Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1188

Search results for: floor construction.

1188 Sound Insulation between Buildings: The Impact Noise Transmission through Different Floor Configurations

Authors: Abdelouahab Bouttout, Mohamed Amara

Abstract:

The present paper examines the impact noise transmission through some floor building assemblies. The Acoubat software numerical simulation has been used to simulate the impact noise transmission through different floor configurations used in Algerian construction mode. The results are compared with the available measurements. We have developed two experimental methods, i) field method, and ii) laboratory method using Brüel and Kjær equipments. The results show that the different cases of floor configurations need some improvement to ensure the acoustic comfort in the receiving apartment. The recommended value of the impact sound level in the receiving room should not exceed 58 dB. The important results obtained in this paper can be used as platform to improve the Algerian building acoustic regulation aimed at the construction of the multi-storey residential building.

Keywords: Impact noise, building acoustic, floor insulation, resilient material.

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1187 An Enhanced Floor Estimation Algorithm for Indoor Wireless Localization Systems Using Confidence Interval Approach

Authors: Kriangkrai Maneerat, Chutima Prommak

Abstract:

Indoor wireless localization systems have played an important role to enhance context-aware services. Determining the position of mobile objects in complex indoor environments, such as those in multi-floor buildings, is very challenging problems. This paper presents an effective floor estimation algorithm, which can accurately determine the floor where mobile objects located. The proposed algorithm is based on the confidence interval of the summation of online Received Signal Strength (RSS) obtained from the IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN).We compare the performance of the proposed algorithm with those of other floor estimation algorithms in literature by conducting a real implementation of WSN in our facility. The experimental results and analysis showed that the proposed floor estimation algorithm outperformed the other algorithms and provided highest percentage of floor accuracy up to 100% with 95-percent confidence interval.

Keywords: Floor estimation algorithm, floor determination, multi-floor building, indoor wireless systems.

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1186 Acoustic and Thermal Insulating Materials Based On Natural Fibres Used in Floor Construction

Authors: J. Hroudova, J. Zach

Abstract:

The majority of contemporary insulation materials commonly used in the building industry is made from non-renewable raw materials; furthermore, their production often brings high energy costs. A long-term trend as far as sustainable development is concerned has been the reduction of energy and material demands of building material production. One of the solutions is the possibility of using easily renewable natural raw material sources which are considerably more ecological and their production is mostly less energy-consuming compared to the production of normal insulations (mineral wool, polystyrene). The paper describes the results of research focused on the development of thermal and acoustic insulation materials based on natural fibres intended for floor constructions. Given the characteristic open porosity of natural fibre materials, the hygrothermal behaviour of the developed materials was studied. Especially the influence of relative humidity and temperature on thermal insulation properties was observed.

Keywords: Green thermal and acoustic insulating materials, natural fibres, technical hemp, flax, floor construction.

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1185 Fin Spacing Effect of the Tube Fin Heat Exchanger at the Floor Heating Convector

Authors: F. Lemfeld, K. Frana

Abstract:

This article deals with numerical simulation of the floor heating convector in 3D. Numerical simulation is focused on cooling mode of the floor heating convector. Geometrical model represents section of the heat exchanger – two fins with the gap between, pipes are not involved. Two types of fin are examined – sinusoidal and angular shape with different fin spacing. Results of fin spacing in case of constant Reynolds number are presented. For the numerical simulation was used commercial software Ansys Fluent.

Keywords: fin spacing, cooling output, floor heating convector, numerical simulation.

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1184 Experimental Investigation of Cold-Formed Steel-Timber Board Composite Floor Systems

Authors: Samar Raffoul, Martin Heywood, Dimitrios Moutaftsis, Michael Rowell

Abstract:

This paper comprises an experimental investigation into the structural performance of cold formed steel (CFS) and timber board composite floor systems. The tests include a series of small-scale pushout tests and full-scale bending tests carried out using a refined loading system to simulate uniformly distributed constant load. The influence of connection details (screw spacing and adhesives) on floor performance was investigated. The results are then compared to predictions from relevant existing models for composite floor systems. The results of this research demonstrate the significant benefits of considering the composite action of the boards in floor design. Depending on connection detail, an increase in flexural stiffness of up to 40% was observed in the floor system, when compared to designing joists individually.

Keywords: Cold formed steel joists, composite action, flooring systems, shear connection.

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1183 Long-Term Structural Behavior of Resilient Materials for Reduction of Floor Impact Sound

Authors: J. Y. Lee, J. Kim, H. J. Chang, J. M. Kim

Abstract:

People’s tendency towards living in apartment houses is increasing in a densely populated country. However, some residents living in apartment houses are bothered by noise coming from the houses above. In order to reduce noise pollution, the communities are increasingly imposing a bylaw, including the limitation of floor impact sound, minimum thickness of floors, and floor soundproofing solutions. This research effort focused on the specific long-time deflection of resilient materials in the floor sound insulation systems of apartment houses. The experimental program consisted of testing nine floor sound insulation specimens subjected to sustained load for 45 days. Two main parameters were considered in the experimental investigation: three types of resilient materials and magnitudes of loads. The test results indicated that the structural behavior of the floor sound insulation systems under long-time load was quite different from that the systems under short-time load. The loading period increased the deflection of floor sound insulation systems and the increasing rate of the long-time deflection of the systems with ethylene vinyl acetate was smaller than that of the systems with low density ethylene polystyrene.

Keywords: Resilient materials, floor sound insulation systems, long-time deflection, sustained load, noise pollution.

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1182 Fundamental Natural Frequency of Chromite Composite Floor System

Authors: Farhad Abbas Gandomkar, Mona Danesh

Abstract:

This paper aims to determine Fundamental Natural Frequency (FNF) of a structural composite floor system known as Chromite. To achieve this purpose, FNFs of studied panels are determined by development of Finite Element Models (FEMs) in ABAQUS program. American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) code in Steel Design Guide Series 11 presents a fundamental formula to calculate FNF of a steel framed floor system. This formula has been used to verify results of the FEMs. The variability in the FNF of the studied system under various parameters such as dimensions of floor, boundary conditions, rigidity of main and secondary beams around the floor, thickness of concrete slab, height of composite joists, distance between composite joists, thickness of top and bottom flanges of the open web steel joists, and adding tie beam perpendicular on the composite joists, is determined. The results show that changing in dimensions of the system, its boundary conditions, rigidity of main beam, and also adding tie beam, significant changes the FNF of the system up to 452.9%, 50.8%, - 52.2%, %52.6%, respectively. In addition, increasing thickness of concrete slab increases the FNF of the system up to 10.8%. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that variation in rigidity of secondary beam, height of composite joist, and distance between composite joists, and thickness of top and bottom flanges of open web steel joists insignificant changes the FNF of the studied system up to -0.02%, -3%, -6.1%, and 0.96%, respectively. Finally, the results of this study help designer predict occurrence of resonance, comfortableness, and design criteria of the studied system.

Keywords: Fundamental natural frequency, chromite composite floor system, finite element method, low and high frequency floors, comfortableness, resonance.

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1181 Simulation Study on Comparison of Thermal Comfort during Heating with All-Air System and Radiant Floor System

Authors: Shiyun Liu

Abstract:

Radiant heating systems work fundamentally differently from air systems by taking advantage of both radiant and convective heat transfer to remove space heating load. There are rare studies on differences of heating systems between all-air system and radiant floor system. This paper uses the method of simulation based on state-space to calculate the indoor temperature and wall temperature of each system and shows how the dynamic heat transfer in rooms conditioned by a radiant system is different from an air system. Then this paper analyses the changes of indoor temperature of these two systems, finding out the differences between all-air heating system and radiant floor heating system to help the designer choose a more suitable heating system.

Keywords: Radiant floor, all-air system, thermal comfort, simulation, heating system.

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1180 The Influence of the Fin Set-up to the Cooling Output of the Floor Heating Convector

Authors: F. Lemfeld, K. Frana

Abstract:

This article deals with the numerical simulation of the floor heating convector in 3D. Presented convector can operate in two modes – cooling mode and heating mode. This initial numerical simulation is focused on cooling mode of the convector. Models with different temperature of the fins are compared and three various shapes of the fins are examined as well. The objective of the work is to predict air flow and heat transfer inside convector for further optimalization of these devices. For the numerical simulation was used commercial software Ansys Fluent.

Keywords: Cooling output, floor heating convector, numericalsimulation, optimalization.

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1179 Renovation Planning Model for a Shopping Mall

Authors: Hsin-Yun Lee

Abstract:

In this study, the pedestrian simulation VISWALK integration and application platform ant algorithms written program made to construct a renovation engineering schedule planning mode. The use of simulation analysis platform construction site when the user running the simulation, after calculating the user walks in the case of construction delays, the ant algorithm to find out the minimum delay time schedule plan, and add volume and unit area deactivated loss of business computing, and finally to the owners and users of two different positions cut considerations pick out the best schedule planning. To assess and validate its effectiveness, this study constructed the model imported floor of a shopping mall floor renovation engineering cases. Verify that the case can be found from the mode of the proposed project schedule planning program can effectively reduce the delay time and the user's walking mall loss of business, the impact of the operation on the renovation engineering facilities in the building to a minimum.

Keywords: Pedestrian, renovation, schedule, simulation.

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1178 Experimental Study on the Floor Vibration Evaluation of Concrete Slab for Existing Buildings

Authors: Yong-Taeg Lee, Jun-Ho Na, Seung-Hun Kim, Seong-Uk Hong

Abstract:

Damages from noise and vibration are increasing every year, most of which are noises between floors in deteriorated building caused by floor impact sound. In this study, the concrete slab measured vibration impact sound for evaluation floor vibration of deteriorated buildings that fails to satisfy with the minimum thickness. In this experimental study, the vibration scale by impact sound was calibrated and compared with ISO and AIJ standard for vibration. The results show that vibration in slab with thickness used in existing building reach human perception levels.

Keywords: Vibration, Frequency, Accelerometer, Concrete slab.

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1177 Soil-Cement Floor Produced with Alum Water Treatment Residues

Authors: Flavio Araujo, Paulo Scalize, Julio Lima, Natalia Vieira, Antonio Albuquerque, Isabela Santos

Abstract:

From a concern regarding the environmental impacts caused by the disposal of residues generated in Water Treatment Plants (WTP's), alternatives ways have been studied to use these residues as raw material for manufacture of building materials, avoiding their discharge on water streams, disposal on sanitary landfills or incineration. This paper aims to present the results of a research work, which is using WTR for replacing the soil content in the manufacturing of soil-cement floor with proportions of 0, 5, 10 and 15%. The samples tests showed a reduction mechanical strength in so far as has increased the amount of waste. The water absorption was below the maximum of 6% required by the standard. The application of WTR contributes to the reduction of the environmental damage in the water treatment industry.

Keywords: Residue, soil-cement floor, sustainable, WTP.

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1176 Designing a Single-Floor Structure for the Control Room of a Petroleum Refinery and Assessing the Resistance of Such a Structure against Gas Explosion Load

Authors: Amin Lotfi Eghlim, Mehran pourgholi

Abstract:

Explosion occurs due to sudden release of energy. Common examples of explosion include chemical, atomic, heat, and pressure tank (due to ignition) explosions. Petroleum, gas, and petrochemical industries operations are threatened by natural risks and processes. Fires and explosions are the greatest process risks which cause financial damages. This study aims at designing a single-floor structure for the control room of a petroleum refinery to be resistant against gas explosion loads, and the information related to the structure specifications have been provided regarding the fact that the structure is made on the ground's surface. In this research, the lateral stiffness of single pile is calculated by SPPLN.FOR computer program, and its value for 13624 KN/m single pile has been assessed. The analysis used due to the loading conditions, is dynamic nonlinear analysis with direct integration method.

Keywords: Gas Explosion Load, Petroleum Refinery, Single-Floor Structure

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1175 Energy Saving Potential with Improved Concrete in Ice Rink Floor Designs

Authors: Ehsan B. Haghighi, Pavel Makhnatch, Jörgen Rogstam

Abstract:

The ice rink floor is the largest heat exchanger in an ice rink. The important part of the floor consists of concrete, and the thermophysical properties of this concrete have strong influence on the energy usage of the ice rink. The thermal conductivity of concrete can be increased by using iron ore as ballast. In this study, the Transient Plane Source (TPS) method showed an increase up to 58.2% of thermal conductivity comparing the improved concrete to standard concrete. Moreover, two alternative ice rink floor designs are suggested to incorporate the improved concrete. A 2D simulation was developed to investigate the temperature distribution in the conventional and the suggested designs. The results show that the suggested designs reduce the temperature difference between the ice surface and the brine by 1-4˚C, when comparing with convectional designs at equal heat flux. This primarily leads to an increased coefficient of performance (COP) in the primary refrigeration cycle and secondly to a decrease in the secondary refrigerant pumping power. The suggested designs have great potential to reduce the energy usage of ice rinks. Depending on the load scenario in the ice rink, the saving potential lies in the range of 3-10% of the refrigeration system energy usage. This calculation is based on steady state conditions and the potential with improved dynamic behavior is expected to increase the potential saving.

Keywords: Concrete, iron ore, ice rink, energy saving.

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1174 Optimal Design of Reference Node Placement for Wireless Indoor Positioning Systems in Multi-Floor Building

Authors: Kittipob Kondee, Chutima Prommak

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose an optimization technique that can be used to optimize the placements of reference nodes and improve the location determination performance for the multi-floor building. The proposed technique is based on Simulated Annealing algorithm (SA) and is called MSMR-M. The performance study in this work is based on simulation. We compare other node-placement techniques found in the literature with the optimal node-placement solutions obtained from our optimization. The results show that using the optimal node-placement obtained by our proposed technique can improve the positioning error distances up to 20% better than those of the other techniques. The proposed technique can provide an average error distance within 1.42 meters.

Keywords: Indoor positioning System, Optimization System design, Multi-Floor Building, Wireless Sensor Networks.

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1173 A Quantitative Analysis of GSM Air Interface Based on Radiating Columns and Prediction Model

Authors: K. M. Doraiswamy, Lakshminarayana Merugu, B. C. Jinaga

Abstract:

This paper explains the cause of nonlinearity in floor attenuation hither to left unexplained. The performance degradation occurring in air interface for GSM signals is quantitatively analysed using the concept of Radiating Columns of buildings. The signal levels were measured using Wireless Network Optimising Drive Test Tool (E6474A of Agilent Technologies). The measurements were taken in reflected signal environment under usual fading conditions on actual GSM signals radiated from base stations. A mathematical model is derived from the measurements to predict the GSM signal levels in different floors. It was applied on three buildings and found that the predicted signal levels deviated from the measured levels with in +/- 2 dB for all floors. It is more accurate than the prediction models based on Floor Attenuation Factor. It can be used for planning proper indoor coverage in multi storey buildings.

Keywords: GSM air interface, nonlinear attenuation, multistory building, radiating columns, ground conduction and floor attenuation factor.

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1172 Efficacy of Biofeedback-Assisted Pelvic Floor Muscle Training on Postoperative Stress Urinary Incontinence

Authors: Asmaa M. El-Bandrawy, Afaf M. Botla, Ghada E. El-Refaye, Hassan O. Ghareeb

Abstract:

Background: Urinary incontinence is a common problem among adults. Its incidence increases with age and it is more frequent in women. Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) is the first-line therapy in the treatment of pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) either alone or combined with biofeedback-assisted PFMT. The aim of the work: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of biofeedback-assisted PFMT in postoperative stress urinary incontinence. Settings and Design: A single blind controlled trial design was. Methods and Material: This study was carried out in 30 volunteer patients diagnosed as severe degree of stress urinary incontinence and they were admitted to surgical treatment. They were divided randomly into two equal groups: (Group A) consisted of 15 patients who had been treated with post-operative biofeedback-assisted PFMT and home exercise program (Group B) consisted of 15 patients who had been treated with home exercise program only. Assessment of all patients in both groups (A) and (B) was carried out before and after the treatment program by measuring intra-vaginal pressure in addition to the visual analog scale. Results: At the end of the treatment program, there was a highly statistically significant difference between group (A) and group (B) in the intra-vaginal pressure and the visual analog scale favoring the group (A). Conclusion: biofeedback-assisted PFMT is an effective method for the symptomatic relief of post-operative female stress urinary incontinence.

Keywords: Stress urinary incontinence, pelvic floor muscles, pelvic floor exercises, biofeedback.

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1171 Development of a Bacterial Resistant Concrete for Use in Low Cost Kitchen Floors

Authors: S. S. Mahlangu, R. K. K. Mbaya, D. D. Delport, H. Van. Zyl

Abstract:

The degrading effect due to bacterial growth on the structural integrity of concrete floor surfaces is predictable; this consequently cause development of surface micro cracks in which organisms penetrate through resulting in surface spalling. Hence, the need to develop mix design meeting the requirement of floor surfaces exposed to aggressive agent to improve certain material properties with good workability, extended lifespan and low cost is essential. In this work, tests were performed to examine the microbial activity on kitchen floor surfaces and the effect of adding admixtures. The biochemical test shows the existence of microorganisms (E.coli, Streptococcus) on newly casted structure. Of up to 6% porosity was reduced and improvement on structural integrity was observed upon adding mineral admixtures from the concrete mortar. The SEM result after 84 days of curing specimens, shows that chemical admixtures have significant role to enable retard bacterial penetration and good quality structure is achieved.

Keywords: Admixture, organisms, porosity and strength.

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1170 Response Spectrum Transformation for Seismic Qualification Testing

Authors: Nouredine Bourahla, Farid Bouriche, Yacine Benghalia

Abstract:

Seismic qualification testing for equipments to be mounted on upper storeys of buildings is very demanding in terms of floor spectra. The latter is characterized by high accelerations amplitudes within a narrow frequency band. This article presents a method which permits to cover specified required response spectra beyond the shaking table capability by amplifying the acceleration amplitudes at an appropriate frequency range using a physical intermediate mounted on the platform of the shaker.

Keywords: floor spectra, response spectrum, seismicqualification testing, shaking table

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1169 Study on the Design of Supermarket Store Layouts: The Principle of “Sales Magnet“

Authors: Masao Ohta, Yoshiyuki Higuchi

Abstract:

This study analyses store layout among the many factors that underlie supermarket store design, this; in terms of what to display in a shop and where to place the items. This report examines newly-opened stores and evaluates their interior shop floor layouts, which we then attempt to categorize by various styles. We then consider the interaction between shop floor layout and customer behavior from the perspective of the supermarket as the seller. At this point, we focus on the “store magnets"–the main sections within the shop likely to attract customers into the store.

Keywords: Supermarket Store Layout, Sales magnet, Customer Circulation Rate, Section Drop-by Rates.

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1168 Effect of Pre-Construction on Construction Schedule and Client Loyalty

Authors: Jong Hoon Kim, Hyun-Soo Lee, Moonseo Park, Min Jeong, Inbeom Lee

Abstract:

Pre-construction is essential in achieving the success of a construction project. Due to the early involvement of project participants in the construction phase, project managers are able to plan ahead and solve issues well in advance leading to the success of the project and the satisfaction of the client. This research utilizes quantitative data derived from construction management projects in order to identify the relationship between pre-construction, construction schedule, and client satisfaction. A total of 65 construction projects and 93 clients were investigated for this research in an attempt to identify (a) the relationship between pre-construction and schedule reduction, and (b) pre-construction and client loyalty. Based on the quantitative analysis, this research was able to establish a negative correlation based on 65 construction projects between pre-construction and project schedule existed. This finding represents that the more pre-construction is performed for a certain project, the overall construction schedule decreased. Then, to determine the relationship between pre-construction and client satisfaction, Net Promoter Score (NPS) of 93 clients from the 65 projects was utilized. Pre-construction and NPS was further analyzed and a positive correlation was found between the two. This infers that clients tend to be more satisfied with projects with higher ratio of pre-construction than those projects with less pre-construction.

Keywords: Client loyalty, NPS, pre-construction, schedule reduction.

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1167 Application of Seismic Isolators in Kutahya City Hospital Project Utilizing Double Friction Pendulum Type Devices

Authors: Kaan Yamanturk, Cihan Dogruoz

Abstract:

Seismic isolators have been utilized around the world to protect the structures, nonstructural components and contents from the damaging effects of earthquakes. In Structural Engineering, seismic isolation is used for protecting buildings and its vibration-sensitive contents from earthquakes. Seismic isolation is a passive control system that lowers effective earthquake forces by utilizing flexible bearings. One of the most significant isolation systems is seismic isolators. In this paper, double pendulum type Teflon coated seismic isolators utilized in a city hospital project by Guris Construction and Engineering Co. Inc, located in Kutahya, Turkey, have been investigated. Totally, 498 seismic isolators were applied in the project. These isolators are double friction pendulum type seismic isolation devices. The review of current practices is also examined in this study. The focus of this study is related to the application of passive seismic isolation systems for buildings as practiced in Kutahya City Hospital Project. Based on the study, the acceleration at the top floor will be 0.18 g and it will decrease 0.01 g in every floor. Therefore, seismic isolators are very important for buildings located in earthquake zones.

Keywords: Maximum considered earthquake, moment resisting frame, seismic isolator, seismic design.

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1166 A Middleware Management System with Supporting Holonic Modules for Reconfigurable Management System

Authors: Roscoe McLean, Jared Padayachee, Glen Bright

Abstract:

There is currently a gap in the technology covering the rapid establishment of control after a reconfiguration in a Reconfigurable Manufacturing System. This gap involves the detection of the factory floor state and the communication link between the factory floor and the high-level software. In this paper, a thin, hardware-supported Middleware Management System (MMS) is proposed and its design and implementation are discussed. The research found that a cost-effective localization technique can be combined with intelligent software to speed up the ramp-up of a reconfigured system. The MMS makes the process more intelligent, more efficient and less time-consuming, thus supporting the industrial implementation of the RMS paradigm.

Keywords: Intelligent systems, middleware, reconfigurable manufacturing.

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1165 Behaviour of Base-Isolated Structures with High Initial Isolator Stiffness

Authors: Ajay Sharma, R.S. Jangid

Abstract:

Analytical seismic response of multi-story building supported on base isolation system is investigated under real earthquake motion. The superstructure is idealized as a shear type flexible building with lateral degree-of-freedom at each floor. The force-deformation behaviour of the isolation system is modelled by the bi-linear behaviour which can be effectively used to model all isolation systems in practice. The governing equations of motion of the isolated structural system are derived. The response of the system is obtained numerically by step-by-method under three real recorded earthquake motions and pulse motions associated in the near-fault earthquake motion. The variation of the top floor acceleration, interstory drift, base shear and bearing displacement of the isolated building is studied under different initial stiffness of the bi-linear isolation system. It was observed that the high initial stiffness of the isolation system excites higher modes in base-isolated structure and generate floor accelerations and story drift. Such behaviour of the base-isolated building especially supported on sliding type of isolation systems can be detrimental to sensitive equipment installed in the building. On the other hand, the bearing displacement and base shear found to reduce marginally with the increase of the initial stiffness of the initial stiffness of the isolation system. Further, the above behaviour of the base-isolated building was observed for different parameters of the bearing (i.e. post-yield stiffness and characteristic strength) and earthquake motions (i.e. real time history as well as pulse type motion).

Keywords: base isolation, base shear, bi-linear, earthquake, floor accelerations, inter-story drift, multi-story building, pulsemotion, stiffness ratio.

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1164 The Impact of Alumina Cement on Properties of Portland Cement Slurries and Mortars

Authors: Krzysztof Zieliński, Dariusz Kierzek

Abstract:

The addition of a small amount of alumina cement to Portland cement results in immediate setting, a rapid increase in the compressive strength and a clear increase of the adhesion to concrete substrate. This phenomenon is used, among others, for the production of liquid floor self-levelling compounds. Alumina cement is several times more expensive than Portland cement and is a component having a significant impact on prices of products manufactured with its use. For the production of liquid floor self-levelling compounds, low-alumina cement containing approximately 40% Al2O3 is normally used. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of Portland cement with the addition of alumina cement on the basic physical and mechanical properties of cement slurries and mortars. CEM I 42.5R and three types of alumina cement containing 40%, 50% and 70% of Al2O3 were used for the tests. Mixes containing 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% and 12% of different varieties of alumina cement were prepared; for which, the time of initial and final setting, compressive and flexural strength and adhesion to concrete substrate were determined. The analysis of the obtained test results showed that a similar immediate setting effect and clearly better adhesion strength can be obtained using the addition of 6% of high-alumina cement than 12% of low-alumina cement. As the prices of these cements are similar, this can give significant financial savings in the production of liquid floor self-levelling compounds.

Keywords: Alumina cement, immediate setting, compression strength, adhesion to substrate.

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1163 IEEE 802.11 b and g WLAN Propagation Model using Power Density Measurements at ESPOL

Authors: E. E. Mantilla, C. R. Reyes, B. G. Ramos

Abstract:

This paper describes the development of a WLAN propagation model, using Spectral Analyzer measurements. The signal is generated by two Access Points (APs) on the base floor at the administrative Communication School of ESPOL building. In general, users do not have a Q&S reference about a wireless network; however, this depends on the level signal as a function of frequency, distance and other path conditions between receiver and transmitter. Then, power density of the signal decrease as it propagates through space and data transfer rate is affected. This document evaluates and implements empirical mathematical formulation for the characterization of WLAN radio wave propagation on two aisles of the building base floor.

Keywords: frequency, Spectral Analyzer, transmitter, WLAN.

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1162 Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Eimeria in Sheep of Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: M.N. Khan, T. Rehman, Z Iqbal, M.S Sajid, M Ahmad, M Riaz

Abstract:

A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence, species characterization and associated risk factors with Eimeria (E.) in sheep of district Toba Tek Singh from April, 2009 to March, 2010. Of the total 486 faecal samples examined for Eimeria, 209 (43%) were found infected with five species of Eimeria. Amongst the identified species of Eimeria, E. ovinoidalis was the commonest one (48.32%), followed in order by E. ahsata, E. intricata, E. parva and E. faurei with prevalence of 45.45, 28.71, 24.40 and 19.14 percent respectively. Peak prevalence was observed in August. Wet season (rainy and post-rainy) was found to be favourable for Eimeria infection. Lambs had significantly higher prevalence (P < 0.05) of Eimeria than adults. Similarly higher prevalence of Eimeria was observed in female as compared to male. Among management and husbandry practices; watering system, housing system, floor type and herd size strongly influenced the prevalence of Eimeria. Coccidiosis was more prevalent in closed housing system, non-cemented floor type, pond watered animals and larger herds (P < 0.05) as compared to open housing system, partially cemented floor type, tap watered animals and smaller herds respectively. Feeding system, breed and body condition of animals were not found as risk factors (P>0.05) influencing prevalence of Eimeria.

Keywords: Eimeria, Pakistan prevalence, sheep.

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1161 Influence of Shading on a BIPV System’s Performance in an Urban Context: Case Study of BIPV Systems of the Science Center of Complexity Building of the National and Autonomous University of Mexico in Mexico City

Authors: Viridiana Edith Ardura Perea, José Luis Bermúdez Alcocer

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to establish the influence of shading on a Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) system´s performance in an urban context. The PV systems of the Science Center of Complexity (Centro de Ciencias de la Complejidad) Building based in the Main Campus of the National and Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) in Mexico City was taken as case study.  The PV systems are placed on the rooftop and on the south façade of the building.  The south-façade PV system, operating as sunshades, consists of two strings:  one at the ground floor and the other one at the first floor.  According to the building’s facility manager, the south-façade PV system generates 42% less electricity per kilowatt peak (kWp) installed than the one on the roof.  The methods applied in this study were Solar Radiation Analysis (SRA) simulations performed with the Insight 360 Plug-in from Revit 2018® and an on-site measurement using specialized tools.  The results of the SRA simulations showed that the shading casted by the PV system placed on the first floor on top of the PV system of the ground floor decreases its solar incident radiation over 50%.  The simulation outcome was compared and validated to the measured data obtained from the on-site measurement.  In conclusion, the loss factor achieved from the shading of the PVs is due to the surroundings and the PV system´s own design.  The south-façade BIPV system’s deficient design generates critical losses on its performance and decreases its profitability.

Keywords: Building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) design, energy analysis software, shading losses, solar radiation analysis.

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1160 A New Floating Point Implementation of Base 2 Logarithm

Authors: Ahmed M. Mansour, Ali M. El-Sawy, Ahmed T Sayed

Abstract:

Logarithms reduce products to sums and powers to products; they play an important role in signal processing, communication and information theory. They are primarily used for hardware calculations, handling multiplications, divisions, powers, and roots effectively. There are three commonly used bases for logarithms; the logarithm with base-10 is called the common logarithm, the natural logarithm with base-e and the binary logarithm with base-2. This paper demonstrates different methods of calculation for log2 showing the complexity of each and finds out the most accurate and efficient besides giving insights to their hardware design. We present a new method called Floor Shift for fast calculation of log2, and then we combine this algorithm with Taylor series to improve the accuracy of the output, we illustrate that by using two examples. We finally compare the algorithms and conclude with our remarks.

Keywords: Logarithms, log2, floor, iterative, CORDIC, Taylor series.

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1159 Identification of the Causes of Construction Delay in Malaysia

Authors: N. Hamzah, M.A. Khoiry, I. Arshad, W.H.W. Badaruzzaman, N. M. Tawil

Abstract:

Construction delay is unavoidable in developing countries including Malaysia. It is defined as time overrun or extension of time for completion of a project. The purpose of the study is to determine the causes of delay in Malaysian construction industries based on previous worldwide research. The field survey conducted includes the experienced developers, consultants and contractors in Malaysia. 34 causes of the construction delay have been determined and 24 have been selected using the Rasch model analysis. The analysis result will be used as the baseline for the next research to find the causes of delay in the Malaysian construction industry taking place in Malaysian higher learning institutions.

Keywords: Causes of construction delay, construction projects, Malaysian construction industry, Rasch model analysis.

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