Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2112

Search results for: constant heat flux

2112 Free Convection in a Darcy Thermally Stratified Porous Medium That Embeds a Vertical Wall of Constant Heat Flux and Concentration

Authors: Maria Neagu

Abstract:

This paper presents the heat and mass driven natural convection succession in a Darcy thermally stratified porous medium that embeds a vertical semi-infinite impermeable wall of constant heat flux and concentration. The scale analysis of the system determines the two possible maps of the heat and mass driven natural convection sequence along the wall as a function of the process parameters. These results are verified using the finite differences method applied to the conservation equations.

Keywords: Finite difference method, natural convection, porous medium, scale analysis, thermal stratification.

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2111 On the Thermal Behavior of the Slab in a Reheating Furnace with Radiation

Authors: Gyo Woo Lee, Man Young Kim

Abstract:

A mathematical heat transfer model for the prediction of transient heating of the slab in a direct-fired walking beam type reheating furnace has been developed by considering the nongray thermal radiation with given furnace environments. The furnace is modeled as radiating nongray medium with carbon dioxide and water with five-zoned gas temperature and the furnace wall is considered as a constant temperature lower than furnace gas one. The slabs are moving with constant velocity depending on the residence time through the non-firing, charging, preheating, heating, and final soaking zones. Radiative heat flux obtained by considering the radiative heat exchange inside the furnace as well as convective one from the surrounding hot gases are introduced as boundary condition of the transient heat conduction within the slab. After validating thermal radiation model adopted in this work, thermal fields in both model and real reheating furnace are investigated in terms of radiative heat flux in the furnace and temperature inside the slab. The results show that the slab in the furnace can be more heated with higher slab emissivity and residence time.

Keywords: Reheating Furnace, Steel Slab, Radiative Heat Transfer, WSGGM, Emissivity, Residence Time.

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2110 Verified Experiment: Intelligent Fuzzy Weighted Input Estimation Method to Inverse Heat Conduction Problem

Authors: Chen-Yu Wang, Tsung-Chien Chen, Ming-Hui Lee, Jen-Feng Huang

Abstract:

In this paper, the innovative intelligent fuzzy weighted input estimation method (FWIEM) can be applied to the inverse heat transfer conduction problem (IHCP) to estimate the unknown time-varying heat flux efficiently as presented. The feasibility of this method can be verified by adopting the temperature measurement experiment. We would like to focus attention on the heat flux estimation to three kinds of samples (Copper, Iron and Steel/AISI 304) with the same 3mm thickness. The temperature measurements are then regarded as the inputs into the FWIEM to estimate the heat flux. The experiment results show that the proposed algorithm can estimate the unknown time-varying heat flux on-line.

Keywords: Fuzzy Weighted Input Estimation Method, IHCP andHeat Flux.

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2109 Analyses of Natural Convection Heat Transfer from a Heated Cylinder Mounted in Vertical Duct

Authors: H. Bhowmik, A. Faisal, Ahmed Al Yaarubi, Nabil Al Alawi

Abstract:

Experiments are conducted to analyze the steady-state and the power-on transient natural convection heat transfer from a horizontal cylinder mounted in a vertical up flow circular duct. The heat flux ranges from 177 W/m2 to 2426 W/m2 and the Rayleigh number ranges from 1×104 to 4.35×104. For natural air flow and constant heat flux condition, the effects of heat transfer around the cylinder under steady-state condition are investigated. The steady-state results compare favorably with that of the available data. The effects of transient heat transfer data on different angular position of the thermocouple (0o, 90o, 180o) are also reported. It is observed that the transient heat transfer around the cylinder is strongly affected by the position of thermocouples. In the transient region, the rate of heat transfer obtained at 90o and 180o are higher than that of stagnation point (0o). Finally, the dependence of the average Nusselt number on Rayleigh number for steady and transient natural convection heat transfer are analyzed, and a correlation equation is presented.

Keywords: Steady-state, transient, natural convection, Rayleigh number, Nusselt number, Fourier Number.

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2108 Steady State Transpiration Cooling System in Ni-Cr Open-Cellular Porous Plate

Authors: P. Amatachaya, P. Khantikomol, R. Sangchot, B. Krittacom

Abstract:

The steady-state temperature for one-dimensional transpiration cooling system has been conducted experimentally and numerically to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of combined convection and radiation. The Nickel –Chrome (Ni-Cr) open-cellular porous material having porosity of 0.93 and pores per inch (PPI) of 21.5 was examined. The upper surface of porous plate was heated by the heat flux of incoming radiation varying from 7.7 - 16.6 kW/m2 whereas air injection velocity fed into the lower surface was varied from 0.36 - 1.27 m/s, and was then rearranged as Reynolds number (Re). For the report of the results in the present study, two efficiencies including of temperature and conversion efficiency were presented. Temperature efficiency indicating how close the mean temperature of a porous heat plate to that of inlet air, and increased rapidly with the air injection velocity (Re). It was then saturated and had a constant value at Re higher than 10. The conversion efficiency, which was regarded as the ability of porous material in transferring energy by convection after absorbed from heat radiation, decreased with increasing of the heat flux and air injection velocity. In addition, it was then asymptotic to a constant value at the Re higher than 10. The numerical predictions also agreed with experimental data very well.

Keywords: Convection, open-cellular, radiation, transpiration cooling, Reynolds number.

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2107 Effect of Prandtl Number on Natural Convection Heat Transfer from a Heated Semi-Circular Cylinder

Authors: Avinash Chandra, R. P. Chhabra

Abstract:

Natural convection heat transfer from a heated horizontal semi-circular cylinder (flat surface upward) has been investigated for the following ranges of conditions; Grashof number, and Prandtl number. The governing partial differential equations (continuity, Navier-Stokes and energy equations) have been solved numerically using a finite volume formulation. In addition, the role of the type of the thermal boundary condition imposed at cylinder surface, namely, constant wall temperature (CWT) and constant heat flux (CHF) are explored. Natural convection heat transfer from a heated horizontal semi-circular cylinder (flat surface upward) has been investigated for the following ranges of conditions; Grashof number, and Prandtl number, . The governing partial differential equations (continuity, Navier-Stokes and energy equations) have been solved numerically using a finite volume formulation. In addition, the role of the type of the thermal boundary condition imposed at cylinder surface, namely, constant wall temperature (CWT) and constant heat flux (CHF) are explored. The resulting flow and temperature fields are visualized in terms of the streamline and isotherm patterns in the proximity of the cylinder. The flow remains attached to the cylinder surface over the range of conditions spanned here except that for and ; at these conditions, a separated flow region is observed when the condition of the constant wall temperature is prescribed on the surface of the cylinder. The heat transfer characteristics are analyzed in terms of the local and average Nusselt numbers. The maximum value of the local Nusselt number always occurs at the corner points whereas it is found to be minimum at the rear stagnation point on the flat surface. Overall, the average Nusselt number increases with Grashof number and/ or Prandtl number in accordance with the scaling considerations. The numerical results are used to develop simple correlations as functions of Grashof and Prandtl number thereby enabling the interpolation of the present numerical results for the intermediate values of the Prandtl or Grashof numbers for both thermal boundary conditions.

Keywords: Constant heat flux, Constant surface temperature, Grashof number, natural convection, Prandtl number, Semi-circular cylinder

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2106 Heat Flux Reduction Research in Hypersonic Flow with Opposing Jet

Authors: Yisheng Rong, Jian Sun, Weiqiang Liu, Renjun Zhan

Abstract:

A CFD study on heat flux reduction in hypersonic flow with opposing jet has been conducted. Flowfield parameters, reattachment point position, surface pressure distributions and heat flux distributions are obtained and validated with experiments. The physical mechanism of heat reduction has been analyzed. When the opposing jet blows, the freestream is blocked off, flows to the edges and not interacts with the surface to form aerodynamic heating. At the same time, the jet flows back to form cool recirculation region, which reduces the difference in temperature between the surface and the nearby gas, and then reduces the heat flux. As the pressure ratio increases, the interface between jet and freestream is gradually pushed away from the surface. Larger the total pressure ratio is, lower the heat flux is. To study the effect of the intensity of opposing jet more reasonably, a new parameter RPA has been introduced by combining the flux and the total pressure ratio. The study shows that the same shock wave position and total heat load can be obtained with the same RPA with different fluxes and the total pressures, which means the new parameter could stand for the intensity of opposing jet and could be used to analyze the influence of opposing jet on flow field and aerodynamic heating.

Keywords: opposing jet, aerodynamic heating, total pressure ratio, thermal protection system

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2105 Design of a Compact Herriott Cell for Heat Flux Measurement Applications

Authors: R. G. Ramírez-Chavarría, C. Sánchez-Pérez, V. Argueta-Díaz

Abstract:

In this paper we present the design of an optical device based on a Herriott multi-pass cell fabricated on a small sized acrylic slab for heat flux measurements using the deflection of a laser beam propagating inside the cell. The beam deflection is produced by the heat flux conducted to the acrylic slab due to a gradient in the refractive index. The use of a long path cell as the sensitive element in this measurement device, gives the possibility of high sensitivity within a small size device. We present the optical design as well as some experimental results in order to validate the device’s operation principle.

Keywords: Heat flux, herriott cell, optical beam deflection, thermal conductivity.

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2104 A Detailed Review on Pin Fin Heat Sink

Authors: Vedulla Manoj Kumar, B. Nageswara Rao, Sk. Farooq

Abstract:

Heat sinks are being considered in many advanced heat transfer applications including automotive and stationary fuel cells as well as cooling of electronic devices. However, there are innumerable fundamental issues in the fields of heat transfer and fluid mechanics perspectives which remains unresolved. The present review emphasizes on the progress of research in the field of pin fin heat sinks, while understanding the fluid dynamics and heat transfer characteristics with a detailed and sophisticated prediction of the temperature distribution, high heat flux removal and by minimizing thermal resistance. Lot of research work carried out across the globe to address this challenge and trying to come up with an economically viable and user friendly solution. The high activities for future pin fin heat sinks research and development to meet the current issue is recorded in this article.

Keywords: Heat sinks, heat transfer, heat flux, thermal resistance, electronic devices.

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2103 Wall Heat Flux Mapping in Liquid Rocket Combustion Chamber with Different Jet Impingement Angles

Authors: O. S. Pradeep, S. Vigneshwaran, K. Praveen Kumar, K. Jeyendran, V. R. Sanal Kumar

Abstract:

The influence of injector attitude on wall heat flux plays an important role in predicting the start-up transient and also determining the combustion chamber wall durability of liquid rockets. In this paper comprehensive numerical studies have been carried out on an idealized liquid rocket combustion chamber to examine the transient wall heat flux during its start-up transient at different injector attitude. Numerical simulations have been carried out with the help of a validated 2d axisymmetric, double precision, pressure-based, transient, species transport, SST k-omega model with laminar finite rate model for governing turbulent-chemistry interaction for four cases with different jet intersection angles, viz., 0o, 30o, 45o, and 60o. We concluded that the jets intersection angle is having a bearing on the time and location of the maximum wall-heat flux zone of the liquid rocket combustion chamber during the start-up transient. We also concluded that the wall heat flux mapping in liquid rocket combustion chamber during the start-up transient is a meaningful objective for the chamber wall material selection and the lucrative design optimization of the combustion chamber for improving the payload capability of the rocket.  

Keywords: Combustion chamber, injector, liquid rocket, rocket engine wall heat flux.

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2102 Modeling of Fluid Flow in 2D Triangular, Sinusoidal, and Square Corrugated Channels

Authors: Abdulbasit G. A. Abdulsayid

Abstract:

The main focus of the work was concerned with hydrodynamic and thermal analysis of the plate heat exchanger channel with corrugation patterns suggested to be triangular, sinusoidal, and square corrugation. This study was to numerically model and validate the triangular corrugated channel with dimensions/parameters taken from open literature, and then model/analyze both sinusoidal, and square corrugated channel referred to the triangular model. Initially, 2D modeling with local extensive analysis for triangular corrugated channel was carried out. By that, all local pressure drop, wall shear stress, friction factor, static temperature, heat flux, Nusselt number, and surface heat coefficient, were analyzed to interpret the hydrodynamic and thermal phenomena occurred in the flow. Furthermore, in order to facilitate confidence in this model, a comparison between the values predicted, and experimental results taken from literature for almost the same case, was done. Moreover, a holistic numerical study for sinusoidal and square channels together with global comparisons with triangular corrugation under the same condition, were handled. Later, a comparison between electric, and fluid cooling through varying the boundary condition was achieved. The constant wall temperature and constant wall heat flux boundary conditions were employed, and the different resulted Nusselt numbers as a consequence were justified. The results obtained can be used to come up with an optimal design, a 'compromise' between heat transfer and pressure drop.

Keywords: Corrugated Channel, CFD, Heat Exchanger, Heat Enhancement.

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2101 Numerical Optimization of Trapezoidal Microchannel Heat Sinks

Authors: Yue-Tzu Yang, Shu-Ching Liao

Abstract:

This study presents the numerical simulation of three-dimensional incompressible steady and laminar fluid flow and conjugate heat transfer of a trapezoidal microchannel heat sink using water as a cooling fluid in a silicon substrate. Navier-Stokes equations with conjugate energy equation are discretized by finite-volume method. We perform numerical computations for a range of 50 ≦ Re ≦ 600, 0.05W ≦ P ≦ 0.8W, 20W/cm2 q"≦ 40W/cm2. The present study demonstrates the numerical optimization of a trapezoidal microchannel heat sink design using the response surface methodology (RSM) and the genetic algorithm method (GA). The results show that the average Nusselt number increases with an increase in the Reynolds number or pumping power, and the thermal resistance decreases as the pumping power increases. The thermal resistance of a trapezoidal microchannel is minimized for a constant heat flux and constant pumping power.

Keywords: Microchannel heat sinks, Conjugate heat transfer, Optimization, Genetic algorithm method.

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2100 Experimental Investigation of Convective Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of Al2O3/Water Nanofluid in Laminar Flow Regime inside a Circular Tube

Authors: H. Almohammadi, Sh. Nasiri Vatan, E. Esmaeilzadeh, A. Motezaker, A. Nokhosteen

Abstract:

In the present study, Convective heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop of Al2O3/water nanofluid in laminar flow regime under constant heat flux conditions inside a circular tube were experimentally investigated. Al2O3/water nanofluid with 0.5% and 1% volume concentrations with 15 nm diameter nanoparticles were used as working fluid. The effect of different volume concentrations on convective heat transfer coefficient and friction factor was studied. The results emphasize that increasing of particle volume concentration leads to enhance convective heat transfer coefficient. Measurements show the average heat transfer coefficient enhanced about 11-20% with 0.5% volume concentration and increased about 16-27% with 1% volume concentration compared to distilled water. In addition, the convective heat transfer coefficient of nanofluid enhances with increase in heat flux. From the results, the average ratio of (fnf/fbf) was about 1.10 for 0.5% volume concentration. Therefore, there is no significant increase in friction factor for nanofluids.

Keywords: Convective heat transfer, Laminar flow regime, Nanofluids, Pressure drop

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2099 Modeling the Effect of Spacer Orientation on Heat Transfer in Membrane Distillation

Authors: M. Shakaib, M. Ehtesham-ul Haq, I. Ahmed, R.M. Yunus

Abstract:

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations carried out in this paper show that spacer orientation has a major influence on temperature patterns and on the heat transfer rates. The local heat flux values significantly vary from high to very low values at each filament when spacer touches the membrane surface. The heat flux profile is more uniform when spacer filaments are not in contact with the membrane thus making this arrangement more beneficial. The temperature polarization is also found to be less in this case when compared to the empty channel.

Keywords: heat transfer, membrane distillation, spacer, temperature polarization.

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2098 Roughness Effects on Nucleate Pool Boiling of R-113 on Horizontal Circular Copper Surfaces

Authors: R. Hosseini, A. Gholaminejad, H. Jahandar

Abstract:

The present paper is an experimental investigation of roughness effects on nucleate pool boiling of refrigerant R113 on horizontal circular copper surfaces. The copper samples were treated by different sand paper grit sizes to achieve different surface roughness. The average surface roughness of the four samples was 0.901, 0.735, 0.65, and 0.09, respectively. The experiments were performed in the heat flux range of 8 to 200kW/m2. The heat transfer coefficient was calculated by measuring wall superheat of the samples and the input heat flux. The results show significant improvement of heat transfer coefficient as the surface roughness is increased. It is found that the heat transfer coefficient of the sample with Ra=0.901 is 3.4, 10.5, and 38.5% higher in comparison with surfaces with Ra of 0.735, 0.65, and 0.09 at heat flux of 170 kW/m2. Moreover, the results are compared with literature data and the well known Cooper correlation.

Keywords: Nucleate Boiling, Pool Boiling, R113, SurfaceRoughness

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2097 Heat Transfer to Laminar Flow over a Double Backward-Facing Step

Authors: Hussein Togun, Tuqa Abdulrazzaq, S. N. Kazi, A. Badarudin, M. K. A. Ariffin

Abstract:

Heat transfer and laminar air flow over a double backward-facing step numerically studied in this paper. The simulations was performed by using ANSYS ICEM for meshing process and using ANSYS fluent 14 (CFD) for solving. The k-ɛ standard model adopted with Reynolds number varied between 98.5 to 512 and three step height at constant heat flux (q=2000 W/m2). The top of wall and bottom of upstream are insulated with bottom of downstream is heated. The results show increase in Nusselt number with increases of Reynolds number for all cases and the maximum of Nusselt number happens at the first step in compared to the second step. Due to increase of cross section area of downstream to generate sudden expansion then Nusselt number decrease but the profile of Nusselt number keep same trend for all cases where increase after the first and second steps. Recirculation region after the first and second steps are denoted by contour of streamline velocity. The higher augmentation of heat transfer rate observed for case 1 at Reynolds number of 512 and heat flux q=2000 W/m2.

Keywords: Laminar flow, Double backward, Separation flow, Recirculation flow.

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2096 Air flow and Heat Transfer Modeling of an Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Generator

Authors: Airoldi G., Bumby J. R., Dominy C., G.L. Ingram, Lim C. H., Mahkamov K., N. L. Brown, A. Mebarki, M. Shanel

Abstract:

Axial Flux Permanent Magnet (AFPM) Machines require effective cooling due to their high power density. The detrimental effects of overheating such as degradation of the insulation materials, magnets demagnetization, and increase of Joule losses are well known. This paper describes the CFD simulations performed on a test rig model of an air cooled Axial Flux Permanent Magnet (AFPM) generator built at Durham University to identify the temperatures and heat transfer coefficient on the stator. The Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes and the Energy equations are solved and the flow pattern and heat transfer developing inside the machine are described. The Nusselt number on the stator surfaces has been found. The dependency of the heat transfer on the flow field is described temperature field obtained. Tests on an experimental are undergoing in order to validate the CFD results.

Keywords: Axial flux permanent magnet machines, thermal modeling, CFD.

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2095 An Accurate Prediction of Surface Temperature History in a Supersonic Flight

Authors: A. M. Tahsini, S. A. Hosseini

Abstract:

In the present study, the surface temperature history of the adaptor part in a two-stage supersonic launch vehicle is accurately predicted. The full Navier-Stokes equations are used to estimate the aerodynamic heat flux and the one-dimensional heat conduction in solid phase is used to compute the temperature history. The instantaneous surface temperature is used to improve the applied heat flux, to improve the accuracy of the results.

Keywords: Aerodynamic heating, Heat conduction, Numerical simulation, Supersonic flight, Launch vehicle.

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2094 Effect of Sintering Temperature Curve in Wick Manufactured for Loop Heat Pipe

Authors: Shen-Chun Wu, Chuo-Jeng Huang, Wun-Hong Yang, Jy-Cheng Chang, Chien-Chun Kung

Abstract:

This investigation examines the effect of the sintering temperature curve in manufactured nickel powder capillary structure (wick) for a loop heat pipe (LHP). The sintering temperature curve is composed of a region of increasing temperature; a region of constant temperature and a region of declining temperature. The most important region is that in which the temperature increases, as an index in the stage in which the temperature increases. The wick of nickel powder is manufactured in the stage of fixed sintering temperature and the time between the stage of constant temperature and the stage of falling temperature. When the slope of the curve in the region of increasing temperature is unity (equivalent to 10 °C/min), the structure of the wick is complete and the heat transfer performance is optimal. The result of experiment test demonstrates that the heat transfer performance is optimal at 320W; the minimal total thermal resistance is approximately 0.18°C/W, and the heat flux is 17W/cm2; the internal parameters of the wick are an effective pore radius of 3.1 μm, a permeability of 3.25×10-13m2 and a porosity of 71%.

Keywords: Loop heat pipe (LHP), capillary structure (wick), sintered temperature curve.

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2093 Investigation Bubble Growth and Nucleation Rates during the Pool Boiling Heat Transfer of Distilled Water Using Population Balance Model

Authors: V. Nikkhah Rashidabad, M. Manteghian, M. Masoumi, S. Mousavian

Abstract:

In this research, the changes in bubbles diameter and  number that may occur due to the change in heat flux of pure water  during pool boiling process. For this purpose, test equipment was  designed and developed to collect test data. The bubbles were graded  using Caliper Screen software. To calculate the growth and  nucleation rates of bubbles under different fluxes, population balance  model was employed. The results show that the increase in heat flux  from q=20 kw/m2 to q= 102 kw/m2 raised the growth and nucleation  rates of bubbles.

 

Keywords: Heat flux, bubble growth, bubble nucleation, population balance model.

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2092 Improvement of Energy Efficiency using Porous Fins in Heat Exchangers

Authors: Hadi Niknami Esfahani , Hossein Shokouhmand, Fahim Faraji

Abstract:

The forced convection heat transfer in high porosity metal-foam filled tube heat exchangers are studied in this paper. The Brinkman Darcy momentum model and two energy equations for both solid and fluid phases in porous media are employed .The study shows that using metal-foams can significantly improve the heat transfer in heat exchangers.

Keywords: Metal foam, Nusselt number, heat exchanger, heat flux.

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2091 Investigation of Heat Transfer by Natural Convection in an Open Channel

Authors: Mahmoud S. Ahmed, Hany A. Mohamed, Mohamed A. Omara, Mohamed F. Abdeen

Abstract:

Experimental study of natural convection heat transfer inside smooth and rough surfaces of vertical and inclined equilateral triangular channels of different inclination angles with a uniformly heated surface are performed. The inclination angle is changed from 15º to 90º. Smooth and rough surface of average roughness (0.02mm) are used and their effect on the heat transfer characteristics are studied. The local and average heat transfer coefficients and Nusselt number are obtained for smooth and rough channels at different heat flux values, different inclination angles and different Rayleigh numbers (Ra) 6.48 × 105 ≤ Ra ≤ 4.78 × 106. The results show that the local Nusselt number decreases with increase of axial distance from the lower end of the triangular channel to a point near the upper end of channel, and then, it slightly increases. Higher values of local Nusselt number for rough channel along the axial distance compared with the smooth channel. The average Nusselt number of rough channel is higher than that of smooth channel by about 8.1% for inclined case at θ = 45o and 10% for vertical case. The results obtained are correlated using dimensionless groups for both rough and smooth surfaces of the inclined and vertical triangular channels.

Keywords: Natural heat transfer convection, constant heat flux, open channels, heat transfer.

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2090 Study of MHD Oblique Stagnation Point Assisting Flow on Vertical Plate with Uniform Surface Heat Flux

Authors: Phool Singh, Ashok Jangid, N.S. Tomer, Deepa Sinha

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to study the oblique stagnation point flow on vertical plate with uniform surface heat flux in presence of magnetic field. Using Stream function, partial differential equations corresponding to the momentum and energy equations are converted into non-linear ordinary differential equations. Numerical solutions of these equations are obtained using Runge-Kutta Fehlberg method with the help of shooting technique. In the present work the effects of striking angle, magnetic field parameter, Grashoff number, the Prandtl number on velocity and heat transfer characteristics have been discussed. Effect of above mentioned parameter on the position of stagnation point are also studied.

Keywords: Heat flux, Oblique stagnation point, Mixedconvection, Magneto hydrodynamics

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2089 Thermophoresis Particle Precipitate on Heated Surfaces

Authors: Rebhi A. Damseh, H. M. Duwairi, Benbella A. Shannak

Abstract:

This work deals with heat and mass transfer by steady laminar boundary layer flow of a Newtonian, viscous fluid over a vertical flat plate with variable surface heat flux embedded in a fluid saturated porous medium in the presence of thermophoresis particle deposition effect. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into no-similar form by using special transformation and solved numerically by using an implicit finite difference method. Many results are obtained and a representative set is displaced graphically to illustrate the influence of the various physical parameters on the wall thermophoresis deposition velocity and concentration profiles. It is found that the increasing of thermophoresis constant or temperature differences enhances heat transfer rates from vertical surfaces and increase wall thermophoresis velocities; this is due to favorable temperature gradients or buoyancy forces. It is also found that the effect of thermophoresis phenomena is more pronounced near pure natural convection heat transfer limit; because this phenomenon is directly a temperature gradient or buoyancy forces dependent. Comparisons with previously published work in the limits are performed and the results are found to be in excellent agreement.

Keywords: Thermophoresis, porous medium, variable surface heat flux.

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2088 Improvement Approach on Rotor Time Constant Adaptation with Optimum Flux in IFOC for Induction Machines Drives

Authors: S. Grouni, R. Ibtiouen, M. Kidouche, O. Touhami

Abstract:

Induction machine models used for steady-state and transient analysis require machine parameters that are usually considered design parameters or data. The knowledge of induction machine parameters is very important for Indirect Field Oriented Control (IFOC). A mismatched set of parameters will degrade the response of speed and torque control. This paper presents an improvement approach on rotor time constant adaptation in IFOC for Induction Machines (IM). Our approach tends to improve the estimation accuracy of the fundamental model for flux estimation. Based on the reduced order of the IM model, the rotor fluxes and rotor time constant are estimated using only the stator currents and voltages. This reduced order model offers many advantages for real time identification parameters of the IM.

Keywords: Indirect Field Oriented Control (IFOC), InductionMachine (IM), Rotor Time Constant, Parameters ApproachAdaptation. Optimum rotor flux.

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2087 Heat Transfer and Entropy Generation in a Partial Porous Channel Using LTNE and Exothermicity/Endothermicity Features

Authors: Mohsen Torabi, Nader Karimi, Kaili Zhang

Abstract:

This work aims to provide a comprehensive study on the heat transfer and entropy generation rates of a horizontal channel partially filled with a porous medium which experiences internal heat generation or consumption due to exothermic or endothermic chemical reaction. The focus has been given to the local thermal non-equilibrium (LTNE) model. The LTNE approach helps us to deliver more accurate data regarding temperature distribution within the system and accordingly to provide more accurate Nusselt number and entropy generation rates. Darcy-Brinkman model is used for the momentum equations, and constant heat flux is assumed for boundary conditions for both upper and lower surfaces. Analytical solutions have been provided for both velocity and temperature fields. By incorporating the investigated velocity and temperature formulas into the provided fundamental equations for the entropy generation, both local and total entropy generation rates are plotted for a number of cases. Bifurcation phenomena regarding temperature distribution and interface heat flux ratio are observed. It has been found that the exothermicity or endothermicity characteristic of the channel does have a considerable impact on the temperature fields and entropy generation rates.

Keywords: Entropy generation, exothermicity, endothermicity, forced convection, local thermal non-equilibrium, analytical modeling.

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2086 Effect of Zinc Oxide on Characteristics of Active Flux TIG Welds of 1050 Aluminum Plates

Authors: H. Fazlinejad, A. Halvaee

Abstract:

In this study, characteristics of ATIG welds using ZnO flux on aluminum was investigated and compared with TIG welds. Autogenously AC-ATIG bead on plate welding was applied on Al1050 plate with a coating of ZnO as the flux. Different levels of welding current and flux layer thickness was considered to study the effect of heat input and flux quantity on ATIG welds and was compared with those of TIG welds. Geometrical investigation of the weld cross sections revealed that penetration depth of the ATIG welds with ZnO flux, was increased up to 2 times in some samples compared to the TIG welds. Optical metallographic and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations revealed similar microstructures in TIG and ATIG welds. Composition of the ATIG welds slag was also analyzed using X-ray diffraction. In both TIG and ATIG samples, the lowest values of microhardness were observed in the HAZ.

Keywords: ATIG, active flux, weld penetration, Al 1050, ZnO.

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2085 Numerical Analysis of Air Flow and Conjugated Heat Transfer in Internally Grooved Parallel- Plate Channels

Authors: Hossein Shokouhmand , Koohyar Vahidkhah, Mohammad A. Esmaeili

Abstract:

A numerical investigation of surface heat transfer characteristics of turbulent air flows in different parallel plate grooved channels is performed using CFD code. The results are obtained for Reynolds number ranging from 10,000 to 30,000 and for arc-shaped and rectangular grooved channels. The influence of different geometric parameters of dimples as well as the number of them and the geometric and thermophysical properties of channel walls are studied. It is found that there exists an optimum value for depth of dimples in which the largest wall heat flux can be achieved. Also, the results show a critical value for the ratio of wall thermal conductivity to the one of fluid in which the dependence of wall heat flux to this ratio almost vanishes. In most cases examined, heat transfer enhancement is larger for arc-shaped grooved channels than rectangular ones.

Keywords: dimple, heat transfer enhancement, Numerical, optimum value, turbulent air flow.

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2084 Infrared Lamp Array Simulation Technology Used during Satellite Thermal Testing

Authors: Wang Jing, Liu Shouwen, Pei Yifei

Abstract:

A satellite is being integrated and tested by BISEE (Beijing Institute of Spacecraft Environment Engineering). This paper describes the infrared lamp array simulation technology used for satellite thermal balance and thermal vacuum test. These tests were performed in KM6 space environmental simulator in Beijing, China. New software and hardware developed by BISEE, along with enhanced heat flux uniformity, provided for well accomplished thermal balance and thermal vacuum tests. The flux uniformity of lamp array was satisfied with test requirement. Monitored background radiometer offered reliable heat flux measurements with remarkable repeatability. Simulation software supplied accurate thermal flux distribution predictions.

Keywords: Satellite, Thermal test, Infrared lamp array, Heatflux

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2083 Modeling of Radiative Heat Transfer in 2D Complex Heat Recuperator of Biomass Pyrolysis Furnace: A Study of Baffles Shadow and Soot Volume Fraction Effects

Authors: Mohamed Ammar Abbassi, Kamel Guedri, Mohamed Naceur Borjini, Kamel Halouani, Belkacem Zeghmati

Abstract:

The radiative heat transfer problem is investigated numerically for 2D complex geometry biomass pyrolysis reactor composed of two pyrolysis chambers and a heat recuperator. The fumes are a mixture of carbon dioxide and water vapor charged with absorbing and scattering particles and soot. In order to increase gases residence time and heat transfer, the heat recuperator is provided with many inclined, vertical, horizontal, diffuse and grey baffles of finite thickness and has a complex geometry. The Finite Volume Method (FVM) is applied to study radiative heat transfer. The blocked-off region procedure is used to treat the geometrical irregularities. Eight cases are considered in order to demonstrate the effect of adding baffles on the walls of the heat recuperator and on the walls of the pyrolysis rooms then choose the best case giving the maximum heat flux transferred to the biomass in the pyrolysis chambers. Ray effect due to the presence of baffles is studied and demonstrated to have a crucial effect on radiative heat flux on the walls of the pyrolysis rooms. Shadow effect caused by the presence of the baffles is also studied. The non grey radiative heat transfer is studied for the real existent configuration. The Weighted Sum of The Grey Gases (WSGG) Model of Kim and Song is used as non grey model. The effect of soot volumetric fraction on the non grey radiative heat flux is investigated and discussed.

Keywords: Baffles, Blocked-off region procedure, FVM, Heat recuperation, Radiative heat transfer, Shadow effect.

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