Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1601

Search results for: effect size

1601 Experimental Testing of Statistical Size Effect in Civil Engineering Structures

Authors: Jana Kaděrová, Miroslav Vořechovský

Abstract:

The presented paper copes with an experimental evaluation of a model based on modified Weibull size effect theory. Classical statistical Weibull theory was modified by introducing a new parameter (correlation length lp) representing the spatial autocorrelation of a random mechanical properties of material. This size effect modification was observed on two different materials used in civil engineering: unreinforced (plain) concrete and multi-filament yarns made of alkaliresistant (AR) glass which are used for textile-reinforced concrete. The behavior under flexural, resp. tensile loading was investigated by laboratory experiments. A high number of specimens of different sizes was tested to obtain statistically significant data which were subsequently corrected and statistically processed. Due to a distortion of the measured displacements caused by the unstiff experiment device, only the maximal load values were statistically evaluated. Results of the experiments showed a decreasing strength with an increasing sample length. Size effect curves were obtained and the correlation length was fitted according to measured data. Results did not exclude the existence of the proposed new parameter lp.

Keywords: Statistical size effect, concrete, multi filaments yarns, experiment, autocorrelation length.

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1600 Size Dependence of 1D Superconductivity in NbN Nanowires on Suspended Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: T. Hashimoto, N. Miki, H. Maki

Abstract:

We report the size dependence of 1D superconductivity in ultrathin (10-130 nm) nanowires produced by coating suspended carbon nanotubes with a superconducting NbN thin film. The resistance-temperature characteristic curves for samples with ≧25 nm wire width show the superconducting transition. On the other hand, for the samples with 10-nm width, the superconducting transition is not exhibited owing to the quantum size effect. The differential resistance vs. current density characteristic curves show some peak, indicating that Josephson junctions are formed in nanowires. The presence of the Josephson junctions is well explained by the measurement of the magnetic field dependence of the critical current. These understanding allow for the further expansion of the potential application of NbN, which is utilized for single photon detectors and so on.

Keywords: NbN nanowire, carbon nanotube, quantum size effect, Josephson junction

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1599 Approximate Confidence Interval for Effect Size Base on Bootstrap Resampling Method

Authors: S. Phanyaem

Abstract:

This paper presents the confidence intervals for the effect size base on bootstrap resampling method. The meta-analytic confidence interval for effect size is proposed that are easy to compute. A Monte Carlo simulation study was conducted to compare the performance of the proposed confidence intervals with the existing confidence intervals. The best confidence interval method will have a coverage probability close to 0.95. Simulation results have shown that our proposed confidence intervals perform well in terms of coverage probability and expected length.

Keywords: Effect size, confidence interval, Bootstrap Method.

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1598 Study of the Particle Size Effect on Bubble Rise Velocities in a Three-Phase Bubble Column

Authors: Weiling Li, Wenqi Zhong, Baosheng Jin, Rui Xiao, Yong Lu, Tingting He

Abstract:

Experiments were performed in a three-phase bubble column to study variations of bubble rise velocities. The dynamic gas disengagement (DGD) technique and the fast response pressure transducers were utilized to investigate the bubble rise in the column. The superficial gas velocity of large bubbles and small bubbles, the rise velocities of larger and small bubble fractions were studied considering the effect of particle sizes. The results show that the superficial gas velocity associated with large bubbles linearly increase as superficial gas velocity increasing. Particle size has little effect on the both large and small bubble superficial gas velocities. The rise velocities of larger bubble fractions are larger than that of small bubble fractions, and it had different tendency at low and high superficial gas velocities when changing the particle sizes. The rise velocities of small bubble fractions increased and then had a decrease tendency when the particle size became greater.

Keywords: Bubble rise velocity, gas–liquid–solid, particle size effect, three–phase bubble column.

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1597 Effect of Particle Size on Alkali-Activation of Slag

Authors: E. Petrakis, V. Karmali, K. Komnitsas

Abstract:

In this study grinding experiments were performed in a laboratory ball mill using Polish ferronickel slag in order to study the effect of the particle size on alkali activation and the properties of the produced alkali activated materials (AAMs). In this regard, the particle size distribution and the specific surface area of the grinding products in relation to grinding time were assessed. The experimental results show that products with high compressive strength, e.g. higher than 60 MPa, can be produced when the slag median size decreased from 39.9 μm to 11.9 μm. Also, finer fractions are characterized by higher reactivity and result in the production of AAMs with lower porosity and better mechanical properties.

Keywords: Alkali activated materials, compressive strength, particle size distribution, slag.

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1596 The Effect of Granule Size on the Digestibility of Wheat Starch Using an in vitro Model

Authors: Mee-Lin Lim Chai Teo, Darryl M. Small

Abstract:

Wheat has a bimodal starch granule population and the dependency of the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis on particle size has been investigated. Ungelatinised wheaten starch granules were separated into two populations by sedimentation and decantation. Particle size was analysed by laser diffraction and morphological characteristics were viewed using SEM. The sedimentation technique though lengthy, gave satisfactory separation of the granules. Samples (<10μm, >10μm and original) were digested with a-amylase using a dialysis model. Granules of <10μm showed significantly higher rate of reducing sugar release than those >10μm (p<0.05). In contrast, the rate was not significantly different between the original sample and granules >10μm. Moreover, the digestion rate was dependent on particle size whereby smaller granules produced higher rate of release. The methodology and results reported here can be used as a basis for further evaluations designed to delay the release of glucose during the digestion of native starches.

Keywords: in vitro Digestion, a-amylase, wheat starch, granule size.

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1595 Effect of Calcination Temperature and MgO Crystallite Size on MgO/TiO2 Catalyst System for Soybean Transesterification

Authors: Liberty L Mguni, Reinout Meijboom, Kalala Jalama

Abstract:

The effect of calcination temperature and MgO crystallite sizes on the structure and catalytic performance of TiO2 supported nano-MgO catalyst for the trans-esterification of soybean oil has been studied. The catalyst has been prepared by deposition precipitation method, characterised by XRD and FTIR and tested in an autoclave at 225oC. The soybean oil conversion after 15 minutes of the trans-esterification reaction increased when the calcination temperature was increased from 500 to 600oC and decreased with further increase in calcination temperature. Some glycerolysis activity was also detected on catalysts calcined at 600 and 700oC after 45 minutes of reaction. The trans-esterification reaction rate increased with the decrease in MgO crystallite size for the first 30 min.

Keywords: Calcination temperature, crystallite size, MgO/TiO2, transesterification

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1594 Effect of Formulation Compositions on Particle Size and Zeta Potential of Diclofenac Sodium-Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles

Authors: Rathapon Asasutjarit, Chayanid Sorrachaitawatwong, Nardauma Tipchuwong, Sirijit Pouthai

Abstract:

This study was conducted to formulate diclofenac sodium-loaded chitosan nanoparticles and to study the effect of formulation compositions on particle size and zeta potential of chitosan nanoparticles (CSN) containing diclofenac sodium (DC) prepared by ionotropic gelation method. It was found that the formulations containing chitosan, DC and tripolyphosphate (TPP) at a weight ratio of 4:1:1, respectively, with various pH provided various systems. At pH 5.0 and 6.0, the obtained systems were turbid because of precipitation of DC and chitosan, respectively. However, the dispersed system of CSN possessing diameter of 108±1 nm and zeta potential of 19±1 mV could be obtained at pH 5.5. These CSN also showed spherical morphology observed via a transmission scanning electron microscope. Change in weight ratio of chitosan:DC:TPP i.e. 1:1:1, 2:1:1, 3:1:1 and 4:1:1 showed that these ratios led to precipitation of particles except for the ratio of 4:1:1 providing CSN properly. The effect of Tween 80 as a stabilizer was also determined. It suggested that increment of Tween 80 concentration to 0.02% w/v could stabilize CSN at least 48 hours. However, increment of Tween 80 to 0.03% w/v led to quick precipitation of particles. The study of effect of TPP suggested that increment of TPP concentration increased particle size but decreased zeta potential. The excess TPP caused precipitation of CSN. Therefore, the optimized CSN was the CSN containing chitosan, DC and TPP at the ratio of 4:1:1and 0.02% w/v Tween 80 prepared at pH 5.5. Their particle size, zeta potential and entrapment efficiency were 128±1 nm, 15±1 mV and 45.8±2.6%, respectively.

Keywords: Chitosan nanoparticles, diclofenac sodium, size, zeta potential.

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1593 Modelling, Simulation and Validation of Plastic Zone Size during Deformation of Mild Steel

Authors: S. O. Adeosun, E. I. Akpan, S. A. Balogun, O. O. Taiwo

Abstract:

A model to predict the plastic zone size for material under plane stress condition has been developed and verified experimentally. The developed model is a function of crack size, crack angle and material property (dislocation density). Simulation and validation results show that the model developed show good agreement with experimental results. Samples of low carbon steel (0.035%C) with included surface crack angles of 45o, 50o, 60o, 70o and 90o and crack depths of 2mm and 4mm were subjected to low strain rate between 0.48 x 10-3 s-1 – 2.38 x 10-3 s-1. The mechanical properties studied were ductility, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, yield strength, yield strain, stress at fracture and fracture toughness. The experimental study shows that strain rate has no appreciable effect on the size of plastic zone while crack depth and crack angle plays an imperative role in determining the size of the plastic zone of mild steel materials.

Keywords: Applied stress, crack angle, crack size, material property, plastic zone size, strain rate.

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1592 Gas Lift Optimization Using Smart Gas Lift Valve

Authors: Mohamed A. G. H. Abdalsadig, Amir Nourian, G. G. Nasr, M. Babaie

Abstract:

Gas lift is one of the most common forms of artificial lift, particularly for offshore wells because of its relative down hole simplicity, flexibility, reliability, and ability to operate over a large range of rates and occupy very little space at the well head. Presently, petroleum industry is investing in exploration and development fields in offshore locations where oil and gas wells are being drilled thousands of feet below the ocean in high pressure and temperature conditions. Therefore, gas-lifted oil wells are capable of failure through gas lift valves which are considered as the heart of the gas lift system for controlling the amount of the gas inside the tubing string. The gas injection rate through gas lift valve must be controlled to be sufficient to obtain and maintain critical flow, also, gas lift valves must be designed not only to allow gas passage through it and prevent oil passage, but also for gas injection into wells to be started and stopped when needed. In this paper, smart gas lift valve has been used to investigate the effect of the valve port size, depth of injection and vertical lift performance on well productivity; all these aspects have been investigated using PROSPER simulator program coupled with experimental data. The results show that by using smart gas lift valve, the gas injection rate can be controlled which leads to improved flow performance.

Keywords: Effect of gas lift valve port size, effect water cut, and vertical flow performance.

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1591 Optimizing TCP Vegas- Performance with Packet Spacing and Effect of Variable FTP Packet Size over Wireless IPv6 Network

Authors: B. S. Yew , B. L. Ong , R. B. Ahmad

Abstract:

This paper describes the performance of TCP Vegas over the wireless IPv6 network. The performance of TCP Vegas is evaluated using network simulator (ns-2). The simulation experiment investigates how packet spacing affects the network delay, network throughput and network efficiency of TCP Vegas. Moreover, we investigate how the variable FTP packet sizes affect the network performance. The result of the simulation experiment shows that as the packet spacing is implements, the network delay is reduces, network throughput and network efficiency is optimizes. As the FTP packet sizes increase, the ratio of delay per throughput decreases. From the result of experiment, we propose the appropriate packet size in transmitting file transfer protocol application using TCP Vegas with packet spacing enhancement over wireless IPv6 environment in ns-2. Additionally, we suggest the appropriate ratio in determining the appropriate RTT and buffer size in a network.

Keywords: TCP Vegas, Packet Spacing, Packet Size, Wireless IPv6, ns-2

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1590 Definition of Foot Size Model using Kohonen Network

Authors: Khawla Ben Abderrahim

Abstract:

In order to define a new model of Tunisian foot sizes and for building the most comfortable shoes, Tunisian industrialists must be able to offer for their customers products able to put on and adjust the majority of the target population concerned. Moreover, the use of models of shoes, mainly from others country, causes a mismatch between the foot and comfort of the Tunisian shoes. But every foot is unique; these models become uncomfortable for the Tunisian foot. We have a set of measures produced from a 3D scan of the feet of a diverse population (women, men ...) and we try to analyze this data to define a model of foot specific to the Tunisian footwear design. In this paper we propose tow new approaches to modeling a new foot sizes model. We used, indeed, the neural networks, and specially the Kohonen network. Next, we combine neural networks with the concept of half-foot size to improve the models already found. Finally, it was necessary to compare the results obtained by applying each approach and we decide what-s the best approach that give us the most model of foot improving more comfortable shoes.

Keywords: Morphology of the foot, foot size, half foot size, neural network, Kohonen network, model of foot size.

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1589 Particle Size Effect on Shear Strength of Granular Materials in Direct Shear Test

Authors: R. Alias, A. Kasa, M. R. Taha

Abstract:

The effect of particle size on shear strength of granular materials are investigated using direct shear tests. Small direct shear test (60 mm by 60 mm by 24 mm deep) were conducted for particles passing the sieves with opening size of 2.36 mm. Meanwhile, particles passing the standard 20 mm sieves were tested using large direct shear test (300 mm by 300 mm by 200 mm deep). The large direct shear tests and the small direct shear tests carried out using the same shearing rate of 0.09 mm/min and similar normal stresses of 100, 200 and 300 kPa. The results show that the peak and residual shear strength increases as particle size increases.

Keywords: Particle size, shear strength, granular material, direct shear test.

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1588 Effect of Specimen Thickness on Probability Distribution of Grown Crack Size in Magnesium Alloys

Authors: Seon Soon Choi

Abstract:

The fatigue crack growth is stochastic because of the fatigue behavior having an uncertainty and a randomness. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the probability distribution of a grown crack size at a specific fatigue crack propagation life for maintenance of structure as well as reliability estimation. The essential purpose of this study is to present the good probability distribution fit for the grown crack size at a specified fatigue life in a rolled magnesium alloy under different specimen thickness conditions. Fatigue crack propagation experiments are carried out in laboratory air under three conditions of specimen thickness using AZ31 to investigate a stochastic crack growth behavior. The goodness-of-fit test for probability distribution of a grown crack size under different specimen thickness conditions is performed by Anderson-Darling test. The effect of a specimen thickness on variability of a grown crack size is also investigated.

Keywords: Crack size, Fatigue crack propagation, Magnesium alloys, Probability distribution, Specimen thickness.

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1587 Comparative Study of Tensile Properties of Cortical Bone Using Sub-size Specimens and Finite Element Simulation

Authors: N. K. Sharma, J. Nayak, D. K. Sehgal, R. K. Pandey

Abstract:

Bone material is treated as heterogeneous and hierarchical in nature therefore appropriate size of bone specimen is required to analyze its tensile properties at a particular hierarchical level. Tensile properties of cortical bone are important to investigate the effect of drug treatment, disease and aging as well as for development of computational and analytical models. In the present study tensile properties of buffalo as well as goat femoral and tibiae cortical bone are analyzed using sub-size tensile specimens. Femoral cortical bone was found to be stronger in tension as compared to the tibiae cortical bone and the tensile properties obtained using sub-size specimens show close resemblance with the tensile properties of full-size cortical specimens. A two dimensional finite element (FE) modal was also applied to simulate the tensile behavior of sub-size specimens. Good agreement between experimental and FE model was obtained for sub-size tensile specimens of cortical bone.

Keywords: Cortical bone, sub-size specimen, full size specimen, finite element modeling.

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1586 The Effect of Deformation Activation Volume, Strain Rate Sensitivity and Processing Temperature of Grain Size Variants

Authors: P. B. Sob, A. A. Alugongo, T. B. Tengen

Abstract:

The activation volume of 6082T6 aluminum is investigated at different temperatures for grain size variants. The deformation activation volume was computed on the basis of the relationship between the Boltzmann’s constant k, the testing temperatures, the material strain rate sensitivity and the material yield stress grain size variants. The material strain rate sensitivity is computed as a function of yield stress and strain rate grain size variants. The effect of the material strain rate sensitivity and the deformation activation volume of 6082T6 aluminum at different temperatures of 3-D grain are discussed. It is shown that the strain rate sensitivities and activation volume are negative for the grain size variants during the deformation of nanostructured materials. It is also observed that the activation volume vary in different ways with the equivalent radius, semi minor axis radius, semi major axis radius and major axis radius. From the obtained results it is shown that the variation of activation volume increase and decrease with the testing temperature. It was revealed that, increase in strain rate sensitivity led to decrease in activation volume whereas increase in activation volume led to decrease in strain rate sensitivity.

Keywords: Nanostructured materials, grain size variants, temperature, yield stress, strain rate sensitivity, activation volume.

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1585 Evaluation of the End Effect Impact on the Torsion Test for Determining the Shear Modulus of a Timber Beam through a Photogrammetry Approach

Authors: Niaz Gharavi, Hexin Zhang, Yanjun Xie

Abstract:

The timber beam end effect in the torsion test is evaluated using binocular stereo vision system. It is recommended by BS EN 408:2010+A1:2012 to exclude a distance of two to three times of cross-sectional thickness (b) from ends to avoid the end effect; whereas, this study indicates that this distance is not sufficiently far enough to remove this effect in slender cross-sections. The shear modulus of six timber beams with different aspect ratios is determined at the various angles and cross-sections. The result of this experiment shows that the end affected span of each specimen varies depending on their aspect ratios. It is concluded that by increasing the aspect ratio this span will increase. However, by increasing the distance from the ends to the values greater than 6b, the shear modulus trend becomes constant and end effect will be negligible. Moreover, it is concluded that end affected span is preferred to be depth-dependent rather than thickness-dependant.

Keywords: End effect, structural-size torsion test, shear properties, timber engineering, binocular stereo vision.

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1584 The Size Effects of Keyboards (Keycaps) on Computer Typing Tasks

Authors: Chih-Chun Lai, Jun-Yu Wang

Abstract:

Keyboard is the most important equipment for computer tasks. However, improper design of keyboard would cause some symptoms like ulnar and/or radial deviations. The research goal of this study was to investigate the optimal size(s) of keycaps to increase efficiency. As shown in the questionnaire pre-study with 49 participants aged from 20 to 44, the most commonly used keyboards were 101-key standard keyboards. Most of the keycap sizes (W×L) were 1.3×1.5 cm and 1.5×1.5 cm. The fingertip breadths of most participants were 1.2 cm. Therefore, in the main study with 18 participants, a standard keyboard with each set of the 3-sized (1.2×1.4 cm, 1.3×1.5 cm, and 1.5×1.5 cm) keycaps were used to investigate their typing efficiency, respectively. The results revealed that the differences between the operating times for using 1.3×1.5 cm and 1.2×1.4 cm keycaps was insignificant while operating times for using 1.5×1.5cm keycaps were significantly longer than for using 1.2×1.4 cm or 1.3×1.5 cm, respectively. As for typing error rate, there was no significant difference.

Keywords: Keyboard, Keycap size, Typing efficiency.

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1583 Preferred Character Size for Oblique Angles

Authors: Photjanat Phimnom, Haruetai Lohasiriwat

Abstract:

In today’s world, the LED display has been used for presenting visual information under various circumstances. Such information is an important intermediary in the human information processing. Researchers have been investigated diverse factors that influence this process effectiveness. The letter size is undoubtedly one major factor that has been tested and recommended by many standards and guidelines. However, viewing information on the display from direct perpendicular position is a typical assumption whereas many actual events are required viewing from the angles. This current research aims to study the effect of oblique viewing angle and viewing distance on ability to recognize alphabet, number, and English word. The total of ten participants was volunteered to our 3 x 4 x 4 within subject study. Independent variables include three distance levels (2, 6, and 12 m), four oblique angles (0, 45, 60, 75 degree), and four target types (alphabet, number, short word, and long word). Following the method of constant stimuli our study suggests that the larger oblique angle, ranging from 0 to 75 degree from the line of sight, results in significant higher legibility threshold or larger font size required (p-value < 0.05). Viewing distance factor also shows to have significant effect on the threshold (p-value < 0.05). However, the effect from distance factor is expected to be confounded by the quality of the screen used in our experiment. Lastly, our results show that single alphabet as well as single number are recognized at significant lower threshold (smaller font size) as compared to both short and long words (p-value < 0.05). Therefore, it is recommended that when designs information to be presented on LED display, understanding of all possible ranges of oblique angle should be taken into account in order to specify the preferred letter size. Additionally, the recommendation of letter size for 100% legibility in our tested conditions is provided in the paper.

Keywords: Letter Size, Oblique Angle, Viewing Distance, Legibility Threshold.

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1582 Grain Size Effect on Durability of Bioclogging Treatment

Authors: T. Farah, H. Souli, J. –M. Fleureau, G. Kermouche, J. –J. Fry, B. Girard, D. Aelbrecht

Abstract:

In this work, the bioclogging of two soils with different granulometries is presented. The durability of the clogging is also studied under cycles of hydraulic head and under cycles of desaturation-resaturation. The studied materials present continuous grain size distributions. The first one corresponding to the "material 1” presents grain sizes between 0.4 and 4mm. The second material called "material 2" is composed of grains with size varying between 1 and 10mm. The results show that clogging occurs very quickly after the injection of nutrition and an outlet flow near to 0 is observed. The critical hydraulic head is equal to 0.76 for "material 1", and 0.076 for "material 2". The durability tests show a good resistance to unclogging under cycles of hydraulic head and desaturation-resaturation for the "material 1". Indeed, the flow after the cycles is very low. In contrast, "material 2", shows a very bad resistance, especially under the hydraulic head cycles. The resistance under the cycles of desaturation-resaturation is better but an important increase of the flow is observed. The difference of behavior is due to the granulometry of the materials. Indeed, the large grain size contributes to the reduction of the efficiency of the bioclogging treatment in this material. 

Keywords: Bioclogging, Granulometry, permeability, nutrition.

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1581 The Effect of Forest Fires on Physical Properties and Magnetic Susceptibility of Semi-Arid Soils in North-Eastern, Libya

Authors: G. S. Eldiabani, W. H. G. Hale, C. P. Heron

Abstract:

Forest areas are particularly susceptible to fires, which are often manmade. One of the most fire affected forest regions in the world is the Mediterranean. Libya, in the Mediterranean region, has soils that are considered to be arid except in a small area called Aljabal Alakhdar (Green mountain), which is the geographic area covered by this study. Like other forests in the Mediterranean it has suffered extreme degradation. This is mainly due to people removing fire wood, or sometimes converting forested areas to agricultural use, as well as fires which may alter several soil chemical and physical properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of fires on the physical properties of soil of Aljabal Alakhdar forest in the north-east of Libya. The physical properties of soil following fire in two geographic areas have been determined, with those subjected to the fire compared to those in adjacent unburned areas in one coastal and one mountain site. Physical properties studied were: soil particle size (soil texture), soil water content, soil porosity and soil particle density. For the first time in Libyan soils, the effect of burning on the magnetic susceptibility properties of soils was also tested. The results showed that the soils in both study sites, irrespective of burning or depth fell into the category of a silt loam texture, low water content, homogeneity of porosity of the soil profiles, relatively high soil particle density values and there is a much greater value of the soil magnetic susceptibility in the top layer from both sites except for the soil water content and magnetic susceptibility, fire has not had a clear effect on the soils’ physical properties.

Keywords: Aljabal Alakhdar, the coastal site, the mountain site, fire effect, soil particle size, soil water content, soil porosity, soil particle density, soil magnetic susceptibility.

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1580 Influence of the Flow Rate Ratio in a Jet Pump on the Size of Air Bubbles

Authors: L. Grinis, N. Lubashevsky, Y. Ostrovski

Abstract:

In wastewater treatment processes, aeration introduces air into a liquid. In these systems, air is introduced by different devices submerged in the wastewater. Smaller bubbles result in more bubble surface area per unit of volume and higher oxygen transfer efficiency. Jet pumps are devices that use air bubbles and are widely used in wastewater treatment processes. The principle of jet pumps is their ability to transfer energy of one fluid, called primary or motive, into a secondary fluid or gas. These pumps have no moving parts and are able to work in remote areas under extreme conditions. The objective of this work is to study experimentally the characteristics of the jet pump and the size of air bubbles in the laboratory water tank. The effect of flow rate ratio on pump performance is investigated in order to have a better understanding about pump behavior under various conditions, in order to determine the efficiency of receiving air bubbles different sizes. The experiments show that we should take care when increasing the flow rate ratio while seeking to decrease bubble size in the outlet flow. This study will help improve and extend the use of the jet pump in many practical applications.

Keywords: Jet pump, air bubbles size, retention time.

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1579 Column Size for R.C. Frames with High Drift

Authors: Sunil S. Mayengbam, S. Choudhury

Abstract:

A method to predict the column size for displacement based design of reinforced concrete frame buildings with higher target inter storey drift is reported here. The column depth derived from empirical relation as a function of given beam section, target inter-story drift, building plan features and common displacement based design parameters is used. Regarding the high drift requirement, a minimum column-beam moment capacity ratio is maintained during capacity design. The method is used in designing four, eight and twelve story frame buildings with displacement based design for three percent target inter storey drift. Non linear time history analysis of the designed buildings are performed under five artificial ground motions to show that the columns are found elastic enough to avoid column sway mechanism assuring that for the design the column size can be used with or without minor changes.

Keywords: Column size, point of contra flexure, displacement based design, capacity design.

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1578 Adaptive Motion Estimator Based on Variable Block Size Scheme

Authors: S. Dhahri, A. Zitouni, H. Chaouch, R. Tourki

Abstract:

This paper presents an adaptive motion estimator that can be dynamically reconfigured by the best algorithm depending on the variation of the video nature during the lifetime of an application under running. The 4 Step Search (4SS) and the Gradient Search (GS) algorithms are integrated in the estimator in order to be used in the case of rapid and slow video sequences respectively. The Full Search Block Matching (FSBM) algorithm has been also integrated in order to be used in the case of the video sequences which are not real time oriented. In order to efficiently reduce the computational cost while achieving better visual quality with low cost power, the proposed motion estimator is based on a Variable Block Size (VBS) scheme that uses only the 16x16, 16x8, 8x16 and 8x8 modes. Experimental results show that the adaptive motion estimator allows better results in term of Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), computational cost, FPGA occupied area, and dissipated power relatively to the most popular variable block size schemes presented in the literature.

Keywords: H264, Configurable Motion Estimator, VariableBlock Size, PSNR, Dissipated power.

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1577 Variable Step-Size APA with Decorrelation of AR Input Process

Authors: Jae Wook Shin, Ju-man Song, Hyun-Taek Choi, Poo Gyeon Park

Abstract:

This paper introduces a new variable step-size APA with decorrelation of AR input process is based on the MSD analysis. To achieve a fast convergence rate and a small steady-state estimation error, he proposed algorithm uses variable step size that is determined by minimising the MSD. In addition, experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is achieved better performance than the other algorithms.

Keywords: adaptive filter, affine projection algorithm, variable step size.

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1576 The Effect of Computer-Mediated vs. Face-to-Face Instruction on L2 Pragmatics: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Marziyeh Yousefi, Hossein Nassaji

Abstract:

This paper reports the results of a meta-analysis of studies on the effects of instruction mode on learning second language pragmatics during the last decade (from 2006 to 2016). After establishing related inclusion/ exclusion criteria, 39 published studies were retrieved and included in the present meta-analysis. Studies were later coded for face-to-face and computer-assisted mode of instruction. Statistical procedures were applied to obtain effect sizes. It was found that Computer-Assisted-Language-Learning studies generated larger effects than Face-to-Face instruction.

Keywords: Meta-analysis, effect size, pragmatics, computer-assisted language learnin, face-to-face instruction, comprehensive meta-analysis software.

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1575 The Effect of Corporate Diversification on the Profitability of the Financial Services Sector in Nigeria

Authors: Ugwuanyi, Georgina Obinne, Ugwu, Joy Nonye

Abstract:

This paper examines the effect of corporate diversification on the profitability of the Financial services sector in Nigeria. The study relied on historic accounting data generated from financial (annual) reports and accounts of sampled banks between the period 1998 and 2007 (a ten-year period). A regression equation was formulated, in line with previous studies to shed light on the effect of corporate diversification on the profitability of the Financial services sector in Nigeria. The results of the regression analysis revealed that diversification impacts strongly on banks profitability. Conclusively the paper produces strong evidence to assert that diversification impacts positively and significantly on banks profitability because among other things such diversified banks can pool their internally generated funds and allocate them properly.

Keywords: Diversification, firm size, operational efficiency, profitability

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1574 Analysis of Genotype Size for an Evolvable Hardware System

Authors: Emanuele Stomeo, Tatiana Kalganova, Cyrille Lambert

Abstract:

The evolution of logic circuits, which falls under the heading of evolvable hardware, is carried out by evolutionary algorithms. These algorithms are able to automatically configure reconfigurable devices. One of main difficulties in developing evolvable hardware with the ability to design functional electrical circuits is to choose the most favourable EA features such as fitness function, chromosome representations, population size, genetic operators and individual selection. Until now several researchers from the evolvable hardware community have used and tuned these parameters and various rules on how to select the value of a particular parameter have been proposed. However, to date, no one has presented a study regarding the size of the chromosome representation (circuit layout) to be used as a platform for the evolution in order to increase the evolvability, reduce the number of generations and optimize the digital logic circuits through reducing the number of logic gates. In this paper this topic has been thoroughly investigated and the optimal parameters for these EA features have been proposed. The evolution of logic circuits has been carried out by an extrinsic evolvable hardware system which uses (1+λ) evolution strategy as the core of the evolution.

Keywords: Evolvable hardware, genotype size, computational intelligence, design of logic circuits.

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1573 Feasibility Investigation of Near Infrared Spectrometry for Particle Size Estimation of Nano Structures

Authors: A. Bagheri Garmarudi, M. Khanmohammadi, N. Khoddami, K. Shabani

Abstract:

Determination of nano particle size is substantial since the nano particle size exerts a significant effect on various properties of nano materials. Accordingly, proposing non-destructive, accurate and rapid techniques for this aim is of high interest. There are some conventional techniques to investigate the morphology and grain size of nano particles such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Vibrational spectroscopy is utilized to characterize different compounds and applied for evaluation of the average particle size based on relationship between particle size and near infrared spectra [1,4] , but it has never been applied in quantitative morphological analysis of nano materials. So far, the potential application of nearinfrared (NIR) spectroscopy with its ability in rapid analysis of powdered materials with minimal sample preparation, has been suggested for particle size determination of powdered pharmaceuticals. The relationship between particle size and diffuse reflectance (DR) spectra in near infrared region has been applied to introduce a method for estimation of particle size. Back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) as a nonlinear model was applied to estimate average particle size based on near infrared diffuse reflectance spectra. Thirty five different nano TiO2 samples with different particle size were analyzed by DR-FTNIR spectrometry and the obtained data were processed by BP- ANN.

Keywords: near infrared, particle size, chemometrics, neuralnetwork, nano structure.

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1572 The Impact of Size of the Regional Economic Blocs to the Country’s Flows of Trade: Evidence from COMESA, EAC and Tanzania

Authors: Mosses E. Lufuke, Lorna M. Kamau

Abstract:

This paper attempted to assess whether the size of the regional economic bloc has an impact to the flow of trade to a particular country. Two different sized blocs (COMESA and EAC) and one country (Tanzania) have been used as the point of references. Using the results from of the analyses, the paper also was anticipated to establish whether it was rational for Tanzania to withdraw its membership from COMESA (the larger bloc) to join EAC (the small one). Gravity model has been used to estimate the relationship between the variables, from which the bilateral trade flows between Tanzania and the eighteen member countries of the two blocs (COMESA and EAC) was employed for the time between 2000 and 2013. In the model, the dummy variable for regional bloc (bloc) at which the Tanzania trade partner countries belong are also added to the model to understand which trade bloc exhibit higher trade flow with Tanzania. From the findings, it was noted that over the period of study (2000-2013) Tanzania acknowledged more than 257% of trade volume in EAC than in COMESA. Conclusive, it was noted that the flow of trade is explained by many other variables apart from the size of regional bloc; and that the size by itself offer insufficient evidence in causality relationship. The paper therefore remain neutral on such staggered switching decision since more analyses are required to establish the country’s trade flow, especially when if it had been in multiple membership of COMESA and EAC.

Keywords: Economic Bloc, Flow of Trade, Size of Bloc, Switching.

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