Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2254

Search results for: Sensor networks

2254 A Trust Model using Fuzzy Logic in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Tae Kyung Kim, Hee Suk Seo

Abstract:

Adapting various sensor devices to communicate within sensor networks empowers us by providing range of possibilities. The sensors in sensor networks need to know their measurable belief of trust for efficient and safe communication. In this paper, we suggested a trust model using fuzzy logic in sensor network. Trust is an aggregation of consensus given a set of past interaction among sensors. We applied our suggested model to sensor networks in order to show how trust mechanisms are involved in communicating algorithm to choose the proper path from source to destination.

Keywords: Fuzzy, Sensor Networks, Trust.

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2253 Security Threats on Wireless Sensor Network Protocols

Authors: H. Gorine, M. Ramadan Elmezughi

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate security issues and challenges facing researchers in wireless sensor networks and countermeasures to resolve them. The broadcast nature of wireless communication makes Wireless Sensor Networks prone to various attacks. Due to resources limitation constraint in terms of limited energy, computation power and memory, security in wireless sensor networks creates different challenges than wired network security. We will discuss several attempts at addressing the issues of security in wireless sensor networks in an attempt to encourage more research into this area.

Keywords: Malicious nodes, network security, soft encryption, threats, wireless sensor networks.

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2252 RF Link Budget Analysis at 915 MHz band for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Abdellah Chehri, Hussein Mouftah, Paul Fortier, Hasnaa Aniss

Abstract:

Wireless sensor network has recently emerged as enablers of several areas. Real applications of WSN are being explored and some of them are yet to come. While the potential of sensor networks has been only beginning to be realized, several challenges still remain. One of them is the experimental evaluation of WSN. Therefore, deploying and operating a testbed to study the real behavior of WSN become more and more important. The main contribution of this work is to analysis the RF link budget behavior of wireless sensor networks in underground mine gallery.

Keywords: Sensor networks, RF Link, path loss.

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2251 Challenges for Security in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)

Authors: Muazzam A. Khan, Ghalib A. Shah, Muhammad Sher

Abstract:

Wireless sensor network is formed with the combination of sensor nodes and sink nodes. Recently Wireless sensor network has attracted attention of the research community. The main application of wireless sensor network is security from different attacks both for mass public and military. However securing these networks, by itself is a critical issue due to many constraints like limited energy, computational power and lower memory. Researchers working in this area have proposed a number of security techniques for this purpose. Still, more work needs to be done.In this paper we provide a detailed discussion on security in wireless sensor networks. This paper will help to identify different obstacles and requirements for security of wireless sensor networks as well as highlight weaknesses of existing techniques.

Keywords: Wireless senor networks (WSNs), security, denial of service, black hole, cryptography, stenography.

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2250 Cluster-Based Multi-Path Routing Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Si-Gwan Kim

Abstract:

Small-size and low-power sensors with sensing, signal processing and wireless communication capabilities is suitable for the wireless sensor networks. Due to the limited resources and battery constraints, complex routing algorithms used for the ad-hoc networks cannot be employed in sensor networks. In this paper, we propose node-disjoint multi-path hexagon-based routing algorithms in wireless sensor networks. We suggest the details of the algorithm and compare it with other works. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme achieves better performance in terms of efficiency and message delivery ratio.

Keywords: Clustering, multi-path, routing protocol, sensor network.

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2249 Wireless Sensor Networks for Long Distance Pipeline Monitoring

Authors: Augustine C. Azubogu, Victor E. Idigo, Schola U. Nnebe, Obinna S. Oguejiofor, Simon E.

Abstract:

The main goal of this seminal paper is to introduce the application of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) in long distance infrastructure monitoring (in particular in pipeline infrastructure monitoring) – one of the on-going research projects by the Wireless Communication Research Group at the department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. The current sensor network architectures for monitoring long distance pipeline infrastructures are previewed. These are wired sensor networks, RF wireless sensor networks, integrated wired and wireless sensor networks. The reliability of these architectures is discussed. Three reliability factors are used to compare the architectures in terms of network connectivity, continuity of power supply for the network, and the maintainability of the network. The constraints and challenges of wireless sensor networks for monitoring and protecting long distance pipeline infrastructure are discussed.

Keywords: Connectivity, maintainability, reliability, wireless sensor networks.

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2248 Review of Trust Models in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: V. Uma Rani, K. Soma Sundaram

Abstract:

The major challenge faced by wireless sensor networks is security. Because of dynamic and collaborative nature of sensor networks the connected sensor devices makes the network unusable. To solve this issue, a trust model is required to find malicious, selfish and compromised insiders by evaluating trust worthiness sensors from the network. It supports the decision making processes in wireless sensor networks such as pre key-distribution, cluster head selection, data aggregation, routing and self reconfiguration of sensor nodes. This paper discussed the kinds of trust model, trust metrics used to address attacks by monitoring certain behavior of network. It describes the major design issues and their countermeasures of building trust model. It also discusses existing trust models used in various decision making process of wireless sensor networks.

Keywords: Attacks, Security, Trust, Trust model, Wireless sensor network.

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2247 Concepts for Designing Low Power Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Bahareh Gholamzadeh, Hooman Nabovati

Abstract:

Wireless sensor networks have been used in wide areas of application and become an attractive area for researchers in recent years. Because of the limited energy storage capability of sensor nodes, Energy consumption is one of the most challenging aspects of these networks and different strategies and protocols deals with this area. This paper presents general methods for designing low power wireless sensor network. Different sources of energy consumptions in these networks are discussed here and techniques for alleviating the consumption of energy are presented.

Keywords: Energy consumption, MAC protocol, Routing protocol, Sensor node, Topology control, Wireless sensor network.

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2246 Agent-based Framework for Energy Efficiency in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Hongjoong Sin, Jangsoo Lee, Sungju Lee, Seunghwan Yoo, Sanghyuck Lee, Jaesik Lee, Yongjun Lee, Sungchun Kim

Abstract:

Wireless sensor networks are consisted of hundreds or thousands of small sensors that have limited resources. Energy-efficient techniques are the main issue of wireless sensor networks. This paper proposes an energy efficient agent-based framework in wireless sensor networks. We adopt biologically inspired approaches for wireless sensor networks. Agent operates automatically with their behavior policies as a gene. Agent aggregates other agents to reduce communication and gives high priority to nodes that have enough energy to communicate. Agent behavior policies are optimized by genetic operation at the base station. Simulation results show that our proposed framework increases the lifetime of each node. Each agent selects a next-hop node with neighbor information and behavior policies. Our proposed framework provides self-healing, self-configuration, self-optimization properties to sensor nodes.

Keywords: Agent, Energy Efficiency, Genetic algorithm, Wireless Sensor Networks.

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2245 An Overview of Energy Efficient Routing Protocols for Acoustic Sensor Network

Authors: V. P. Dhivya, R. Arthi

Abstract:

Underwater acoustic network is one of the rapidly growing areas of research and finds different applications for monitoring and collecting various data for environmental studies. The communication among dynamic nodes and high error probability in an acoustic medium forced to maximize energy consumption in Underwater Sensor Networks (USN) than in traditional sensor networks. Developing energy-efficient routing protocol is the fundamental and a curb challenge because all the sensor nodes are powered by batteries, and they cannot be easily replaced in UWSNs. This paper surveys the various recent routing techniques that mainly focus on energy efficiency.

Keywords: Acoustic channels, Energy efficiency, Routing in sensor networks, Underwater Sensor Network.

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2244 A Review of Coverage and Routing for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Hamid Barati, Ali Movaghar, Ali Barati, Arash Azizi Mazreah

Abstract:

The special constraints of sensor networks impose a number of technical challenges for employing them. In this review, we study the issues and existing protocols in three areas: coverage and routing. We present two types of coverage problems: to determine the minimum number of sensor nodes that need to perform active sensing in order to monitor a certain area; and to decide the quality of service that can be provided by a given sensor network. While most routing protocols in sensor networks are data-centric, there are other types of routing protocols as well, such as hierarchical, location-based, and QoS-aware. We describe and compare several protocols in each group. We present several multipath routing protocols and single-path with local repair routing protocols, which are proposed for recovering from sensor node crashes. We also discuss some transport layer schemes for reliable data transmission in lossy wireless channels.

Keywords: Sensor networks, Coverage, Routing, Robustness.

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2243 Performance Study of ZigBee-Based Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Afif Saleh Abugharsa

Abstract:

The IEEE 802.15.4 standard is designed for low-rate wireless personal area networks (LR-WPAN) with focus on enabling wireless sensor networks. It aims to give a low data rate, low power consumption, and low cost wireless networking on the device-level communication. The objective of this study is to investigate the performance of IEEE 802.15.4 based networks using simulation tool. In this project the network simulator 2 NS2 was used to several performance measures of wireless sensor networks. Three scenarios were considered, multi hop network with a single coordinator, star topology, and an ad hoc on demand distance vector AODV. Results such as packet delivery ratio, hop delay, and number of collisions are obtained from these scenarios.

Keywords: ZigBee, wireless sensor networks, IEEE 802.15.4, low power, low data rate

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2242 Hybrid MAC Protocols Characteristics in Multi-hops Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: M. Miladi, T. Ezzedine, R. Bouallegue

Abstract:

In the current decade, wireless sensor networks are emerging as a peculiar multi-disciplinary research area. By this way, energy efficiency is one of the fundamental research themes in the design of Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols for wireless sensor networks. Thus, in order to optimize the energy consumption in these networks, a variety of MAC protocols are available in the literature. These schemes were commonly evaluated under simple network density and a few results are published on their robustness in realistic network-s size. We, in this paper, provide an analytical study aiming to highlight the energy waste sources in wireless sensor networks. Then, we experiment three energy efficient hybrid CSMA/CA based MAC protocols optimized for wireless sensor networks: Sensor-MAC (SMAC), Time-out MAC (TMAC) and Traffic aware Energy Efficient MAC (TEEM). We investigate these protocols with different network densities in order to discuss the end-to-end performances of these schemes (i.e. in terms of energy efficiency, delay and throughput). Through Network Simulator (NS- 2) implementations, we explore the behaviors of these protocols with respect to the network density. In fact, this study may help the multihops sensor networks designers to design or select the MAC layer which matches better their applications aims.

Keywords: Energy efficiency, medium access control, network density, wireless sensor networks.

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2241 Establishing Pairwise Keys Using Key Predistribution Schemes for Sensor Networks

Authors: Y. Harold Robinson, M. Rajaram

Abstract:

Designing cost-efficient, secure network protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is a challenging problem because sensors are resource-limited wireless devices. Security services such as authentication and improved pairwise key establishment are critical to high efficient networks with sensor nodes. For sensor nodes to correspond securely with each other efficiently, usage of cryptographic techniques is necessary. In this paper, two key predistribution schemes that enable a mobile sink to establish a secure data-communication link, on the fly, with any sensor nodes. The intermediate nodes along the path to the sink are able to verify the authenticity and integrity of the incoming packets using a predicted value of the key generated by the sender’s essential power. The proposed schemes are based on the pairwise key with the mobile sink, our analytical results clearly show that our schemes perform better in terms of network resilience to node capture than existing schemes if used in wireless sensor networks with mobile sinks.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks, predistribution scheme, cryptographic techniques.

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2240 An Efficient Data Collection Approach for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Hanieh Alipour, Alireza Nemaney Pour

Abstract:

One of the most important applications of wireless sensor networks is data collection. This paper proposes as efficient approach for data collection in wireless sensor networks by introducing Member Forward List. This list includes the nodes with highest priority for forwarding the data. When a node fails or dies, this list is used to select the next node with higher priority. The benefit of this node is that it prevents the algorithm from repeating when a node fails or dies. The results show that Member Forward List decreases power consumption and latency in wireless sensor networks.

Keywords: Data Collection, Wireless Sensor Network, SensorNode, Tree-Based

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2239 A Review on Enhanced Dynamic Clustering in WSN

Authors: M. Sangeetha, A. Sabari, K. Elakkiya

Abstract:

Recent advancement in wireless internetworking has presented a number of dynamic routing protocols based on sensor networks. At present, a number of revisions are made based on their energy efficiency, lifetime and mobility. However, to the best of our knowledge no extensive survey of this special type has been prepared. At present, review is needed in this area where cluster-based structures for dynamic wireless networks are to be discussed. In this paper, we examine and compare several aspects and characteristics of some extensively explored hierarchical dynamic clustering protocols in wireless sensor networks. This document also presents a discussion on the future research topics and the challenges of dynamic hierarchical clustering in wireless sensor networks.

Keywords: Dynamic cluster, Hierarchical clustering, Wireless sensor networks.

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2238 Queen-bee Algorithm for Energy Efficient Clusters in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Z. Pooranian, A. Barati, A. Movaghar

Abstract:

Wireless sensor networks include small nodes which have sensing ability; calculation and connection extend themselves everywhere soon. Such networks have source limitation on connection, calculation and energy consumption. So, since the nodes have limited energy in sensor networks, the optimized energy consumption in these networks is of more importance and has created many challenges. The previous works have shown that by organizing the network nodes in a number of clusters, the energy consumption could be reduced considerably. So the lifetime of the network would be increased. In this paper, we used the Queen-bee algorithm to create energy efficient clusters in wireless sensor networks. The Queen-bee (QB) is similar to nature in that the queen-bee plays a major role in reproduction process. The QB is simulated with J-sim simulator. The results of the simulation showed that the clustering by the QB algorithm decreases the energy consumption with regard to the other existing algorithms and increases the lifetime of the network.

Keywords: Queen-bee, sensor network, energy efficient, clustering.

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2237 A Car Parking Monitoring System Using Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Jung-Ho Moon, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

This paper presents a car parking monitoring system using wireless sensor networks. Multiple sensor nodes and a sink node, a gateway, and a server constitute a wireless network for monitoring a parking lot. Each of the sensor nodes is equipped with a 3-axis AMR sensor and deployed in the center of a parking space. Each sensor node reads its sensor values periodically and transmits the data to the sink node if the current and immediate past sensor values show a difference exceeding a threshold value. The sensor nodes and sink node use the 448 MHz band for wireless communication. Since RF transmission only occurs when sensor values show abrupt changes, the number of RF transmission operations is reduced and battery power can be conserved. The data from the sensor nodes reach the server via the sink node and gateway. The server determines which parking spaces are taken by cars based upon the received sensor data and reference values. The reference values are average sensor values measured by each sensor node when the corresponding parking spot is not occupied by a vehicle. Because the decision making is done by the server, the computational burden of the sensor node is relieved, which helps reduce the duty cycle of the sensor node.

Keywords: Car parking monitoring, magnetometer, sensor node, wireless sensor network.

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2236 Cooperative Energy Efficient Routing for Wireless Sensor Networks in Smart Grid Communications

Authors: Ghazi AL-Sukkar, Iyad Jafar, Khalid Darabkh, Raed Al-Zubi, Mohammed Hawa

Abstract:

Smart Grids employ wireless sensor networks for their control and monitoring. Sensors are characterized by limitations in the processing power, energy supply and memory spaces, which require a particular attention on the design of routing and data management algorithms. Since most routing algorithms for sensor networks, focus on finding energy efficient paths to prolong the lifetime of sensor networks, the power of sensors on efficient paths depletes quickly, and consequently sensor networks become incapable of monitoring events from some parts of their target areas. In consequence, the design of routing protocols should consider not only energy efficiency paths, but also energy efficient algorithms in general. In this paper we propose an energy efficient routing protocol for wireless sensor networks without the support of any location information system. The reliability and the efficiency of this protocol have been demonstrated by simulation studies where we compare them to the legacy protocols. Our simulation results show that these algorithms scale well with network size and density.

Keywords: Data-centric storage, Dynamic Address Allocation, Sensor networks, Smart Grid Communications.

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2235 Simulations of Routing Protocols of Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Kristoffer Clyde Magsino, H. Srikanth Kamath

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Network is widely used in electronics. Wireless sensor networks are now used in many applications including military, environmental, healthcare applications, home automation and traffic control. We will study one area of wireless sensor networks, which is the routing protocol. Routing protocols are needed to send data between sensor nodes and the base station. In this paper, we will discuss two routing protocols, such as datacentric and hierarchical routing protocol. We will show the output of the protocols using the NS-2 simulator. This paper will compare the simulation output of the two routing protocol using Nam. We will simulate using Xgraph to find the throughput and delay of the protocol.

Keywords: data-centric routing protocol, hierarchical routingprotocol, Nam, NS-2, Routing Protocol, sensor nodes, SPIN, throughput, Xgraph

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2234 Coverage and Connectivity Problem in Sensor Networks

Authors: Meenakshi Bansal, Iqbal Singh, Parvinder S. Sandhu

Abstract:

In over deployed sensor networks, one approach to Conserve energy is to keep only a small subset of sensors active at Any instant. For the coverage problems, the monitoring area in a set of points that require sensing, called demand points, and consider that the node coverage area is a circle of range R, where R is the sensing range, If the Distance between a demand point and a sensor node is less than R, the node is able to cover this point. We consider a wireless sensor network consisting of a set of sensors deployed randomly. A point in the monitored area is covered if it is within the sensing range of a sensor. In some applications, when the network is sufficiently dense, area coverage can be approximated by guaranteeing point coverage. In this case, all the points of wireless devices could be used to represent the whole area, and the working sensors are supposed to cover all the sensors. We also introduce Hybrid Algorithm and challenges related to coverage in sensor networks.

Keywords: Wireless sensor networks, network coverage, Energy conservation, Hybrid Algorithms.

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2233 Optical Wireless Sensor Networks Based on VLC with PLC-Ethernet Interface

Authors: Heejin Lee, Yeonjoo Kim, Kyungrak Sohn

Abstract:

We present a white LED-based optical wireless communication systems for indoor ubiquitous sensor networks. Each sensor node could access to the server through the PLC (Power Line Communication)-Ethernet interface. The proposed system offers a full-duplex wireless link by using different wavelengths to reduce the inter-symbol interference between uplink and downlink. Through the 1-to-n optical wireless sensor network and PLC modem, the mobile terminals send a temperature data to server. The data transmission speed and distance are 115.2kbps and about 60cm, respectively.

Keywords: Visible light communications, LED lighting, powerline communications, ubiquitous sensor networks, full-duplex links

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2232 Analysis of Public-Key Cryptography for Wireless Sensor Networks Security

Authors: F. Amin, A. H. Jahangir, H. Rasifard

Abstract:

With the widespread growth of applications of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), the need for reliable security mechanisms these networks has increased manifold. Many security solutions have been proposed in the domain of WSN so far. These solutions are usually based on well-known cryptographic algorithms. In this paper, we have made an effort to survey well known security issues in WSNs and study the behavior of WSN nodes that perform public key cryptographic operations. We evaluate time and power consumption of public key cryptography algorithm for signature and key management by simulation.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks, Security, Public Key Cryptography, Key Management.

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2231 Maximization of Lifetime for Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Energy Efficient Clustering Algorithm

Authors: Frodouard Minani

Abstract:

Since last decade, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been used in many areas like health care, agriculture, defense, military, disaster hit areas and so on. Wireless Sensor Networks consist of a Base Station (BS) and more number of wireless sensors in order to monitor temperature, pressure, motion in different environment conditions. The key parameter that plays a major role in designing a protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks is energy efficiency which is a scarcest resource of sensor nodes and it determines the lifetime of sensor nodes. Maximizing sensor node’s lifetime is an important issue in the design of applications and protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks. Clustering sensor nodes mechanism is an effective topology control approach for helping to achieve the goal of this research. In this paper, the researcher presents an energy efficiency protocol to prolong the network lifetime based on Energy efficient clustering algorithm. The Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) is a routing protocol for clusters which is used to lower the energy consumption and also to improve the lifetime of the Wireless Sensor Networks. Maximizing energy dissipation and network lifetime are important matters in the design of applications and protocols for wireless sensor networks. Proposed system is to maximize the lifetime of the Wireless Sensor Networks by choosing the farthest cluster head (CH) instead of the closest CH and forming the cluster by considering the following parameter metrics such as Node’s density, residual-energy and distance between clusters (inter-cluster distance). In this paper, comparisons between the proposed protocol and comparative protocols in different scenarios have been done and the simulation results showed that the proposed protocol performs well over other comparative protocols in various scenarios.

Keywords: Base station, clustering algorithm, energy efficient, wireless sensor networks.

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2230 Comparative Analysis of Sigmoidal Feedforward Artificial Neural Networks and Radial Basis Function Networks Approach for Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Ashish Payal, C. S. Rai, B. V. R. Reddy

Abstract:

With the increasing use and application of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), need has arisen to explore them in more effective and efficient manner. An important area which can bring efficiency to WSNs is the localization process, which refers to the estimation of the position of wireless sensor nodes in an ad hoc network setting, in reference to a coordinate system that may be internal or external to the network. In this paper, we have done comparison and analysed Sigmoidal Feedforward Artificial Neural Networks (SFFANNs) and Radial Basis Function (RBF) networks for developing localization framework in WSNs. The presented work utilizes the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI), measured by static node on 100 x 100 m2 grid from three anchor nodes. The comprehensive evaluation of these approaches is done using MATLAB software. The simulation results effectively demonstrate that FFANNs based sensor motes will show better localization accuracy as compared to RBF.

Keywords: Localization, wireless sensor networks, artificial neural network, radial basis function, multi-layer perceptron, backpropagation, RSSI.

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2229 Authentication Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Sunil Gupta, Harsh Kumar Verma, AL Sangal

Abstract:

Wireless sensor networks can be used to measure and monitor many challenging problems and typically involve in monitoring, tracking and controlling areas such as battlefield monitoring, object tracking, habitat monitoring and home sentry systems. However, wireless sensor networks pose unique security challenges including forgery of sensor data, eavesdropping, denial of service attacks, and the physical compromise of sensor nodes. Node in a sensor networks may be vanished due to power exhaustion or malicious attacks. To expand the life span of the sensor network, a new node deployment is needed. In military scenarios, intruder may directly organize malicious nodes or manipulate existing nodes to set up malicious new nodes through many kinds of attacks. To avoid malicious nodes from joining the sensor network, a security is required in the design of sensor network protocols. In this paper, we proposed a security framework to provide a complete security solution against the known attacks in wireless sensor networks. Our framework accomplishes node authentication for new nodes with recognition of a malicious node. When deployed as a framework, a high degree of security is reachable compared with the conventional sensor network security solutions. A proposed framework can protect against most of the notorious attacks in sensor networks, and attain better computation and communication performance. This is different from conventional authentication methods based on the node identity. It includes identity of nodes and the node security time stamp into the authentication procedure. Hence security protocols not only see the identity of each node but also distinguish between new nodes and old nodes.

Keywords: Authentication, Key management, Wireless Sensornetwork, Elliptic curve cryptography (ECC).

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2228 A Materialized View Approach to Support Aggregation Operations over Long Periods in Sensor Networks

Authors: Minsoo Lee, Julee Choi, Sookyung Song

Abstract:

The increasing interest on processing data created by sensor networks has evolved into approaches to implement sensor networks as databases. The aggregation operator, which calculates a value from a large group of data such as computing averages or sums, etc. is an essential function that needs to be provided when implementing such sensor network databases. This work proposes to add the DURING clause into TinySQL to calculate values during a specific long period and suggests a way to implement the aggregation service in sensor networks by applying materialized view and incremental view maintenance techniques that is used in data warehouses. In sensor networks, data values are passed from child nodes to parent nodes and an aggregation value is computed at the root node. As such root nodes need to be memory efficient and low powered, it becomes a problem to recompute aggregate values from all past and current data. Therefore, applying incremental view maintenance techniques can reduce the memory consumption and support fast computation of aggregate values.

Keywords: Aggregation, Incremental View Maintenance, Materialized view, Sensor Network.

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2227 A Sub-mW Low Noise Amplifier for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Gianluca Cornetta, David J. Santos, Balwant Godara

Abstract:

A 1.2 V, 0.61 mA bias current, low noise amplifier (LNA) suitable for low-power applications in the 2.4 GHz band is presented. Circuit has been implemented, laid out and simulated using a UMC 130 nm RF-CMOS process. The amplifier provides a 13.3 dB power gain a noise figure NF< 2.28 dB and a 1-dB compression point of -15.69 dBm, while dissipating 0.74 mW. Such performance make this design suitable for wireless sensor networks applications such as ZigBee.

Keywords: Current Reuse, IEEE 802.15.4 (ZigBee), Low NoiseAmplifiers, Wireless Sensor Networks.

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2226 Cooperative Data Caching in WSN

Authors: Narottam Chand

Abstract:

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have gained tremendous attention in recent years due to their numerous applications. Due to the limited energy resource, energy efficient operation of sensor nodes is a key issue in wireless sensor networks. Cooperative caching which ensures sharing of data among various nodes reduces the number of communications over the wireless channels and thus enhances the overall lifetime of a wireless sensor network. In this paper, we propose a cooperative caching scheme called ZCS (Zone Cooperation at Sensors) for wireless sensor networks. In ZCS scheme, one-hop neighbors of a sensor node form a cooperative cache zone and share the cached data with each other. Simulation experiments show that the ZCS caching scheme achieves significant improvements in byte hit ratio and average query latency in comparison with other caching strategies.

Keywords: Admission control, cache replacement, cooperative caching, WSN, zone cooperation

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2225 A Balanced Cost Cluster-Heads Selection Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Ouadoudi Zytoune, Youssef Fakhri, Driss Aboutajdine

Abstract:

This paper focuses on reducing the power consumption of wireless sensor networks. Therefore, a communication protocol named LEACH (Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy) is modified. We extend LEACHs stochastic cluster-head selection algorithm by a modifying the probability of each node to become cluster-head based on its required energy to transmit to the sink. We present an efficient energy aware routing algorithm for the wireless sensor networks. Our contribution consists in rotation selection of clusterheads considering the remoteness of the nodes to the sink, and then, the network nodes residual energy. This choice allows a best distribution of the transmission energy in the network. The cluster-heads selection algorithm is completely decentralized. Simulation results show that the energy is significantly reduced compared with the previous clustering based routing algorithm for the sensor networks.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks, Energy efficiency, WirelessCommunications, Clustering-based algorithm.

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