Search results for: K. Praveen Kumar
628 Preparation of Nanostructure ZnO-SnO2 Thin Films for Optoelectronic Properties and Post Annealing Influence
Authors: Vipin Kumar Jain, Praveen Kumar, Y.K. Vijay
Abstract:ZnO-SnO2 i.e. Zinc-Tin-Oxide (ZTO) thin films were deposited on glass substrate with varying concentrations (ZnO:SnO2 - 100:0, 90:10, 70:30 and 50:50 wt.%) at room temperature by flash evaporation technique. These deposited ZTO film were annealed at 450 0C in vacuum. These films were characterized to study the effect of annealing on the structural, electrical, and optical properties. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images manifest the surface morphology of these ZTO thin films. The apparent growth of surface features revealed the formation of nanostructure ZTO thin films. The small value of surface roughness (root mean square RRMS) ensures the usefulness in optical coatings. The sheet resistance was also found to be decreased for both types of films with increasing concentration of SnO2. The optical transmittance found to be decreased however blue shift has been observed after annealing.
Keywords: ZTO thin film, AFM, SEM, Optical transmittance, Sheet resistance.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2267
627 Numerical Investigation of Pressure Drop and Erosion Wear by Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation
Authors: Praveen Kumar, Nitin Kumar, Hemant Kumar
Abstract:The modernization of computer technology and commercial computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation has given better detailed results as compared to experimental investigation techniques. CFD techniques are widely used in different field due to its flexibility and performance. Evaluation of pipeline erosion is complex phenomenon to solve by numerical arithmetic technique, whereas CFD simulation is an easy tool to resolve that type of problem. Erosion wear behaviour due to solid–liquid mixture in the slurry pipeline has been investigated using commercial CFD code in FLUENT. Multi-phase Euler-Lagrange model was adopted to predict the solid particle erosion wear in 22.5° pipe bend for the flow of bottom ash-water suspension. The present study addresses erosion prediction in three dimensional 22.5° pipe bend for two-phase (solid and liquid) flow using finite volume method with standard k-ε turbulence, discrete phase model and evaluation of erosion wear rate with varying velocity 2-4 m/s. The result shows that velocity of solid-liquid mixture found to be highly dominating parameter as compared to solid concentration, density, and particle size. At low velocity, settling takes place in the pipe bend due to low inertia and gravitational effect on solid particulate which leads to high erosion at bottom side of pipeline.
Keywords: Computational fluid dynamics, erosion, slurry transportation, k-ε Model.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1587
626 Effect of a Multiple Stenosis on Blood Flow through a Tube
Authors: Vipin Kumar Verma, Praveen Saraswat
The development of double stenosis in an artery can have serious consequences and can disrupt the normal functioning of the circulatory system. It has been realized that various hydrodynamics effects (i.e. wall shear, pressure distribution etc.) play important role in the development of this disease. Generally in the literature, the cross-section of the artery is assumed to be uniform with a single stenosis. However, in real situation the multiple stenosis develops in series along the length of artery whose cross-section varies slowly. Therefore, the flow of blood is laminar through a small diameter artery with axisymmetric identical double stenosis in series.
Keywords: Wall shear, multiple stenosis, artery.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1794
625 Efficient Realization of an ADFE with a New Adaptive Algorithm
Authors: N. Praveen Kumar, Abhijit Mitra, C. Ardil
Abstract:Decision feedback equalizers are commonly employed to reduce the error caused by intersymbol interference. Here, an adaptive decision feedback equalizer is presented with a new adaptation algorithm. The algorithm follows a block-based approach of normalized least mean square (NLMS) algorithm with set-membership filtering and achieves a significantly less computational complexity over its conventional NLMS counterpart with set-membership filtering. It is shown in the results that the proposed algorithm yields similar type of bit error rate performance over a reasonable signal to noise ratio in comparison with the latter one.
Keywords: Decision feedback equalizer, Adaptive algorithm, Block based computation, Set membership filtering.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1562
624 Wall Heat Flux Mapping in Liquid Rocket Combustion Chamber with Different Jet Impingement Angles
Authors: O. S. Pradeep, S. Vigneshwaran, K. Praveen Kumar, K. Jeyendran, V. R. Sanal Kumar
Abstract:The influence of injector attitude on wall heat flux plays an important role in predicting the start-up transient and also determining the combustion chamber wall durability of liquid rockets. In this paper comprehensive numerical studies have been carried out on an idealized liquid rocket combustion chamber to examine the transient wall heat flux during its start-up transient at different injector attitude. Numerical simulations have been carried out with the help of a validated 2d axisymmetric, double precision, pressure-based, transient, species transport, SST k-omega model with laminar finite rate model for governing turbulent-chemistry interaction for four cases with different jet intersection angles, viz., 0o, 30o, 45o, and 60o. We concluded that the jets intersection angle is having a bearing on the time and location of the maximum wall-heat flux zone of the liquid rocket combustion chamber during the start-up transient. We also concluded that the wall heat flux mapping in liquid rocket combustion chamber during the start-up transient is a meaningful objective for the chamber wall material selection and the lucrative design optimization of the combustion chamber for improving the payload capability of the rocket.
Keywords: Combustion chamber, injector, liquid rocket, rocket engine wall heat flux.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1355
623 Unsteady Transient Free Convective Flow of an Incompressible Viscous Fluid under Influence of Uniform Transverse Magnetic Field
Authors: Praveen Saraswat, Vipin Kumar Verma, Rudraman Singh
The unsteady transient free convection flow of an incompressible dissipative viscous fluid between parallel plates at different distances have been investigated under porous medium. Due to presence of heat flux under the influence of uniform transverse magnetic field the velocity distribution and the temperature distribution, is shown graphically. Since exact solution is not possible so we find parametrical solution by perturbation technique. The result is shown in graph for different parameters. We notice that heat generation effects fluid velocity keeping in which of free convection which cools.
Keywords: Transient, Convection, MHD, Viscous, Porous.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1392
622 Genetic Comparison of Two Different Arabian Oryx Populations in UAE Based on Microsatellite Analysis
Authors: Mohammed A. Khidhir, K. Praveen Kumar, Marwa Al-Aseer
Abstract:This is a genetic comparison study of Arabian Oryx (Oryx leucoryx) population at two different locations (A &B) based on nuclear microsatellite DNA markers. Arabian Oryx is listed as vulnerable and endanger by the World Conservation Union (IUCN). Thirty microsatellite markers from bovine family were applied to investigate the genetic diversity of the Arabian Oryx and to set up a molecular inventory. Among 30 microsatellite markers used, 13 markers were moderately polymorphic. Arabian Oryx at location A has shown better gene diversity over location B. However, mean number of alleles were less than location B. Data of within population inbreeding coefficient indicates inbreeding at both locations (A&B). Based on the analysis of polymorphic microsatellite markers, the study revealed that Arabian Oryx need a genetically designed breeding program.
Keywords: Arabian oryx, MicrosatellitesProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1383
621 Rheological and Computational Analysis of Crude Oil Transportation
Authors: Praveen Kumar, Satish Kumar, Jashanpreet Singh
Transportation of unrefined crude oil from the production unit to a refinery or large storage area by a pipeline is difficult due to the different properties of crude in various areas. Thus, the design of a crude oil pipeline is a very complex and time consuming process, when considering all the various parameters. There were three very important parameters that play a significant role in the transportation and processing pipeline design; these are: viscosity profile, temperature profile and the velocity profile of waxy crude oil through the crude oil pipeline. Knowledge of the Rheological computational technique is required for better understanding the flow behavior and predicting the flow profile in a crude oil pipeline. From these profile parameters, the material and the emulsion that is best suited for crude oil transportation can be predicted. Rheological computational fluid dynamic technique is a fast method used for designing flow profile in a crude oil pipeline with the help of computational fluid dynamics and rheological modeling. With this technique, the effect of fluid properties including shear rate range with temperature variation, degree of viscosity, elastic modulus and viscous modulus was evaluated under different conditions in a transport pipeline. In this paper, two crude oil samples was used, as well as a prepared emulsion with natural and synthetic additives, at different concentrations ranging from 1,000 ppm to 3,000 ppm. The rheological properties was then evaluated at a temperature range of 25 to 60 °C and which additive was best suited for transportation of crude oil is determined. Commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to generate the flow, velocity and viscosity profile of the emulsions for flow behavior analysis in crude oil transportation pipeline. This rheological CFD design can be further applied in developing designs of pipeline in the future.
Keywords: Natural surfactant, crude oil, rheology, CFD, viscosity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1240
620 Numerical Studies on the Performance of Finned-Tube Heat Exchanger
Authors: Praveen Kumar S P, Bong-Su Sin, Kwon-Hee Lee
Finned-tube heat exchangers are predominantly used in space conditioning systems, as well as other applications requiring heat exchange between two fluids. The design of finned-tube heat exchangers requires the selection of over a dozen design parameters by the designer such as tube pitch, tube diameter, tube thickness, etc… Finned-tube heat exchangers are common devices; however, their performance characteristics are complicated. In this paper numerical studies have been carried out to analyze the performances of finned tube heat exchanger (without fins considered for experimental purpose) by predicting the characteristics of temperature difference and pressure drop. In this study, a design considering 5 design variables and also maximizing the temperature difference and pressure drop was suggested by applying DOE. During this process, L18 orthogonal array was adopted. Parametric analytical studies have been carried out using ANOVA to determine the relative importance of each variable with respect to the temperature difference and the pressure drop. Following the results, the final design was suggested by predicting the optimum design therefore confirming the optimized condition.
Keywords: Heat Exchanger, Fluid Analysis, Heat Transfer, Design of Experiment (DOE), Analysis of Variance (ANOVA).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2513
619 Low Jitter ADPLL based Clock Generator for High Speed SoC Applications
Authors: Moorthi S., Meganathan D., Janarthanan D., Praveen Kumar P., J. Raja paul perinbam
Abstract:An efficient architecture for low jitter All Digital Phase Locked Loop (ADPLL) suitable for high speed SoC applications is presented in this paper. The ADPLL is designed using standard cells and described by Hardware Description Language (HDL). The ADPLL implemented in a 90 nm CMOS process can operate from 10 to 200 MHz and achieve worst case frequency acquisition in 14 reference clock cycles. The simulation result shows that PLL has cycle to cycle jitter of 164 ps and period jitter of 100 ps at 100MHz. Since the digitally controlled oscillator (DCO) can achieve both high resolution and wide frequency range, it can meet the demands of system-level integration. The proposed ADPLL can easily be ported to different processes in a short time. Thus, it can reduce the design time and design complexity of the ADPLL, making it very suitable for System-on-Chip (SoC) applications.
Keywords: All Digital Phase Locked Loop (ADPLL), Systemon-Chip (SoC), Phase Locked Loop (PLL), Very High speedIntegrated Circuit (VHSIC) Hardware Description Language(VHDL), Digitally Controlled Oscillator (DCO), Phase frequencydetector (PFD) and Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2945
618 Game Theory Based Diligent Energy Utilization Algorithm for Routing in Wireless Sensor Network
Authors: X. Mercilin Raajini, R. Raja Kumar, P. Indumathi, V. Praveen
Abstract:Many cluster based routing protocols have been proposed in the field of wireless sensor networks, in which a group of nodes are formed as clusters. A cluster head is selected from one among those nodes based on residual energy, coverage area, number of hops and that cluster-head will perform data gathering from various sensor nodes and forwards aggregated data to the base station or to a relay node (another cluster-head), which will forward the packet along with its own data packet to the base station. Here a Game Theory based Diligent Energy Utilization Algorithm (GTDEA) for routing is proposed. In GTDEA, the cluster head selection is done with the help of game theory, a decision making process, that selects a cluster-head based on three parameters such as residual energy (RE), Received Signal Strength Index (RSSI) and Packet Reception Rate (PRR). Finding a feasible path to the destination with minimum utilization of available energy improves the network lifetime and is achieved by the proposed approach. In GTDEA, the packets are forwarded to the base station using inter-cluster routing technique, which will further forward it to the base station. Simulation results reveal that GTDEA improves the network performance in terms of throughput, lifetime, and power consumption.
Keywords: Cluster head, Energy utilization, Game Theory, LEACH, Sensor network.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1662
617 Studies on Pre-Ignition Chamber Dynamics of Solid Rockets with Different Port Geometries
Authors: S. Vivek, Sharad Sharan, R. Arvind, D. V. Praveen, J. Vigneshwar, S. Ajith, V. R. Sanal Kumar
Abstract:In this paper numerical studies have been carried out to examine the pre-ignition flow features of high-performance solid propellant rocket motors with two different port geometries but with same propellant loading density. Numerical computations have been carried out using a validated 3D, unsteady, 2nd-order implicit, SST k- ω turbulence model. In the numerical study, a fully implicit finite volume scheme of the compressible, Reynolds-Averaged, Navier- Stokes equations is employed. We have observed from the numerical results that in solid rocket motors with highly loaded propellants having divergent port geometry the hot igniter gases can create preignition pressure oscillations leading to thrust oscillations due to the flow unsteadiness and recirculation. We have also observed that the igniter temperature fluctuations are diminished rapidly thereby reaching the steady state value faster in the case of solid propellant rocket motors with convergent port than the divergent port irrespective of the igniter total pressure. We have concluded that the prudent selection of the port geometry, without altering the propellant loading density, for damping the total temperature fluctuations within the motor is a meaningful objective for the suppression and control of instability and/or thrust oscillations often observed in solid propellant rocket motors with non-uniform port geometry.
Keywords: Pre-Ignition chamber dynamics, starting transient, solid rockets, thrust oscillations in SRMs, ignition transient.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2164
616 Implementation of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Approach in Maximizing Net Present Value
Authors: Gaurav Kumar, Rakesh Kumar Bajaj
The applicability of Net Present Value (NPV) in an investment project is becoming more and more popular in the field of engineering economics. The classical NPV methodology involves only the precise and accurate data of the investment project. In the present communication, we give a new mathematical model for NPV which uses the concept of intuitionistic fuzzy set theory. The proposed model is based on triangular intuitionistic fuzzy number, which may be known as Intuitionistic Fuzzy Net Present Value (IFNPV). The model has been applied to an example and the results are presented.
Keywords: Net Present Value, Intuitionistic Fuzzy Set, Investment Projects.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2236
615 Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Microhardness of Polymer Blends of Poly (Ethyl Methacrylate)(Pema) and Poly (Ethylene Oxide) (Peo)
Authors: Sanjay Kumar Awasthi, Sunil Kumar Bajpai, Surendra Kumar Pandey, Ajay Utiye
The effect of gamma irradiation on micro-hardness of polymer blends of poly (ethyl methacrylate)(PEMA) and poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) has been investigated to detect the radiation induced crosslinking. The blend system comprises a noncrystallizable polymer, PEMA and a crystallizable polymer, PEO. On irradiation, the overall hardness of the blend specimens for different dose levels infers occurrence of a crosslinking process. The radiation-induced crosslinking was greater for blends having lower concentration of PEO. However, increase in radiation dose causes softening of blend system due to radiation induced scissioning of the chains
Keywords: Microhardness, Radiation induced crosslinking, Solution cast technique, Vicker's hardness number.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2435
614 A Problem in Microstretch Thermoelastic Diffusive Medium
Authors: Devinder Singh, Arbind Kumar, Rajneesh Kumar
The general solution of the equations for a homogeneous isotropic microstretch thermo elastic medium with mass diffusion for two dimensional problems is obtained due to normal and tangential forces. The Integral transform technique is used to obtain the components of displacements, microrotation, stress and mass concentration, temperature change and mass concentration. A particular case of interest is deduced from the present investigation.
Keywords: Normal and tangential force, Microstretch, thermoelastic, The Integral transform technique.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2125
613 Performance Evaluation of Filtration System for Groundwater Recharging Well in the Presence of Medium Sand-Mixed Storm Water
Authors: Krishna Kumar Singh, Praveen Jain
Collection of storm water runoff and forcing it into the groundwater is the need of the hour to sustain the ground water table. However, the runoff entraps various types of sediments and other floating objects whose removal are essential to avoid pollution of ground water and blocking of pores of aquifer. However, it requires regular cleaning and maintenance due to problem of clogging. To evaluate the performance of filter system consisting of coarse sand (CS), gravel (G) and pebble (P) layers, a laboratory experiment was conducted in a rectangular column. The effect of variable thickness of CS, G and P layers of the filtration unit of the recharge shaft on the recharge rate and the sediment concentration of effluent water were evaluated. Medium sand (MS) of three particle sizes, viz. 0.150–0.300 mm (T1), 0.300–0.425 mm (T2) and 0.425–0.600 mm of thickness 25 cm, 30 cm and 35 cm respectively in the top layer of the filter system and having seven influent sediment concentrations of 250–3,000 mg/l were used for experimental study. The performance was evaluated in terms of recharge rates and clogging time. The results indicated that 100 % suspended solids were entrapped in the upper 10 cm layer of MS, the recharge rates declined sharply for influent concentrations of more than 1,000 mg/l. All treatments with higher thickness of MS media indicated recharge rate slightly more than that of all treatment with lower thickness of MS media respectively. The performance of storm water infiltration systems was highly dependent on the formation of a clogging layer at the filter. An empirical relationship has been derived between recharge rates, inflow sediment load, size of MS and thickness of MS with using MLR.
Keywords: Groundwater, medium sand-mixed storm water filter, inflow sediment load.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2085
612 Information Entropy of Isospectral Hydrogen Atom
Authors: Anil Kumar, C. Nagaraja Kumar
Abstract:The position and momentum space information entropies of hydrogen atom are exactly evaluated. Using isospectral Hamiltonian approach, a family of isospectral potentials is constructed having same energy eigenvalues as that of the original potential. The information entropy content is obtained in position space as well as in momentum space. It is shown that the information entropy content in each level can be re-arranged as a function of deformation parameter.
Keywords: Information Entropy, BBM inequality, Isospectral Potential.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2041
611 Architecture of Speech-based Registration System
Authors: Mayank Kumar, D B Mahesh Kumar, Ashwin S Kumar, N K Srinath
In this era of technology, fueled by the pervasive usage of the internet, security is a prime concern. The number of new attacks by the so-called “bots", which are automated programs, is increasing at an alarming rate. They are most likely to attack online registration systems. Technology, called “CAPTCHA" (Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart) do exist, which can differentiate between automated programs and humans and prevent replay attacks. Traditionally CAPTCHA-s have been implemented with the challenge involved in recognizing textual images and reproducing the same. We propose an approach where the visual challenge has to be read out from which randomly selected keywords are used to verify the correctness of spoken text and in turn detect the presence of human. This is supplemented with a speaker recognition system which can identify the speaker also. Thus, this framework fulfills both the objectives – it can determine whether the user is a human or not and if it is a human, it can verify its identity.
Keywords: CAPTCHA, automatic speech recognition, keyword spotting.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1314
610 Intuitionistic Fuzzy Points in Semigroups
Authors: Sujit Kumar Sardar Manasi Mandal Samit Kumar Majumder
Abstract:The notion of intuitionistic fuzzy sets was introduced by Atanassov as a generalization of the notion of fuzzy sets. Y.B. Jun and S.Z. Song introduced the notion of intuitionistic fuzzy points. In this paper we find some relations between the intuitionistic fuzzy ideals of a semigroup S and the set of all intuitionistic fuzzy points of S.
Keywords: Semigroup, Regular(intra-regular) semigroup, Intuitionistic fuzzy point, Intuitionistic fuzzy subsemigroup, Intuitionistic fuzzy ideal, Intuitionistic fuzzy interior ideal, Intuitionistic fuzzy semiprime ideal, Intuitionistic fuzzy prime ideal.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1712
609 Edge Detection in Low Contrast Images
Authors: Koushlendra Kumar Singh, Manish Kumar Bajpai, Rajesh K. Pandey
The edges of low contrast images are not clearly distinguishable to human eye. It is difficult to find the edges and boundaries in it. The present work encompasses a new approach for low contrast images. The Chebyshev polynomial based fractional order filter has been used for filtering operation on an image. The preprocessing has been performed by this filter on the input image. Laplacian of Gaussian method has been applied on preprocessed image for edge detection. The algorithm has been tested on two test images.
Keywords: Chebyshev polynomials, Fractional order differentiator, Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) method, Low contrast image.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2708
608 Support Vector Regression for Retrieval of Soil Moisture Using Bistatic Scatterometer Data at X-Band
Authors: Dileep Kumar Gupta, Rajendra Prasad, Pradeep Kumar, Varun Narayan Mishra, Ajeet Kumar Vishwakarma, Prashant Kumar Srivastava
Abstract:An approach was evaluated for the retrieval of soil moisture of bare soil surface using bistatic scatterometer data in the angular range of 200 to 700 at VV- and HH- polarization. The microwave data was acquired by specially designed X-band (10 GHz) bistatic scatterometer. The linear regression analysis was done between scattering coefficients and soil moisture content to select the suitable incidence angle for retrieval of soil moisture content. The 250 incidence angle was found more suitable. The support vector regression analysis was used to approximate the function described by the input output relationship between the scattering coefficient and corresponding measured values of the soil moisture content. The performance of support vector regression algorithm was evaluated by comparing the observed and the estimated soil moisture content by statistical performance indices %Bias, root mean squared error (RMSE) and Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE). The values of %Bias, root mean squared error (RMSE) and Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) were found 2.9451, 1.0986 and 0.9214 respectively at HHpolarization. At VV- polarization, the values of %Bias, root mean squared error (RMSE) and Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) were found 3.6186, 0.9373 and 0.9428 respectively.
Keywords: Bistatic scatterometer, soil moisture, support vector regression, RMSE, %Bias, NSE.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2407
607 Assessment of ATC with Shunt FACTS Devices
Authors: Ashwani Kumar, Jitender Kumar
In this paper, an optimal power flow based approach has been applied for multi-transactions deregulated environment for ATC determination with SVC and STATCOM. The main contribution of the paper is (i) OPF based approach for evaluation of ATC with multi-transactions, (ii) ATC enhancement with FACTS devices viz. SVC and STATCOM for intact and line contingency cases, (iii) Impact of ZIP load on ATC determination and comparison of ATC obtained with SVC and STATCOM. The results have been determined for intact and line contingency cases taking simultaneous as well as single transaction cases for IEEE 24 bus RTS.
Keywords: Available transfer capability, FACTS devices, line contingency, multi-transactions, ZIP load model.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1781
606 Removal of Pb (II) from Aqueous Solutions using Fuller's Earth
Authors: Tarun Kumar Naiya, Biswajit Singha, Ashim Kumar Bhattacharya, Sudip Kumar Das
Fuller’s earth is a fine-grained, naturally occurring substance that has a substantial ability to adsorb impurities. In the present study Fuller’s earth has been characterized and used for the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution. The effect of various physicochemical parameters such as pH, adsorbent dosage and shaking time on adsorption were studied. The result of the equilibrium studies showed that the solution pH was the key factor affecting the adsorption. The optimum pH for adsorption was 5. Kinetics data for the adsorption of Pb(II) was best described by pseudo-second order model. The effective diffusion co-efficient for Pb(II) adsorption was of the order of 10-8 m2/s. The adsorption data for metal adsorption can be well described by Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The maximum uptake of metal was 103.3 mg/g of adsorbent. Mass transfer analysis was also carried out for the adsorption process. The values of mass transfer coefficients obtained from the study indicate that the velocity of the adsorbate transport from bulk to the solid phase was quite fast. The mean sorption energy calculated from Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm indicated that the metal adsorption process was chemical in nature.
Keywords: Fuller's earth, Pseudo second order, Mass Transfer co-efficient, LangmuirProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1724
605 Design of Saddle Support for Horizontal Pressure Vessel
Authors: Vinod Kumar, Navin Kumar, Surjit Angra, Prince Sharma
This paper presents the design analysis of saddle support of a horizontal pressure vessel. Since saddle have the vital role to support the pressure vessel and to maintain its stability, it should be designed in such a way that it can afford the vessel load and internal pressure of the vessel due to liquid contained in the vessel. A model of horizontal pressure vessel and saddle support is created in ANSYS. Stresses are calculated using mathematical approach and ANSYS software. The analysis reveals the zone of high localized stress at the junction part of the pressure vessel and saddle support due to operating conditions. The results obtained by both the methods are compared with allowable stress value for safe designing.
Keywords: ANSYS, Pressure Vessel, Saddle, Support.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 25743
604 Array Data Transformation for Source Code Obfuscation
Authors: S. Praveen, P. Sojan Lal
Abstract:Obfuscation is a low cost software protection methodology to avoid reverse engineering and re engineering of applications. Source code obfuscation aims in obscuring the source code to hide the functionality of the codes. This paper proposes an Array data transformation in order to obfuscate the source code which uses arrays. The applications using the proposed data structures force the programmer to obscure the logic manually. It makes the developed obscured codes hard to reverse engineer and also protects the functionality of the codes.
Keywords: Reverse Engineering, Source Code Obfuscation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1897
603 Reliability Analysis of k-out-of-n : G System Using Triangular Intuitionistic Fuzzy Numbers
Authors: Tanuj Kumar, Rakesh Kumar Bajaj
In the present paper, we analyze the vague reliability of k-out-of-n : G system (particularly, series and parallel system) with independent and non-identically distributed components, where the reliability of the components are unknown. The reliability of each component has been estimated using statistical confidence interval approach. Then we converted these statistical confidence interval into triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. Based on these triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers, the reliability of the k-out-of-n : G system has been calculated. Further, in order to implement the proposed methodology and to analyze the results of k-out-of-n : G system, a numerical example has been provided.
Keywords: Vague set, vague reliability, triangular intuitionistic fuzzy number, k-out-of-n : G system, series and parallel system.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2854
602 Evaluating Performance of Quality-of-Service Routing in Large Networks
Authors: V. Narasimha Raghavan, M. Venkatesh, T. Peer Meera Labbai, Praveen Dwarakanath Prabhu
The performance and complexity of QoS routing depends on the complex interaction between a large set of parameters. This paper investigated the scaling properties of source-directed link-state routing in large core networks. The simulation results show that the routing algorithm, network topology, and link cost function each have a significant impact on the probability of successfully routing new connections. The experiments confirm and extend the findings of other studies, and also lend new insight designing efficient quality-of-service routing policies in large networks.
Keywords: QoS, Link-State Routing, Dijkstra, Path Selection, Path Computation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1457
601 Modeling and Simulation of Underwater Flexible Manipulator as Raleigh Beam Using Bond Graph
Authors: Sumit Kumar, Sunil Kumar, Chandan Deep Singh
Abstract:This paper presents modeling and simulation of flexible robot in an underwater environment. The underwater environment completely contrasts with ground or space environment. The robot in an underwater situation is subjected to various dynamic forces like buoyancy forces, hydrostatic and hydrodynamic forces. The underwater robot is modeled as Rayleigh beam. The developed model further allows estimating the deflection of tip in two directions. The complete dynamics of the underwater robot is analyzed, which is the main focus of this investigation. The control of robot trajectory is not discussed in this paper. Simulation is performed using Symbol Shakti software.
Keywords: Bond graph modeling, dynamics. modeling, Rayleigh beam, underwater robot.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2432
600 Field Experience with Sweep Frequency Response Analysis for Power Transformer Diagnosis
Authors: Ambuj Kumar, Sunil Kumar Singh, Shrikant Singh
Abstract:Sweep frequency response analysis has been turning out a powerful tool for investigation of mechanical as well as electrical integration of transformers. In this paper various aspect of practical application of SFRA has been studied. Open circuit and short circuit measurement were done on different phases of high voltage and low voltage winding. A case study was presented for the transformer of rating 31.5 MVA for various frequency ranges. A clear picture was presented for sub- frequency ranges for HV as well as LV winding. The main motive of work is to investigate high voltage short circuit response. The theoretical concept about SFRA responses is validated with expert system software results.
Keywords: Frequency deviation, OCT & SCT, SFRA, Transformer winding.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2701
599 Evaluating the Tool Wear Rate in Ultrasonic Machining of Titanium using Design of Experiments Approach
Authors: Jatinder Kumar, Vinod Kumar
Abstract:Ultrasonic machining (USM) is a non-traditional machining process being widely used for commercial machining of brittle and fragile materials such as glass, ceramics and semiconductor materials. However, USM could be a viable alternative for machining a tough material such as titanium; and this aspect needs to be explored through experimental research. This investigation is focused on exploring the use of ultrasonic machining for commercial machining of pure titanium (ASTM Grade-I) and evaluation of tool wear rate (TWR) under controlled experimental conditions. The optimal settings of parameters are determined through experiments planned, conducted and analyzed using Taguchi method. In all, the paper focuses on parametric optimization of ultrasonic machining of pure titanium metal with TWR as response, and validation of the optimized value of TWR by conducting confirmatory experiments.
Keywords: Ultrasonic machining, titanium, tool wear rateProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2365