Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4996

Search results for: interface design

4996 The Effect of Culture on User Interface Design of Social Media - A Case Study on Preferences of Saudi Arabians on the Arabic User Interface of Facebook

Authors: Hana Almakky, Reza Sahandi, Jacqui Taylor

Abstract:

Social media continues to grow, and user interfaces may become more appealing if cultural characteristics are incorporated into their design. Facebook was designed in the west, and the original language was English. Subsequently, the words in the user interface were translated to other languages, including Arabic. Arabic words are written from right to left, and English is written from left to right. The translated version may misrepresent the original design and users’ preferences may be influenced by their culture, which should be considered in the user interface design. Previous research indicates that users are more comfortable when interacting with a user interface, which relates to their own culture. Therefore, this paper, using a survey, investigates the preferences of Saudi Arabians on the Arabic version of the user interface of Facebook.

Keywords: Culture, Facebook, Saudi Arabia, Social media, User Interface Design.

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4995 Design Aesthetics of Mobile Interface

Authors: Shafiq ur Rehman, Jane-Lisa Coughlan

Abstract:

Mobiles are considered to be the most frequently used electronic items in world after electricity. It is probably the only device that can be used by any gender with no age limits depending on its functionality. This paper present the interactive interface of Mobile and particularly aiming the use of advanced phones which are also called smart phones. With the changes in the trend where users are now moving from ordinary mobiles to the one with touch screens and facilities such as WiFi and internet browsing.

Keywords: interface design, functionality, intelligent system

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4994 An Approach to Task Modeling for User Interface Design

Authors: Costin Pribeanu

Abstract:

The model-based approach to user interface design relies on developing separate models capturing various aspects about users, tasks, application domain, presentation and dialog structures. This paper presents a task modeling approach for user interface design and aims at exploring mappings between task, domain and presentation models. The basic idea of our approach is to identify typical configurations in task and domain models and to investigate how they relate each other. A special emphasis is put on applicationspecific functions and mappings between domain objects and operational task structures. In this respect, we will address two layers in task decomposition: a functional (planning) layer and an operational layer.

Keywords: task modeling, user interface design, unit tasks, basic tasks, operational task model.

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4993 Task Modeling for User Interface Design: A Layered Approach

Authors: Costin Pribeanu

Abstract:

The model-based approach to user interface design relies on developing separate models that are capturing various aspects about users, tasks, application domain, presentation and dialog representations. This paper presents a task modeling approach for user interface design and aims at exploring the mappings between task, domain and presentation models. The basic idea of our approach is to identify typical configurations in task and domain models and to investigate how they relate each other. A special emphasis is put on application-specific functions and mappings between domain objects and operational task structures. In this respect, we will distinguish between three layers in the task decomposition: a functional layer, a planning layer, and an operational layer.

Keywords: task modeling, user interface design, unit tasks, basic tasks, operational task model

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4992 A Novel Optimized JTAG Interface Circuit Design

Authors: Chenguang Guo, Lei Chen, Yanlong Zhang

Abstract:

This paper describes a novel optimized JTAG interface circuit between a JTAG controller and target IC. Being able to access JTAG using only one or two pins, this circuit does not change the original boundary scanning test frequency of target IC. Compared with the traditional JTAG interface which based on IEEE std. 1149.1, this reduced pin technology is more applicability in pin limited devices, and it is easier to control the scale of target IC for the designer.

Keywords: Boundary scan, JTAG interface, Test frequency, Reduced pin

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4991 Low Power Capacitance-to-Voltage Converter for Magnetometer Interface IC

Authors: Dipankar Nag, Choe Andrew Kunil, Kevin Chai Tshun Chuan, Minkyu Je

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and implementation of a fully integrated Capacitance-to-Voltage Converter (CVC) as the analog front-end for magnetometer interface IC. The application demands very low power solution operating in the frequency of around 20 KHz. The design adapts low power architecture to create low noise electronic interface for Capacitive Micro-machined Lorentz force magnetometer sensor. Using a 0.18-μm CMOS process, simulation results of this interface IC show that the proposed CVC can provide 33 dB closed loop gain, 20 nV/√Hz input referred noise at 20 KHz, while consuming 65 μA current from 1.8-V supply. 

Keywords: Analog front end, Capacitance-to-Voltage Converter, Magnetometer, MEMS, Recycling Folded Cascode.

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4990 Issues in the User Interface Design of a Content Rich Vocational Training Application for Digitally Illiterate Users

Authors: Jamie Otelsberg, Nagarajan Akshay, Rao R. Bhavani

Abstract:

This paper discusses our preliminary experiences in the design of a user interface of a computerized content-rich vocational training courseware meant for users with little or no computer experience. In targeting a growing population with limited access to skills training of any sort, we faced numerous challenges, including language and cultural differences, resource limits, gender boundaries and, in many cases, the simple lack of trainee motivation. With the size of the unskilled population increasing much more rapidly than the numbers of sufficiently skilled teachers, there is little choice but to develop teaching techniques that will take advantage of emerging computer-based training technologies. However, in striving to serve populations with minimal computer literacy, one must carefully design the user interface to accommodate their cultural, social, educational, motivational and other differences. Our work, which uses computer based and haptic simulation technologies to deliver training to these populations, has provided some useful insights on potential user interface design approaches.

Keywords: User interface design, digitally illiterate, vocational training, navigation issues, computer human interaction, human factors.

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4989 Development of Optimized User Interface of Public Transit Navigator for a Smartphone

Authors: Masahiro Taketa, Masaki Ito, Takao Kawamura, Kazunori Sugahara

Abstract:

We develop a new interface for Bus-Net which is optimized for a smartphone. We are continuing to develop the shortest path planning system of public transportation called "Bus-Net" in Tottori prefecture as web application to improve the usability of public transportation. Recent trend of computing platform, however has shifted to an advanced mobile device called a smartphone such as iPhone and Android in Japan. A smartphone has different characters with existing feature phone in terms of OS, large touche panel, and several other features. We derive a guideline to design the new interface for a smartphone to full use of the functionality. The guideline is about simplicity of user-s operation, location awareness and usability. We developed the new interface for “Bus-Net" on iPhone referring to the guideline. Due to the evaluation, the application interface we developed is better than the existing web-based interface in terms of the usability.

Keywords: Path Planning, Public Transportation, Smartphone, User Interface

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4988 Age-Based Interface Design for Children’s CAPT Systems

Authors: Saratu Yusuf Ilu, Mumtaz B. Mustafa, Siti Salwah Salim, Mehdi Malekzadeh

Abstract:

Children today use computer based application in various activities especially for learning and education. Many of these tools and application such as the Computer Aided Pronunciation Training (CAPT) systems enable children to explore and experience them with little supervision from the adults. In order for these tools and application to have maximum effect on the children’s learning and education, it must be attractive to the children to use them. This could be achieved with the proper user interface (UI) design. As children grow, so do their ability, taste and preferences. They interact differently with these applications as they grow older. This study reviews several articles on how age factors influence the UI design. The review focuses on age related abilities such as cognitive, literacy, concentration and feedback requirement. We have also evaluated few of existing CAPT systems and determine the influence of age-based factors on the interface design.

Keywords: Children, age-based interaction, learning application, age-based UI.

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4987 WAF: an Interface Web Agent Framework

Authors: Xizhi Li, Qinming He

Abstract:

A trend in agent community or enterprises is that they are shifting from closed to open architectures composed of a large number of autonomous agents. One of its implications could be that interface agent framework is getting more important in multi-agent system (MAS); so that systems constructed for different application domains could share a common understanding in human computer interface (HCI) methods, as well as human-agent and agent-agent interfaces. However, interface agent framework usually receives less attention than other aspects of MAS. In this paper, we will propose an interface web agent framework which is based on our former project called WAF and a Distributed HCI template. A group of new functionalities and implications will be discussed, such as web agent presentation, off-line agent reference, reconfigurable activation map of agents, etc. Their enabling techniques and current standards (e.g. existing ontological framework) are also suggested and shown by examples from our own implementation in WAF.

Keywords: HCI, Interface agent, MAS.

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4986 A Capacitive Sensor Interface Circuit Based on Phase Differential Method

Authors: H. A. Majid, N. Razali, M. S. Sulaiman, A. K. A'ain

Abstract:

A new interface circuit for capacitive sensor is presented. This paper presents the design and simulation of soil moisture capacitive sensor interface circuit based on phase differential technique. The circuit has been designed and fabricated using MIMOS- 0.35"m CMOS technology. Simulation and test results show linear characteristic from 36 – 52 degree phase difference, representing 0 – 100% in soil moisture level. Test result shows the circuit has sensitivity of 0.79mV/0.10 phase difference, translating into resolution of 10% soil moisture level.

Keywords: Capacitive sensor, interface, phase differential.

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4985 Challenges for Interface Designers in Designing Sensor Dashboards in the Context of Industry 4.0

Authors: Naveen Kumar, Shyambihari Prajapati

Abstract:

Industry 4.0 is the fourth industrial revolution that focuses on interconnectivity of machine to machine, human to machine and human to human via Internet of Things (IoT). Technologies of industry 4.0 facilitate communication between human and machine through IoT and forms Cyber-Physical Production System (CPPS). In CPPS, multiple shop floors sensor data are connected through IoT and displayed through sensor dashboard to the operator. These sensor dashboards have enormous amount of information to be presented which becomes complex for operators to perform monitoring, controlling and interpretation tasks. Designing handheld sensor dashboards for supervision task will become a challenge for the interface designers. This paper reports emerging technologies of industry 4.0, changing context of increasing information complexity in consecutive industrial revolutions and upcoming design challenges for interface designers in context of Industry 4.0. Authors conclude that information complexity of sensor dashboards design has increased with consecutive industrial revolutions and designs of sensor dashboard causes cognitive load on users. Designing such complex dashboards interfaces in Industry 4.0 context will become main challenges for the interface designers.

Keywords: Industry 4.0, sensor dashboard design, Cyber-physical production system, Interface designer.

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4984 A Study on Cancer-Cell Invasion Based On the Diffuse Interface Model

Authors: Zhang Linan, Jihwan Song, Dongchoul Kim

Abstract:

In this study, a three-dimensional haptotaxis model to simulate the migration of a population of cancer cells has been proposed. The invasion of cancer cells is related with the hapto-attractant and the effect of the interface energies between the cells and the ECM. The diffuse interface model, which incorporates the haptotaxis mechanism and interface energies, is employed. The semi-implicit Fourier spectral scheme is adopted for efficient evaluation of the simulation. The simulation results thoroughly reveal the dynamics of cancer-cell migration.

Keywords: Haptotaxis, Cancer Cells, Cell Migration, Interface Energy, Diffuse Interface Model

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4983 Design and Characterization of CMOS Readout Circuit for ISFET and ISE Based Sensors

Authors: Yuzman Yusoff, Siti Noor Harun, Noor Shelida Sallehand Tan Kong Yew

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and characterization of analog readout interface circuits for ion sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET) and ion selective electrode (ISE) based sensor. These interface circuits are implemented using MIMOS’s 0.35um CMOS technology and experimentally characterized under 24-leads QFN package. The characterization evaluates the circuit’s functionality, output sensitivity and output linearity. Commercial sensors for both ISFET and ISE are employed together with glass reference electrode during testing. The test result shows that the designed interface circuits manage to readout signals produced by both sensors with measured sensitivity of ISFET and ISE sensor are 54mV/pH and 62mV/decade, respectively. The characterized output linearity for both circuits achieves above 0.999 rsquare. The readout also has demonstrated reliable operation by passing all qualifications in reliability test plan.

Keywords: Readout interface circuit (ROIC), analog interface circuit, ion sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET), ion selective electrode (ISE), and ion sensor electronics.

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4982 Design and Characterization of CMOS Readout Circuit for ISFET and ISE Based Sensors

Authors: Yuzman Yusoff, Siti Noor Harun, Noor Shelida Sallehand, Tan Kong Yew

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and characterization of analog readout interface circuits for ion sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET) and ion selective electrode (ISE) based sensor. These interface circuits are implemented using MIMOS’s 0.35um CMOS technology and experimentally characterized under 24-leads QFN package. The characterization evaluates the circuit’s functionality, output sensitivity and output linearity. Commercial sensors for both ISFET and ISE are employed together with glass reference electrode during testing. The test result shows that the designed interface circuits manage to readout signals produced by both sensors with measured sensitivity of ISFET and ISE sensor are 54mV/pH and 62mV/decade, respectively. The characterized output linearity for both circuits achieves above 0.999 Rsquare. The readout also has demonstrated reliable operation by passing all qualifications in reliability test plan.

Keywords: Readout interface circuit (ROIC), analog interface circuit, ion sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET), ion selective electrode (ISE), ion sensor electronics.

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4981 Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability and Gas-Particle Interaction of Contoured Shock-Tube Flows: A Numerical Study

Authors: Yi Liu

Abstract:

In this paper, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is utilized to characterize a prototype biolistic delivery system, the biomedical device based on the contoured-shock-tube design (CST), with the aim at investigating shocks induced flow instabilities within the contoured shock tube. The shock/interface interactions, the growth of perturbation at an interface between two fluids of different density are interrogated. The key features of the gas dynamics and gas-particle interaction are discussed

Keywords: Simulation, Shock wave, Particle, Interface, Supersonic, Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability

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4980 Design of Integration Security System using XML Security

Authors: Juhan Kim, Soohyung Kim, Kiyoung Moon

Abstract:

In this paper, we design an integration security system that provides authentication service, authorization service, and management service of security data and a unified interface for the management service. The interface is originated from XKMS protocol and is used to manage security data such as XACML policies, SAML assertions and other authentication security data including public keys. The system includes security services such as authentication, authorization and delegation of authentication by employing SAML and XACML based on security data such as authentication data, attributes information, assertions and polices managed with the interface in the system. It also has SAML producer that issues assertions related on the result of the authentication and the authorization services.

Keywords: XML, XML Security, XACML.

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4979 Urban Ecological Interaction: Air, Water, Light and New Transit at the Human Scale of Barcelona’s Superilles

Authors: Philip Speranza

Abstract:

As everyday transit options are shifting from autocentric to pedestrian and bicycle oriented modes for healthy living, downtown streets are becoming more attractive places to live. However, tools and methods to measure the natural environment at the small scale of streets do not exist. Fortunately, a combination of mobile data collection technology and parametric urban design software now allows an interface to relate urban ecological conditions. This paper describes creation of an interactive tool to measure urban phenomena of air, water, and heat/light at the scale of new three-by-three block pedestrianized areas in Barcelona called Superilles. Each Superilla limits transit to the exterior of the blocks and to create more walkable and bikeable interior streets for healthy living. The research will describe the integration of data collection, analysis, and design output via a live interface using parametric software Rhino Grasshopper and the Human User Interface (UI) plugin.

Keywords: Transit, urban design, GIS, parametric design, Superilles, Barcelona, urban ecology.

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4978 Automatic Rearrangement of Localized Graphical User Interface

Authors: Ágoston Winkler, Sándor Juhász

Abstract:

The localization of software products is essential for reaching the users of the international market. An important task for this is the translation of the user interface into local national languages. As graphical interfaces are usually optimized for the size of the texts in the original language, after the translation certain user controls (e.g. text labels and buttons in dialogs) may grow in such a manner that they slip above each other. This not only causes an unpleasant appearance but also makes the use of the program more difficult (or even impossible) which implies that the arrangement of the controls must be corrected subsequently. The correction should preserve the original structure of the interface (e.g. the relation of logically coherent controls), furthermore, it is important to keep the nicely proportioned design: the formation of large empty areas should be avoided. This paper describes an algorithm that automatically rearranges the controls of a graphical user interface based on the principles above. The algorithm has been implemented and integrated into a translation support system and reached results pleasant for the human eye in most test cases.

Keywords: Graphical user interface, GUI, natural languages, software localization, translation support systems.

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4977 Implementation of Parallel Interface for Microprocessor Trainer

Authors: Moe Moe Htun, Khin Htar Nwe

Abstract:

In this paper, parallel interface for microprocessor trainer was implemented. A programmable parallel–port device such as the IC 8255A is initialized for simple input or output and for handshake input or output by choosing kinds of modes. The hardware connections and the programs can be used to interface microprocessor trainer and a personal computer by using IC 8255A. The assembly programs edited on PC-s editor can be downloaded to the trainer.

Keywords: Parallel I/O ports, parallel interface, trainer, two 8255 ICs.

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4976 Building Trust of Mobile Users and their Adoption of M-Commerce

Authors: Shafiq Ur Rehman, Jane-Lisa Coughlan

Abstract:

One challenging direction of mobile commerce (mcommerce) that is getting a great deal of attention globally is mobile financing. The smart-phone and PDA users all around the world are facing difficulties to become accustomed and trust in m-commerce. The main rationale can be the slow variation and lack of trust in mobile payment systems. Mobile payment systems that are in use need to be more effective and efficient. This paper proposes: the interface design is not the only factor affecting the m-commerce adoption and lack of trust; in fact it is the combined effect of interface usability and trustworthy mobile payment systems, because it-s the money that the user has to spend at the end of the day, which the user requires to get transferred securely. The purpose of this research is to identify the problems regarding the trust and adaption of m-commerce applications by mobile users and to provide the best possible solution with respect to human computer interaction (HCI) principles.

Keywords: m-commerce, usability, mobile payment method, interface design.

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4975 Damping Mechanism in Welded Structures

Authors: B.Singh, B.K.Nanda

Abstract:

Response surface methodology with Box–Benhken (BB) design of experiment approach has been utilized to study the mechanism of interface slip damping in layered and jointed tack welded beams with varying surface roughness. The design utilizes the initial amplitude of excitation, tack length and surface roughness at the interfaces to develop the model for the logarithmic damping decrement of the layered and jointed welded structures. Statistically designed experiments have been performed to estimate the coefficients in the mathematical model, predict the response, and check the adequacy of the model. Comparison of predicted and experimental response values outside the design conditions have shown good correspondence, implying that empirical model derived from response surface approach can be effectively used to describe the mechanism of interface slip damping in layered and jointed tack welded structures.

Keywords: Interface slip damping, welded joint, surface roughness, amplitude, tack length, response surface methodology.

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4974 Interface Location in Single Phase Stirred Tanks

Authors: I. Mahdavi, R. Janamiri, A. Sinkakarimi, M. Safdari, M. H. Sedaghat, A. Zamani, A. Hoseini, M. Karimi

Abstract:

In this work, study the location of interface in a stirred vessel with Rushton impeller by computational fluid dynamic was presented. To modeling rotating the impeller, sliding mesh (SM) technique was used and standard k-ε model was selected for turbulence closure. Mean tangential, radial and axial velocities and also turbulent kinetic energy (k) and turbulent dissipation rate (ε) in various points of tank was investigated. Results show sensitivity of system to location of interface and radius of 7 to 10cm for interface in the vessel with existence characteristics cause to increase the accuracy of simulation.

Keywords: CFD, Interface, Rushton impeller, Turbulence model.

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4973 Development of User Interface for Multiple Devices Connecting Path Planning System for Bus Network

Authors: Takahiro Takayama, Takao Kawamura, Toshihiko Sasama, Kazunori Sugahara

Abstract:

Recently, web services to access from many type devices are often used. We have developed the shortest path planning system called "Bus-Net" in Tottori prefecture as a web application to sustain the public transport. And it used the same user interface for both devices. To support both devices, the interface cannot use JavaScript and so on. Thus, we developed the method that use individual user interface for each device type to improve its convenience. To be concrete, we defined formats of condition input to the path planning system and result output from it and separate the system into the request processing part and user interface parts that depend on device types. By this method, we have also developed special device for Bus-Net named "Intelligent-Bus-Stop".

Keywords: Bus, Path planning, Public transport, User interface

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4972 CFD Investigation of Interface Location in Stirred Tanks with a Concave Impeller

Authors: P. Parvasi, R. Janamiri, A. Sinkakarimi, I. Mahdavi, M. Safdari, M. H. Sedaghat, A. Hosseini, M. Karimi

Abstract:

In this work study the location of interface in a stirred vessel with a Concave impeller by computational fluid dynamic was presented. To modeling rotating the impeller, sliding mesh (SM) technique was used and standard k-ε model was selected for turbulence closure. Mean tangential, radial and axial velocities and also turbulent kinetic energy (k) and turbulent dissipation rate (ε) in various points of tank was investigated. Results show sensitivity of system to location of interface and radius of 7 to 10cm for interface in the vessel with existence characteristics cause to increase the accuracy of simulation.

Keywords: CFD, Interface, Concave impeller, turbulence model.

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4971 Magnetic Field Based Near Surface Haptic and Pointing Interface

Authors: Kasun Karunanayaka, Sanath Siriwardana, Chamari Edirisinghe, Ryohei Nakatsu, PonnampalamGopalakrishnakone

Abstract:

In this paper, we are presenting a new type of pointing interface for computers which provides mouse functionalities with near surface haptic feedback. Further, it can be configured as a haptic display where users may feel the basic geometrical shapes in the GUI by moving the finger on top of the device surface. These functionalities are achieved by tracking three dimensional positions of the neodymium magnet using Hall Effect sensors grid and generating like polarity haptic feedback using an electromagnet array. This interface brings the haptic sensations to the 3D space where previously it is felt only on top of the buttons of the haptic mouse implementations.

Keywords: Pointing interface, near surface haptic feedback, tactile display, tangible user interface.

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4970 Audio User Interface for Visually Impaired Computer Users: in a Two Dimensional Audio Environment

Authors: Ravihansa Rajapakse, Malshika Dias, Kanishka Weerasekara, Anuja Dharmaratne, Prasad Wimalaratne

Abstract:

In this paper we discuss a set of guidelines which could be adapted when designing an audio user interface for the visually impaired. It is based on an audio environment that is focused on audio positioning. Unlike current applications which only interpret Graphical User Interface (GUI) for the visually impaired, this particular audio environment bypasses GUI to provide a direct auditory output. It presents the capability of two dimensional (2D) navigation on audio interfaces. This paper highlights the significance of a 2D audio environment with spatial information in the context of the visually impaired. A thorough usability study has been conducted to prove the applicability of proposed design guidelines for these auditory interfaces. While proving these guidelines, previously unearthed design aspects have been revealed in this study.

Keywords: Human Computer Interaction, Audio User Interfaces, 2D Audio Environment, Visually Impaired Users

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4969 Effect of Preloading on the Contact Stress Distribution of a Dovetail Interface

Authors: Kaliyaperumal Anandavel, Raghu V. Prakash, Antonio Davis

Abstract:

This paper presents the influence of preloading on a) the contact tractions, b) slip levels and c) stresses at the dovetail blade-disc interface of an aero-engine through a three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) modeling and analysis. The preloading is applied by an interference fit at the dovetail interface and the bulk loading is applied through the rotational speed of rotor. Preloading at the dovetail interface reduces the peak contact pressure developed due to bulk loading up to 35%, and reduces the peak contact pressure and stress difference between top and bottom contact edges. Increasing the level of preloading reduces the cyclic stress amplitude at the interface up to certain values of preload and as a consequence, an improvement in fatigue life could be expected. Fretting damage, due to vibration and wind milling effect during engine ground condition, can be minimized by preloading the dovetail interface.

Keywords: Dovetail interface, Preload, Interference fit, ContactStress, Fretting Fatigue.

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4968 Element-Independent Implementation for Method of Lagrange Multipliers

Authors: Gil-Eon Jeong, Sung-Kie Youn, K. C. Park

Abstract:

Treatment for the non-matching interface is an important computational issue. To handle this problem, the method of Lagrange multipliers including classical and localized versions are the most popular technique. It essentially imposes the interface compatibility conditions by introducing Lagrange multipliers. However, the numerical system becomes unstable and inefficient due to the Lagrange multipliers. The interface element-independent formulation that does not include the Lagrange multipliers can be obtained by modifying the independent variables mathematically. Through this modification, more efficient and stable system can be achieved while involving equivalent accuracy comparing with the conventional method. A numerical example is conducted to verify the validity of the presented method.

Keywords: Element-independent formulation, non-matching interface, interface coupling, methods of Lagrange multipliers.

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4967 Improved Algorithms for Construction of Interface Agent Interaction Model

Authors: Huynh Quyet Thang, Le Hai Quan

Abstract:

Interaction Model plays an important role in Modelbased Intelligent Interface Agent Architecture for developing Intelligent User Interface. In this paper we are presenting some improvements in the algorithms for development interaction model of interface agent including: the action segmentation algorithm, the action pair selection algorithm, the final action pair selection algorithm, the interaction graph construction algorithm and the probability calculation algorithm. The analysis of the algorithms also presented. At the end of this paper, we introduce an experimental program called “Personal Transfer System".

Keywords: interface agent, interaction model, user model.

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