Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3890

Search results for: Voltage and Temperature (PVT) sensor

3890 A Single-chip Proportional to Absolute Temperature Sensor Using CMOS Technology

Authors: AL.AL, M. B. I. Reaz, S. M. A. Motakabber, Mohd Alauddin Mohd Ali

Abstract:

Nowadays it is a trend for electronic circuit designers to integrate all system components on a single-chip. This paper proposed the design of a single-chip proportional to absolute temperature (PTAT) sensor including a voltage reference circuit using CEDEC 0.18m CMOS Technology. It is a challenge to design asingle-chip wide range linear response temperature sensor for many applications. The channel widths between the compensation transistor and the reference transistor are critical to design the PTAT temperature sensor circuit. The designed temperature sensor shows excellent linearity between -100°C to 200° and the sensitivity is about 0.05mV/°C. The chip is designed to operate with a single voltage source of 1.6V.

Keywords: PTAT, single-chip circuit, linear temperature sensor, CMOS technology.

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3889 Design and Characterization of a CMOS Process Sensor Utilizing Vth Extractor Circuit

Authors: Rohana Musa, Yuzman Yusoff, Chia Chieu Yin, Hanif Che Lah

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and characterization of a low power Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) process sensor. The design is targeted for implementation using Silterra’s 180 nm CMOS process technology. The proposed process sensor employs a voltage threshold (Vth) extractor architecture for detection of variations in the fabrication process. The process sensor generates output voltages in the range of 401 mV (fast-fast corner) to 443 mV (slow-slow corner) at nominal condition. The power dissipation for this process sensor is 6.3 µW with a supply voltage of 1.8V with a silicon area of 190 µm X 60 µm. The preliminary result of this process sensor that was fabricated indicates a close resemblance between test and simulated results.

Keywords: CMOS Process sensor, Process, Voltage and Temperature (PVT) sensor, threshold extractor circuit, Vth extractor circuit.

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3888 A High Precision Temperature Insensitive Current and Voltage Reference Generator

Authors: Kimberly Jane S. Uy, Patricia Angela Reyes-Abu, Wen Yaw Chung

Abstract:

A high precision temperature insensitive current and voltage reference generator is presented. It is specifically developed for temperature compensated oscillator. The circuit, designed using MXIC 0.5um CMOS technology, has an operating voltage that ranges from 2.6V to 5V and generates a voltage of 1.21V and a current of 6.38 ӴA. It exhibits a variation of ±0.3nA for the current reference and a stable output for voltage reference as the temperature is varied from 0°C to 70°C. The power supply rejection ratio obtained without any filtering capacitor at 100Hz and 10MHz is -30dB and -12dB respectively.

Keywords: Current reference, voltage reference, threshold voltage, temperature compensation, mobility.

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3887 Temperature Sensor IC Design for Intracranial Monitoring Device

Authors: Wai Pan Chan, Minkyu Je

Abstract:

A precision CMOS chopping amplifier is adopted in this work to improve a CMOS temperature sensor high sensitive enough for intracranial temperature monitoring. An amplified temperature sensitivity of 18.8 ± 3*0.2 mV/oC is attained over the temperature range from 20 oC to 80 oC from a given 10 samples of the same wafer. The analog frontend design outputs the temperature dependent and the temperature independent signals which can be directly interfaced to a 10 bit ADC to accomplish an accurate temperature instrumentation system.

Keywords: Chopping, analog frontend, CMOS temperature sensor, traumatic brain injury (TBI), intracranial temperature monitoring.

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3886 Measurement of Temperature, Humidity and Strain Variation Using Bragg Sensor

Authors: Amira Zrelli, Tahar Ezzeddine

Abstract:

Measurement and monitoring of temperature, humidity and strain variation are very requested in great fields and areas such as structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. Currently, the use of fiber Bragg grating sensors (FBGS) is very recommended in SHM systems due to the specifications of these sensors. In this paper, we present the theory of Bragg sensor, therefore we try to measure the efficient variation of strain, temperature and humidity (SV, ST, SH) using Bragg sensor. Thus, we can deduce the fundamental relation between these parameters and the wavelength of Bragg sensor.

Keywords: Optical fiber, strain, temperature, humidity, measurement, Bragg sensor, SHM.

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3885 Comparative Finite Element Simulation of Nonlinear Vibrations and Sensor Output Voltage of Smart Piezolaminated Structures

Authors: Ruediger Schmidt, Thang Duy Vu

Abstract:

Two geometrically nonlinear plate theories, based either on first- or third-order transverse shear deformation theory are used for finite element modeling and simulation of the transient response of smart structures incorporating piezoelectric layers. In particular the time histories of nonlinear vibrations and sensor voltage output of a thin beam with a piezoelectric patch bonded to the surface due to an applied step force are studied.

Keywords: Nonlinear vibrations, piezoelectric patches, sensor voltage output, smart structures.

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3884 Design of Measurement Interface and System for Ion Sensors

Authors: Jung-Chuan Chou, Chang-Chi Lee

Abstract:

A measurement system was successfully fabricated to detect ion concentrations (hydrogen and chlorine) in this study. PIC18F4520, the microcontroller was used as the control unit in the measurement system. The measurement system was practically used to sense the H+ and Cl- in different examples, and the pH and pCl values were exhibited on real-time LCD display promptly. In the study, the measurement method is used to judge whether the response voltage is stable. The change quantity is smaller than 0.01%, that the present response voltage compares with next response voltage for H+ measurement, and the above condition is established only 6 sec. Besides, the change quantity is smaller than 0.01%, that the present response voltage compares with next response voltage for Clmeasurement, and the above condition is established only 5 sec. Furthermore, the average error quantities would also be considered, and they are 0.05 and 0.07 for measurements of pH and pCl values, respectively.

Keywords: Chlorine ion sensor, hydrogen ion sensor, microcontroller, response voltage.

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3883 C-V Characterization and Analysis of Temperature and Channel Thickness Effects on Threshold Voltage of Ultra-thin SOI MOSFET by Self-Consistent Model

Authors: Shuvro Chowdhury, Esmat Farzana, Rizvi Ahmed, A. T. M. Golam Sarwar, M. Ziaur Rahman Khan

Abstract:

The threshold voltage and capacitance voltage characteristics of ultra-thin Silicon-on-Insulator MOSFET are greatly influenced by the thickness and doping concentration of the silicon film. In this work, the capacitance voltage characteristics and threshold voltage of the device have been analyzed with quantum mechanical effects using the Self-Consistent model. Reduction of channel thickness and adding doping impurities cause an increase in the threshold voltage. Moreover, the temperature effects cause a significant amount of threshold voltage shift. The temperature dependence of threshold voltage has also been observed with Self- Consistent approach which are well supported from experimental performance of practical devices.

Keywords: C-V characteristics, Self-Consistent Analysis, Siliconon-Insulator, Ultra-thin film.

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3882 A Semi-Cylindrical Capacitive Sensor Used for Soil Moisture Measurement

Authors: Subir Das, Tuhin Subhra Sarkar, Badal Chakraborty

Abstract:

Differing from the structure of traditional parallel plate capacitive sensor a semi cylindrical capacitive sensor has been introduced in this present work to measure the soil moisture conveniently. Here, the numerical analysis method to evaluate the capacitance from the semi-cylindrical capacitive sensor is analyzed and discussed. The changes of capacitance with the variation of soil moisture obtained linear in the nano farad range (nF) and which converted into voltage variation by using proper signal conditioning circuit. Experimental results depict the satisfactory performance of the sensor for measurement of soil moisture in the range of 0 to 70%. We investigated the linearity of 4% of FSO and sensitivity of 70 mV/unit percentage changes in soil moisture level (DB).

Keywords: Semi cylindrical Capacitive Sensor, Capacitance to Voltage converter Circuit, Soil Moisture.

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3881 A Nobel Approach for Campus Monitoring

Authors: Rashmi Priyadarshini, S. R. N. Reddy, R. M. Mehra

Abstract:

This paper presents one of the best applications of wireless sensor network for campus Monitoring. With the help of PIR sensor, temperature sensor and humidity sensor, effective utilization of energy resources has been implemented in one of rooms of Sharda University, Greater Noida, India. The RISC microcontroller is used here for analysis of output of sensors and providing proper control using ZigBee protocol. This wireless sensor module presents a tremendous power saving method for any campus

Keywords: PIC microcontroller, wireless sensor network, ZigBee.

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3880 A Floating Gate MOSFET Based Novel Programmable Current Reference

Authors: V. Suresh Babu, Haseena P. S., Varun P. Gopi, M. R. Baiju

Abstract:

In this paper a scheme is proposed for generating a programmable current reference which can be implemented in the CMOS technology. The current can be varied over a wide range by changing an external voltage applied to one of the control gates of FGMOS (Floating Gate MOSFET). For a range of supply voltages and temperature, CMOS current reference is found to be dependent, this dependence is compensated by subtracting two current outputs with the same dependencies on the supply voltage and temperature. The system performance is found to improve with the use of FGMOS. Mathematical analysis of the proposed circuit is done to establish supply voltage and temperature independence. Simulation and performance evaluation of the proposed current reference circuit is done using TANNER EDA Tools. The current reference shows the supply and temperature dependencies of 520 ppm/V and 312 ppm/oC, respectively. The proposed current reference can operate down to 0.9 V supply.

Keywords: Floating Gate MOSFET, current reference, self bias scheme, temperature independency, supply voltage independency.

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3879 A New Empirical Expression of the Breakdown Voltage for Combined Variations of Temperature and Pressure

Authors: Elyse Sili, Jean Pascal Cambronne

Abstract:

In aircraft applications, according to the nature of electrical equipment its location may be in unpressurized area or very close to the engine; thus, the environmental conditions may change from atmospheric pressure to less than 100 mbar, and the temperature may be higher than the ambient one as in most real working conditions of electrical equipment. Then, the classical Paschen curve has to be replotted since these parameters may affect the discharge ignition voltage. In this paper, we firstly investigate the domain of validity of two corrective expressions on the Paschen-s law found in the literature, in case of changing the air environment and known as Peek and Dunbar corrections. Results show that these corrections are no longer valid for combined variation of temperature and pressure. After that, a new empirical expression for breakdown voltage is proposed and is validated in the case of combined variations of temperature and pressure.

Keywords: Gas breakdown, gas density, Paschen curve, temperature effects

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3878 High Temperature Hydrogen Sensors Based On Pd/Ta2O5/SiC MOS Capacitor

Authors: J. H. Choi, S. J. Kim, M. S. Jung, S. J. Kim, S. J. Joo, S. C. Kim

Abstract:

There are a many of needs for the development of SiC-based hydrogen sensor for harsh environment applications. We fabricated and investigated Pd/Ta2O5/SiC-based hydrogen sensors with MOS capacitor structure for high temperature process monitoring and leak detection applications in such automotive, chemical and petroleum industries as well as direct monitoring of combustion processes. In this work, we used silicon carbide (SiC) as a substrate to replace silicon which operating temperatures are limited to below 200°C. Tantalum oxide was investigated as dielectric layer which has high permeability for hydrogen gas and high dielectric permittivity, compared with silicon dioxide or silicon nitride. Then, electrical response properties, such as I-V curve and dependence of capacitance on hydrogen concentrations were analyzed in the temperature ranges of room temperature to 500°C for performance evaluation of the sensor.

Keywords: High temperature, hydrogen sensor, SiC, Ta2O5 dielectric layer.

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3877 Accurate Position Electromagnetic Sensor Using Data Acquisition System

Authors: Z. Ezzouine, A. Nakheli

Abstract:

This paper presents a high position electromagnetic sensor system (HPESS) that is applicable for moving object detection. The authors have developed a high-performance position sensor prototype dedicated to students’ laboratory. The challenge was to obtain a highly accurate and real-time sensor that is able to calculate position, length or displacement. An electromagnetic solution based on a two coil induction principal was adopted. The HPESS converts mechanical motion to electric energy with direct contact. The output signal can then be fed to an electronic circuit. The voltage output change from the sensor is captured by data acquisition system using LabVIEW software. The displacement of the moving object is determined. The measured data are transmitted to a PC in real-time via a DAQ (NI USB -6281). This paper also describes the data acquisition analysis and the conditioning card developed specially for sensor signal monitoring. The data is then recorded and viewed using a user interface written using National Instrument LabVIEW software. On-line displays of time and voltage of the sensor signal provide a user-friendly data acquisition interface. The sensor provides an uncomplicated, accurate, reliable, inexpensive transducer for highly sophisticated control systems.

Keywords: Electromagnetic sensor, data acquisition, accurately, position measurement.

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3876 Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System: System Overview and Sizing Principles

Authors: Najiya Omar, Hamed Aly, Timothy Little

Abstract:

The optimal size of a photovoltaic (PV) array is considered a critical factor in designing an efficient PV system due to the dependence of the PV cell performance on temperature. A high temperature can lead to voltage losses of solar panels, whereas a low temperature can cause voltage overproduction. There are two possible scenarios of the inverter’s operation in which they are associated with the erroneous calculations of the number of PV panels: 1) If the number of the panels is scant and the temperature is high, the minimum voltage required to operate the inverter will not be reached. As a result, the inverter will shut down. 2) Comparably, if the number of panels is excessive and the temperature is low, the produced voltage will be more than the maximum limit of the inverter which can cause the inverter to get disconnected or even damaged. This article aims to assess theoretical and practical methodologies to calculate size and determine the topology of a PV array. The results are validated by applying an experimental evaluation for a 100 kW Grid-connected PV system for a location in Halifax, Nova Scotia and achieving a satisfactory system performance compared to the previous work done.

Keywords: Sizing PV panels, grid-connected PV, topology of PV array, theoretical and practical methodologies.

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3875 Model and Control of Renewable Energy Systems

Authors: Yelena Chaiko

Abstract:

This paper presents a developed method for controlling multi-renewable energy generators. The control system depends basically on three sensors (wind anemometer, solar sensor, and voltage sensor). These sensors represent PLC-s analogue inputs. Controlling the output voltage supply can be achieved by an enhanced method of interlocking between the renewable energy generators, depending on those sensors and output contactors.

Keywords: Renewable, energy, control, model, generator.

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3874 Design of a Hand-Held, Clamp-on, Leakage Current Sensor for High Voltage Direct Current Insulators

Authors: Morné Roman, Robert van Zyl, Nishanth Parus, Nishal Mahatho

Abstract:

Leakage current monitoring for high voltage transmission line insulators is of interest as a performance indicator. Presently, to the best of our knowledge, there is no commercially available, clamp-on type, non-intrusive device for measuring leakage current on energised high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission line insulators. The South African power utility, Eskom, is investigating the development of such a hand-held sensor for two important applications; first, for continuous real-time condition monitoring of HVDC line insulators and, second, for use by live line workers to determine if it is safe to work on energised insulators. In this paper, a DC leakage current sensor based on magnetic field sensing techniques is developed. The magnetic field sensor used in the prototype can also detect alternating current up to 5 MHz. The DC leakage current prototype detects the magnetic field associated with the current flowing on the surface of the insulator. Preliminary HVDC leakage current measurements are performed on glass insulators. The results show that the prototype can accurately measure leakage current in the specified current range of 1-200 mA. The influence of external fields from the HVDC line itself on the leakage current measurements is mitigated through a differential magnetometer sensing technique. Thus, the developed sensor can perform measurements on in-service HVDC insulators. The research contributes to the body of knowledge by providing a sensor to measure leakage current on energised HVDC insulators non-intrusively. This sensor can also be used by live line workers to inform them whether or not it is safe to perform maintenance on energized insulators.

Keywords: Direct current, insulator, leakage current, live line, magnetic field, sensor, transmission lines.

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3873 Gate Voltage Controlled Humidity Sensing Using MOSFET of VO2 Particles

Authors: A. A. Akande, B. P. Dhonge, B. W. Mwakikunga, A. G. J. Machatine

Abstract:

This article presents gate-voltage controlled humidity sensing performance of vanadium dioxide nanoparticles prepared from NH4VO3 precursor using microwave irradiation technique. The X-ray diffraction, transmission electron diffraction, and Raman analyses reveal the formation of VO2 (B) with V2O5 and an amorphous phase. The BET surface area is found to be 67.67 m2/g. The humidity sensing measurements using the patented lateral-gate MOSFET configuration was carried out. The results show the optimum response at 5 V up to 8 V of gate voltages for 10 to 80% of relative humidity. The dose-response equation reveals the enhanced resilience of the gated VO2 sensor which may saturate above 272% humidity. The response and recovery times are remarkably much faster (about 60 s) than in non-gated VO2 sensors which normally show response and recovery times of the order of 5 minutes (300 s).

Keywords: VO2, VO2 (B), V2O5, MOSFET, gate voltage, humidity sensor.

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3872 Pull-In Instability Determination of Microcapacitive Sensor for Measuring Special Range of Pressure

Authors: Yashar Haghighatfar, Shahrzad Mirhosseini

Abstract:

Pull-in instability is a nonlinear and crucial effect that is important for the design of microelectromechanical system devices. In this paper, the appropriate electrostatic voltage range is determined by measuring fluid flow pressure via micro pressure sensor based microbeam. The microbeam deflection contains two parts, the static and perturbation deflection of static. The second order equation regarding the equivalent stiffness, mass and damping matrices based on Galerkin method is introduced to predict pull-in instability due to the external voltage. Also the reduced order method is used for solving the second order nonlinear equation of motion. Furthermore, in the present study, the micro capacitive pressure sensor is designed for measuring special fluid flow pressure range. The results show that the measurable pressure range can be optimized, regarding damping field and external voltage.

Keywords: MEMS, pull-in instability, electrostatically actuated microbeam, reduced order method.

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3871 A Temperature-Insensitive Wide-Dynamic Range Positive/Negative Full-Wave Rectifier Based on Operational Trasconductance Amplifier using Commercially Available ICs

Authors: C. Chanapromma, T. Worachak, P. Silapan

Abstract:

This paper presents positive and negative full-wave rectifier. The proposed structure is based on OTA using commercially available ICs (LT1228). The features of the proposed circuit are that: it can rectify and amplify voltage signal with controllable output magnitude via input bias current: the output voltage is free from temperature variation. The circuit description merely consists of 1 single ended and 3 fully differential OTAs. The performance of the proposed circuit are investigated though PSpice. They show that the proposed circuit can function as positive/negative full-wave rectifier, where the voltage input wide-dynamic range from -5V to 5V. Furthermore, the output voltage is slightly dependent on the temperature variations.

Keywords: Full-wave rectifier, Positive/negative, OTA, Electronically controllable, Wide-dynamic range

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3870 Subthreshold Circuit Performance Investigation under Temperature Variations

Authors: Mohd. Hasan, Ajmal Kafeel, S. D. Pable

Abstract:

Ultra-low-power (ULP) circuits have received widespread attention due to the rapid growth of biomedical applications and Battery-less Electronics. Subthreshold region of transistor operation is used in ULP circuits. Major research challenge in the subthreshold operating region is to extract the ULP benefits with minimal degradation in speed and robustness. Process, Voltage and Temperature (PVT) variations significantly affect the performance of subthreshold circuits. Designed performance parameters of ULP circuits may vary largely due to temperature variations. Hence, this paper investigates the effect of temperature variation on device and circuit performance parameters at different biasing voltages in the subthreshold region. Simulation results clearly demonstrate that in deep subthreshold and near threshold voltage regions, performance parameters are significantly affected whereas in moderate subthreshold region, subthreshold circuits are more immune to temperature variations. This establishes that moderate subthreshold region is ideal for temperature immune circuits.

Keywords: Subthreshold, temperature variations, ultralow power.

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3869 Design and Implementation of an Intelligent System for Detection of Hazardous Gases using PbPc Sensor Array

Authors: Mahmoud Z. Iskandarani, Nidal F. Shilbayeh

Abstract:

The voltage/current characteristics and the effect of NO2 gas on the electrical conductivity of a PbPc gas sensor array is investigated. The gas sensor is manufactured using vacuum deposition of gold electrodes on sapphire substrate with the leadphathalocyanine vacuum sublimed on the top of the gold electrodes. Two versions of the PbPc gas sensor array are investigated. The tested types differ in the gap sizes between the deposited gold electrodes. The sensors are tested at different temperatures to account for conductivity changes as the molecular adsorption/desorption rate is affected by heat. The obtained results found to be encouraging as the sensors shoed stability and sensitivity towards low concentration of applied NO2 gas.

Keywords: Intelligent System, PbPc, Gas Sensor, Hardware, Software, Neural.

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3868 Application of Formyl-TIPPCu (II) for Temperature and Light Sensing

Authors: Dil Nawaz Khan, M. H. Sayyad, Muhammad Yaseen, Munawar Ali Munawar, Mukhtar Ali

Abstract:

Effect of temperature and light was investigated on a thin film of organic semiconductor formyl-TIPPCu(II) deposited on a glass substrate with preliminary evaporated gold electrodes. The electrical capacitance and resistance of the fabricated device were evaluated under the effect of temperature and light. The relative capacitance of the fabricated sensor increased by 4.3 times by rising temperature from 27 to 1870C, while under illumination up to 25000 lx, the capacitance of the Au/formyl-TIPPCu(II)/Au photo capacitive sensor increased continuously by 13.2 times as compared to dark conditions.

Keywords: formyl-TIPPCu(II), Organic semiconductor, Photocapacitance, Polarizability.

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3867 Modeling and Simulation of Dynamic Voltage Restorer for Mitigation of Voltage Sags

Authors: S. Ganesh, L. Raguraman, E. Anushya, J. krishnasree

Abstract:

Voltage sags are the most common power quality disturbance in the distribution system. It occurs due to the fault in the electrical network or by the starting of a large induction motor and this can be solved by using the custom power devices such as Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR). In this paper DVR is proposed to compensate voltage sags on critical loads dynamically. The DVR consists of VSC, injection transformers, passive filters and energy storage (lead acid battery). By injecting an appropriate voltage, the DVR restores a voltage waveform and ensures constant load voltage. The simulation and experimental results of a DVR using MATLAB software shows clearly the performance of the DVR in mitigating voltage sags.

Keywords: Dynamic voltage restorer, Voltage sags, Power quality, Injection methods.

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3866 Design of a Novel Inclination Sensor Utilizing Grayscale Image

Authors: Tuhin Subhra Sarkar, Subir Das

Abstract:

Several research works have been done in recent times utilizing grayscale image for the measurement of many physical phenomena. In this present paper, we have designed an embedded based inclination sensor utilizing the grayscale image with a resolution of 0.3º. The sensor module consists of a circular shaped metal disc, laminated with grayscale image and an optical transreceiver. The sensor principle is based on temporal changes in light intensity by the movement of grayscale image with the inclination of the target surface and the variation of light intensity has been detected in terms of voltage by the signal processing circuit (SPC).The output of SPC is fed to a microcontroller program to display the inclination angel digitally. The experimental results are shown a satisfactory performance of the sensor in a small inclination measuring range of -40º to + 40º with a sensitivity of 62 mV/°.

Keywords: Grayscale image, Inclination Sensor, Microcontroller Program, Signal Processing Circuit.

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3865 Lookup Table Reduction and Its Error Analysis of Hall Sensor-Based Rotation Angle Measurement

Authors: Young-San Shin, Seongsoo Lee

Abstract:

Hall sensor is widely used to measure rotation angle. When the Hall voltage is measured for linear displacement, it is converted to angular displacement using arctangent function, which requires a large lookup table. In this paper, a lookup table reduction technique is presented for angle measurement. When the input of the lookup table is small within a certain threshold, the change of the outputs with respect to the change of the inputs is relatively small. Thus, several inputs can share same output, which significantly reduce the lookup table size. Its error analysis was also performed, and the threshold was determined so as to maintain the error less than 1°. When the Hall voltage has 11-bit resolution, the lookup table size is reduced from 1,024 samples to 279 samples.

Keywords: Hall sensor, angle measurement, lookup table, arctangent.

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3864 Low Temperature Ethanol Gas Sensor based on SnO2/MWNTs Nanocomposite

Authors: O. Alizadeh Sahraei, A. Khodadadi, Y. Mortazavi, M. Vesali Naseh, S. Mosadegh

Abstract:

A composite made of plasma functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) coated with SnO2 was synthesized by sonochemical precipitation method. Thick layer of this nanocomposite material was used as ethanol sensor at low temperatures. The composite sensitivity for ethanol has increased by a factor of 2 at room temperature and by a factor of 13 at 250°C in comparison to that of pure SnO2. SEM image of nanocomposite material showed MWNTs were embedded in SnO2 matrix and also a higher surface area was observed in the presence of functionalized MWNTs. Greatly improved sensitivity of the composite material to ethanol can be attributed to new gas accessing passes through MWNTs and higher specific surface area.

Keywords: Carbon nanotube, Functionalized, Gas sensor, Low temperature, Nanocomposite, Tin oxide.

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3863 Effect of Applied Voltage Frequency on Electrical Treeing in 22 kV Cross-linked Polyethylene Insulated Cable

Authors: R. Thiamsri, N. Ruangkajonmathee, A. Oonsivilaiand B. Marungsri

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental results on effect of applied voltage stress frequency to the occurrence of electrical treeing in 22 kV cross linked polyethylene (XLPE) insulated cable.Hallow disk of XLPE insulating material with thickness 5 mm taken from unused high voltage cable was used as the specimen in this study. Stainless steel needle was inserted gradually into the specimen to give a tip to earth plane electrode separation of 2.50.2 mm at elevated temperature 105-110°C. The specimen was then annealed for 5 minute to minimize any mechanical stress build up around the needle-plane region before it was cooled down to room temperature. Each specimen were subjected to the same applied voltage stress level at 8 kV AC rms, with various frequency, 50, 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz. Initiation time, propagation speed and pattern of electrical treeing were examined in order to study the effect of applied voltage stress frequency. By the experimental results, initial time of visible treeing decreases with increasing in applied voltage frequency. Also, obviously, propagation speed of electrical treeing increases with increasing in applied voltage frequency.Furthermore, two types of electrical treeing, bush-like and branch-like treeing were observed.The experimental results confirmed the effect of voltage stress frequency as well.

Keywords: Voltage stress frequency, cross-linked polyethylene, electrical treeing, treeing propagation, treeing pattern

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3862 Effect of DG Installation in Distribution System for Voltage Monitoring Scheme

Authors: S. R. A. Rahim, I. Musirin, M. M. Othman, M. H. Hussain

Abstract:

Loss minimization is a long progressing issue mainly in distribution system. Nevertheless its effect led to temperature rise due to significant voltage drop through the distribution line. Thus, compensation scheme should be proper scheduled in the attempt to alleviate the voltage drop phenomenon. Distributed generation has been profoundly known for voltage profile improvement; provided that over-compensation or under-compensation phenomena are avoided. This paper addresses the issue of voltage improvement through different type DG installation. In ensuring optimal sizing and location of the DGs, pre-developed EMEFA technique was made use for this purpose. Incremental loading condition subjected to the system is the concern such that it is beneficial to the power system operator.

Keywords: Distributed generation, EMEFA, power loss, voltage profile.

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3861 Temperature Effect on the Organic Solar Cells Parameters

Authors: F.Belhocine-Nemmar; MS.Belkaid D. Hatem, O Boughias

Abstract:

In this work, the influence of temperature on the different parameters of solar cells based on organic semiconductors are studied. The short circuit current Isc increases so monotonous with temperature and then saturates to a maximum value before decreasing at high temperatures. The open circuit voltage Vco decreases linearly with temperature. The fill factor FF and efficiency, which are directly related with Isc and Vco follow the variations of the letters. The phenomena are explained by the behaviour of the mobility which is a temperature activated process.

Keywords: cells parameters, organic materials, solar cells, temperature effect

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