines and tunnels, together with the qualitative and quantitative evaluation, reveal that a good drivable region can be detected in dynamic underground terrains.

Keywords: Drivable Region Detection, Kinect Sensor, Robots' Perception, SRM, Underground Terrains.

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729 A Car Parking Monitoring System Using Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Jung-Ho Moon, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

This paper presents a car parking monitoring system using wireless sensor networks. Multiple sensor nodes and a sink node, a gateway, and a server constitute a wireless network for monitoring a parking lot. Each of the sensor nodes is equipped with a 3-axis AMR sensor and deployed in the center of a parking space. Each sensor node reads its sensor values periodically and transmits the data to the sink node if the current and immediate past sensor values show a difference exceeding a threshold value. The sensor nodes and sink node use the 448 MHz band for wireless communication. Since RF transmission only occurs when sensor values show abrupt changes, the number of RF transmission operations is reduced and battery power can be conserved. The data from the sensor nodes reach the server via the sink node and gateway. The server determines which parking spaces are taken by cars based upon the received sensor data and reference values. The reference values are average sensor values measured by each sensor node when the corresponding parking spot is not occupied by a vehicle. Because the decision making is done by the server, the computational burden of the sensor node is relieved, which helps reduce the duty cycle of the sensor node.

Keywords: Car parking monitoring, magnetometer, sensor node, wireless sensor network.

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728 Applying Kinect on the Development of a Customized 3D Mannequin

Authors: Shih-Wen Hsiao, Rong-Qi Chen

Abstract:

In the field of fashion design, 3D Mannequin is a kind of assisting tool which could rapidly realize the design concepts. While the concept of 3D Mannequin is applied to the computer added fashion design, it will connect with the development and the application of design platform and system. Thus, the situation mentioned above revealed a truth that it is very critical to develop a module of 3D Mannequin which would correspond with the necessity of fashion design. This research proposes a concrete plan that developing and constructing a system of 3D Mannequin with Kinect. In the content, ergonomic measurements of objective human features could be attained real-time through the implement with depth camera of Kinect, and then the mesh morphing can be implemented through transformed the locations of the control-points on the model by inputting those ergonomic data to get an exclusive 3D mannequin model. In the proposed methodology, after the scanned points from the Kinect are revised for accuracy and smoothening, a complete human feature would be reconstructed by the ICP algorithm with the method of image processing. Also, the objective human feature could be recognized to analyze and get real measurements. Furthermore, the data of ergonomic measurements could be applied to shape morphing for the division of 3D Mannequin reconstructed by feature curves. Due to a standardized and customer-oriented 3D Mannequin would be generated by the implement of subdivision, the research could be applied to the fashion design or the presentation and display of 3D virtual clothes. In order to examine the practicality of research structure, a system of 3D Mannequin would be constructed with JAVA program in this study. Through the revision of experiments the practicability-contained research result would come out.

Keywords: 3D Mannequin, kinect scanner, interactive closest point, shape morphing, subdivision.

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727 A Trust Model using Fuzzy Logic in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Tae Kyung Kim, Hee Suk Seo

Abstract:

Adapting various sensor devices to communicate within sensor networks empowers us by providing range of possibilities. The sensors in sensor networks need to know their measurable belief of trust for efficient and safe communication. In this paper, we suggested a trust model using fuzzy logic in sensor network. Trust is an aggregation of consensus given a set of past interaction among sensors. We applied our suggested model to sensor networks in order to show how trust mechanisms are involved in communicating algorithm to choose the proper path from source to destination.

Keywords: Fuzzy, Sensor Networks, Trust.

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726 A Nobel Approach for Campus Monitoring

Authors: Rashmi Priyadarshini, S. R. N. Reddy, R. M. Mehra

Abstract:

This paper presents one of the best applications of wireless sensor network for campus Monitoring. With the help of PIR sensor, temperature sensor and humidity sensor, effective utilization of energy resources has been implemented in one of rooms of Sharda University, Greater Noida, India. The RISC microcontroller is used here for analysis of output of sensors and providing proper control using ZigBee protocol. This wireless sensor module presents a tremendous power saving method for any campus

Keywords: PIC microcontroller, wireless sensor network, ZigBee.

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725 Wireless Communicated Smart Wind Sensor

Authors: Zdenek Bohuslavek

Abstract:

Development of microprocessor controlled sensor for measurement of wind speed and direction is the aim of this study. Electrical circuits and software were developed to the existing electromechanical part of the sensor TM-W2 becoming the properties of so-called smart sensor. The measured data about wind speed (sensitivity 0.01 m/s) and direction (0-360° by step 10°) are transmitted as 16-bit information. The connection between sensor and control unit is realized by radio communication (FM 433 MHz). Transition range is 220 m if used Quad type antenna. This concept provides substitution of actual cable systems by wireless ones.

Keywords: smart wind sensor, anemometer, wind speed, wireless communication

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724 Valuation on MEMS Pressure Sensors and Device Applications

Authors: Nurul Amziah Md Yunus, Izhal Abdul Halin, Nasri Sulaiman, Noor Faezah Ismail, Ong Kai Sheng

Abstract:

The MEMS pressure sensor has been introduced and presented in this paper. The types of pressure sensor and its theory of operation are also included. The latest MEMS technology, the fabrication processes of pressure sensor are explored and discussed. Besides, various device applications of pressure sensor such as tire pressure-monitoring system, diesel particulate filter and others are explained. Due to further miniaturization of the device nowadays, the pressure sensor with nanotechnology (NEMS) is also reviewed. The NEMS pressure sensor is expected to have better performance as well as lower in its cost. It has gained an excellent popularity in many applications.

Keywords: Pressure sensor, diaphragm, MEMS, automotive application, biomedical application, NEMS.

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723 Performance Comparison of a Low Cost Air Quality Sensor with a Commercial Electronic Nose

Authors: Ünal Kızıl, Levent Genç, Sefa Aksu, Ahmet Tapınç

Abstract:

The Figaro AM-1 sensor module which employs TGS 2600 model gas sensor in air quality assessment was used. The system was coupled with a microprocessor that enables sensor module to create warning message via telephone. This low cot sensor system’s performance was compared with a DiagNose II commercial electronic nose system. Both air quality sensor and electronic nose system employ metal oxide chemical gas sensors. In the study experimental setup, data acquisition methods for electronic nose system, and performance of the low cost air quality system were evaluated and explained.

Keywords: Air quality, electronic nose, environmental quality, gas sensor.

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722 Design of Permanent Sensor Fault Tolerance Algorithms by Sliding Mode Observer for Smart Hybrid Powerpack

Authors: Sungsik Jo, Hyeonwoo Kim, Iksu Choi, Hunmo Kim

Abstract:

In the SHP, LVDT sensor is for detecting the length changes of the EHA output, and the thrust of the EHA is controlled by the pressure sensor. Sensor is possible to cause hardware fault by internal problem or external disturbance. The EHA of SHP is able to be uncontrollable due to control by feedback from uncertain information, on this paper; the sliding mode observer algorithm estimates the original sensor output information in permanent sensor fault. The proposed algorithm shows performance to recovery fault of disconnection and short circuit basically, also the algorithm detect various of sensor fault mode.

Keywords: Smart Hybrid Powerpack (SHP), Electro Hydraulic Actuator (EHA), Permanent Sensor fault tolerance, Sliding mode observer (SMO), Graphic User Interface (GUI).

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721 A Fast Sensor Relocation Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Yu-Chen Kuo, Shih-Chieh Lin

Abstract:

Sensor relocation is to repair coverage holes caused by node failures. One way to repair coverage holes is to find redundant nodes to replace faulty nodes. Most researches took a long time to find redundant nodes since they randomly scattered redundant nodes around the sensing field. To record the precise position of sensor nodes, most researches assumed that GPS was installed in sensor nodes. However, high costs and power-consumptions of GPS are heavy burdens for sensor nodes. Thus, we propose a fast sensor relocation algorithm to arrange redundant nodes to form redundant walls without GPS. Redundant walls are constructed in the position where the average distance to each sensor node is the shortest. Redundant walls can guide sensor nodes to find redundant nodes in the minimum time. Simulation results show that our algorithm can find the proper redundant node in the minimum time and reduce the relocation time with low message complexity.

Keywords: Coverage, distributed algorithm, sensor relocation, wireless sensor networks.

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720 Security Threats on Wireless Sensor Network Protocols

Authors: H. Gorine, M. Ramadan Elmezughi

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate security issues and challenges facing researchers in wireless sensor networks and countermeasures to resolve them. The broadcast nature of wireless communication makes Wireless Sensor Networks prone to various attacks. Due to resources limitation constraint in terms of limited energy, computation power and memory, security in wireless sensor networks creates different challenges than wired network security. We will discuss several attempts at addressing the issues of security in wireless sensor networks in an attempt to encourage more research into this area.

Keywords: Malicious nodes, network security, soft encryption, threats, wireless sensor networks.

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719 Concepts for Designing Low Power Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Bahareh Gholamzadeh, Hooman Nabovati

Abstract:

Wireless sensor networks have been used in wide areas of application and become an attractive area for researchers in recent years. Because of the limited energy storage capability of sensor nodes, Energy consumption is one of the most challenging aspects of these networks and different strategies and protocols deals with this area. This paper presents general methods for designing low power wireless sensor network. Different sources of energy consumptions in these networks are discussed here and techniques for alleviating the consumption of energy are presented.

Keywords: Energy consumption, MAC protocol, Routing protocol, Sensor node, Topology control, Wireless sensor network.

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718 A Car Parking Monitoring System Using a Line-Topology Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Dae Il Kim, Jungho Moon, Tae Yun Chung

Abstract:

This paper presents a car parking monitoring system using a wireless sensor network. The presented sensor network has a line-shaped topology and adopts a TDMA-based protocol for allowing multi-hop communications. Sensor nodes are deployed in the ground of an outdoor parking lot in such a way that a sensor node monitors a parking space. Each sensor node detects the availability of the associated parking space and transmits the detection result to a sink node via intermediate sensor nodes existing between the source sensor node and the sink node. We evaluate the feasibility of the presented sensor network and the TDMA-based communication protocol through experiments using 11 sensor nodes deployed in a real parking lot. The result shows that the presented car parking monitoring system is robust to changes in the communication environments and efficient for monitoring parking spaces of outdoor parking lots.

Keywords: Multi-hop communication, parking monitoring system, TDMA, wireless sensor network.

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717 RF Link Budget Analysis at 915 MHz band for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Abdellah Chehri, Hussein Mouftah, Paul Fortier, Hasnaa Aniss

Abstract:

Wireless sensor network has recently emerged as enablers of several areas. Real applications of WSN are being explored and some of them are yet to come. While the potential of sensor networks has been only beginning to be realized, several challenges still remain. One of them is the experimental evaluation of WSN. Therefore, deploying and operating a testbed to study the real behavior of WSN become more and more important. The main contribution of this work is to analysis the RF link budget behavior of wireless sensor networks in underground mine gallery.

Keywords: Sensor networks, RF Link, path loss.

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716 Review of Trust Models in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: V. Uma Rani, K. Soma Sundaram

Abstract:

The major challenge faced by wireless sensor networks is security. Because of dynamic and collaborative nature of sensor networks the connected sensor devices makes the network unusable. To solve this issue, a trust model is required to find malicious, selfish and compromised insiders by evaluating trust worthiness sensors from the network. It supports the decision making processes in wireless sensor networks such as pre key-distribution, cluster head selection, data aggregation, routing and self reconfiguration of sensor nodes. This paper discussed the kinds of trust model, trust metrics used to address attacks by monitoring certain behavior of network. It describes the major design issues and their countermeasures of building trust model. It also discusses existing trust models used in various decision making process of wireless sensor networks.

Keywords: Attacks, Security, Trust, Trust model, Wireless sensor network.

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715 Design and Characterization of a CMOS Process Sensor Utilizing Vth Extractor Circuit

Authors: Rohana Musa, Yuzman Yusoff, Chia Chieu Yin, Hanif Che Lah

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and characterization of a low power Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) process sensor. The design is targeted for implementation using Silterra’s 180 nm CMOS process technology. The proposed process sensor employs a voltage threshold (Vth) extractor architecture for detection of variations in the fabrication process. The process sensor generates output voltages in the range of 401 mV (fast-fast corner) to 443 mV (slow-slow corner) at nominal condition. The power dissipation for this process sensor is 6.3 µW with a supply voltage of 1.8V with a silicon area of 190 µm X 60 µm. The preliminary result of this process sensor that was fabricated indicates a close resemblance between test and simulated results.

Keywords: CMOS Process sensor, Process, Voltage and Temperature (PVT) sensor, threshold extractor circuit, Vth extractor circuit.

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714 Challenges for Security in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)

Authors: Muazzam A. Khan, Ghalib A. Shah, Muhammad Sher

Abstract:

Wireless sensor network is formed with the combination of sensor nodes and sink nodes. Recently Wireless sensor network has attracted attention of the research community. The main application of wireless sensor network is security from different attacks both for mass public and military. However securing these networks, by itself is a critical issue due to many constraints like limited energy, computational power and lower memory. Researchers working in this area have proposed a number of security techniques for this purpose. Still, more work needs to be done.In this paper we provide a detailed discussion on security in wireless sensor networks. This paper will help to identify different obstacles and requirements for security of wireless sensor networks as well as highlight weaknesses of existing techniques.

Keywords: Wireless senor networks (WSNs), security, denial of service, black hole, cryptography, stenography.

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713 Performance of a Connected Random Covered Energy Efficient Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: M. Mahdavi, M. Ismail, K. Jumari, Z. M. Hanapi

Abstract:

For the sensor network to operate successfully, the active nodes should maintain both sensing coverage and network connectivity. Furthermore, scheduling sleep intervals plays critical role for energy efficiency of wireless sensor networks. Traditional methods for sensor scheduling use either sensing coverage or network connectivity, but rarely both. In this paper, we use random scheduling for sensing coverage and then turn on extra sensor nodes, if necessary, for network connectivity. Simulation results have demonstrated that the number of extra nodes that is on with upper bound of around 9%, is small compared to the total number of deployed sensor nodes. Thus energy consumption for switching on extra sensor node is small.

Keywords: Wireless sensor networks, energy efficient network, performance analysis, network coverage.

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712 Performance Evaluation of Purely Mechanical Wireless In-Mould Sensor for Injection Moulding

Authors: Florian Müller, Christian Kukla, Thomas Lucyshyn, Clemens Holzer

Abstract:

In this paper, the influencing parameters of a novel purely mechanical wireless in-mould injection moulding sensor were investigated. The sensor is capable of detecting the melt front at predefined locations inside the mould. The sensor comprises a movable pin which acts as the sensor element generating structure-borne sound triggered by the passing melt front. Due to the sensor design, melt pressure is the driving force. For pressure level measurement during pin movement a pressure transducer located at the same position as the movable pin. By deriving a mathematical model for the mechanical movement, dominant process parameters could be investigated towards their impact on the melt front detection characteristic. It was found that the sensor is not affected by the investigated parameters enabling it for reliable melt front detection. In addition, it could be proved that the novel sensor is in comparable range to conventional melt front detection sensors.

Keywords: Injection Moulding, In-Mould Sensor, Structure-Borne Sound, Wireless Sensor

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711 An Overview of Energy Efficient Routing Protocols for Acoustic Sensor Network

Authors: V. P. Dhivya, R. Arthi

Abstract:

Underwater acoustic network is one of the rapidly growing areas of research and finds different applications for monitoring and collecting various data for environmental studies. The communication among dynamic nodes and high error probability in an acoustic medium forced to maximize energy consumption in Underwater Sensor Networks (USN) than in traditional sensor networks. Developing energy-efficient routing protocol is the fundamental and a curb challenge because all the sensor nodes are powered by batteries, and they cannot be easily replaced in UWSNs. This paper surveys the various recent routing techniques that mainly focus on energy efficiency.

Keywords: Acoustic channels, Energy efficiency, Routing in sensor networks, Underwater Sensor Network.

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710 Design of SiC Capacitive Pressure Sensor with LC-Based Oscillator Readout Circuit

Authors: Azza M. Anis, M. M. Abutaleb, Hani F. Ragai, M. I. Eladawy

Abstract:

This paper presents the characterization and design of a capacitive pressure sensor with LC-based 0.35 µm CMOS readout circuit. SPICE is employed to evaluate the characteristics of the readout circuit and COMSOL multiphysics structural analysis is used to simulate the behavior of the pressure sensor. The readout circuit converts the capacitance variation of the pressure sensor into the frequency output. Simulation results show that the proposed pressure sensor has output frequency from 2.50 to 2.28 GHz in a pressure range from 0.1 to 2 MPa almost linearly. The sensitivity of the frequency shift with respect to the applied pressure load is 0.11 GHz/MPa.

Keywords: CMOS LC-based oscillator, micro pressure sensor, silicon carbide

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