Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2541

Search results for: capillary structure (wick)

2541 Effect of Sintering Temperature Curve in Wick Manufactured for Loop Heat Pipe

Authors: Shen-Chun Wu, Chuo-Jeng Huang, Wun-Hong Yang, Jy-Cheng Chang, Chien-Chun Kung

Abstract:

This investigation examines the effect of the sintering temperature curve in manufactured nickel powder capillary structure (wick) for a loop heat pipe (LHP). The sintering temperature curve is composed of a region of increasing temperature; a region of constant temperature and a region of declining temperature. The most important region is that in which the temperature increases, as an index in the stage in which the temperature increases. The wick of nickel powder is manufactured in the stage of fixed sintering temperature and the time between the stage of constant temperature and the stage of falling temperature. When the slope of the curve in the region of increasing temperature is unity (equivalent to 10 °C/min), the structure of the wick is complete and the heat transfer performance is optimal. The result of experiment test demonstrates that the heat transfer performance is optimal at 320W; the minimal total thermal resistance is approximately 0.18°C/W, and the heat flux is 17W/cm2; the internal parameters of the wick are an effective pore radius of 3.1 μm, a permeability of 3.25×10-13m2 and a porosity of 71%.

Keywords: Loop heat pipe (LHP), capillary structure (wick), sintered temperature curve.

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2540 Optimization of Copper-Water Negative Inclination Heat Pipe with Internal Composite Wick Structure

Authors: I. Brandys, M. Levy, K. Harush, Y. Haim, M. Korngold

Abstract:

Theoretical optimization of a copper-water negative inclination heat pipe with internal composite wick structure had been performed, regarding a new introduced parameter: the ratio between the coarse mesh wraps and the fine mesh wraps of the composite wick. Since in many cases, the design of a heat pipe matches specific thermal requirements and physical limitations, this work demonstrates the optimization of a 1m length, 8mm internal diameter heat pipe without an adiabatic section, at a negative inclination angle of -10º. The optimization is based on a new introduced parameter, LR: the ratio between the coarse mesh wraps and the fine mesh wraps.

Keywords: Heat pipe, inclination, optimization, ratio.

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2539 Feasibility Study on Designing a Flat Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) to Recover the Heat from Exhaust of a Gas Turbine

Authors: M.H.Ghaffari

Abstract:

A theoretical study is conducted to design and explore the effect of different parameters such as heat loads, the tube size of piping system, wick thickness, porosity and hole size on the performance and capability of a Loop Heat Pipe(LHP). This paper presents a steady state model that describes the different phenomena inside a LHP. Loop Heat Pipes(LHPs) are two-phase heat transfer devices with capillary pumping of a working fluid. By their original design comparing with heat pipes and special properties of the capillary structure, they-re capable of transferring heat efficiency for distances up to several meters at any orientation in the gravity field, or to several meters in a horizontal position. This theoretical model is described by different relations to satisfy important limits such as capillary and nucleate boiling. An algorithm is developed to predict the size of the LHP satisfying the limitations mentioned above for a wide range of applied loads. Finally, to assess and evaluate the algorithm and all the relations considered, we have used to design a new kind of LHP to recover the heat from the exhaust of an actual Gas Turbine. By finding the results, it showed that we can use the LHP as a very high efficient device to recover the heat even in high amount of loads(exhaust of a gas turbine). The sizes of all parts of the LHP were obtained using the developed algorithm.

Keywords: Loop Heat Pipe, Head Load, Liquid-Vapor Interface, Heat Transfer, Design Algorithm

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2538 Solving Stochastic Eigenvalue Problem of Wick Type

Authors: Hassan Manouzi, Taous-Meriem Laleg-Kirati

Abstract:

In this paper we study mathematically the eigenvalue problem for stochastic elliptic partial differential equation of Wick type. Using the Wick-product and the Wiener-Itô chaos expansion, the stochastic eigenvalue problem is reformulated as a system of an eigenvalue problem for a deterministic partial differential equation and elliptic partial differential equations by using the Fredholm alternative. To reduce the computational complexity of this system, we shall use a decomposition method using the Wiener-Itô chaos expansion. Once the approximation of the solution is performed using the finite element method for example, the statistics of the numerical solution can be easily evaluated.

Keywords: Eigenvalue problem, Wick product, SPDEs, finite element, Wiener-Itô chaos expansion.

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2537 Rating Charts of R-22 Alternatives Flow through Adiabatic Capillary Tubes

Authors: E. Elgendy, J. Schmidt

Abstract:

Drop-in of R-22 alternatives in refrigeration and air conditioning systems requires a redesign of system components to improve system performance and reliability with the alternative refrigerants. The present paper aims at design adiabatic capillary tubes for R-22 alternatives such as R-417A, R-422D and R-438A. A theoretical model has been developed and validated with the available experimental data from literature for R-22 over a wide range of both operating and geometrical parameters. Predicted lengths of adiabatic capillary tube are compared with the lengths of the capillary tube needed under similar experimental conditions and majority of predictions are found to be within 4.4% of the experimental data. Hence, the model has been applied for R-417A, R- 422D and R-438A and capillary tube selection charts and correlations have been computed. Finally a comparison between the selected refrigerants and R-22 has been introduced and the results showed that R-438A is the closest one to R-22.

Keywords: Adiabatic flow, Capillary tube, R-22 alternatives, Rating charts, Modelling.

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2536 Effect of Strength Class of Concrete and Curing Conditions on Capillary Water Absorption of Self-Compacting and Conventional Concrete

Authors: Emine Ebru Demirci, Remzi Sahin

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to compare Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) and Conventional Concrete (CC) in terms of their capillary water absorption. During the comparison of SCC and CC, the effects of two different factors were also investigated: concrete strength class and curing condition. In the study, both SCC and CC were produced in three different concrete classes (C25, C50 and C70) and the other parameter (i.e. curing condition) was determined as two levels: moisture and air curing. It was observed that, for both curing environments and all strength classes of concrete, SCCs had lower capillary water absorption values than that of CCs. It was also detected that, for both SCC and CC, capillary water absorption values of samples kept in moisture curing were significantly lower than that of samples stored in air curing. Additionally, it was determined that capillary water absorption values for both SCC and CC decrease with increasing strength class of concrete for both curing environments.

Keywords: Capillary water absorption, curing condition, reinforced concrete beam, self-compacting concrete.

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2535 Investigation of Cascade Loop Heat Pipes

Authors: Nandy Putra, Atrialdipa Duanovsah, Kristofer Haliansyah

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to design a LHP with low thermal resistance and low condenser temperature. A Self-designed cascade LHP was tested by using biomaterial, sintered copper powder, and aluminum screen mesh as the wick. Using pure water as the working fluid for the first level of the LHP and 96% alcohol as the working fluid for the second level of LHP, the experiments were run with 10W, 20W, and 30W heat input. Experimental result shows that the usage of biomaterial as wick could reduce more temperature at evaporator than by using sintered copper powder and screen mesh up to 22.63% and 37.41% respectively. The lowest thermal resistance occurred during the usage of biomaterial as wick of heat pipe, which is 2.06 oC/W. The usage of cascade system could be applied to LHP to reduce the temperature at condenser and reduced thermal resistance up to 17.6%.

Keywords: Biomaterial, cascade loop heat pipe, screen mesh, sintered Cu.

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2534 PTFE Capillary-Based DNA Amplification within an Oscillatory Thermal Cycling Device

Authors: Jyh J. Chen, Fu H. Yang, Ming H. Liao

Abstract:

This study describes a capillary-based device integrated with the heating and cooling modules for polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The device consists of the reaction polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) capillary, the aluminum blocks, and is equipped with two cartridge heaters, a thermoelectric (TE) cooler, a fan, and some thermocouples for temperature control. The cartridge heaters are placed into the heating blocks and maintained at two different temperatures to achieve the denaturation and the extension step. Some thermocouples inserted into the capillary are used to obtain the transient temperature profiles of the reaction sample during thermal cycles. A 483-bp DNA template is amplified successfully in the designed system and the traditional thermal cycler. This work should be interesting to persons involved in the high-temperature based reactions and genomics or cell analysis.

Keywords: Polymerase chain reaction, thermal cycles, capillary, TE cooler.

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2533 Numerical Study on the Static Characteristics of Novel Aerostatic Thrust Bearings Possessing Elastomer Capillary Restrictor and Bearing Surface

Authors: S. W. Lo, S.-H. Lu, Y. H. Guo, L.-C. Hsu

Abstract:

In this paper a novel design of aerostatic thrust bearing is proposed and is analyzed numerically. The capillary restrictor and bearing disk are made of elastomer like silicone and PU. The viscoelasticity of elastomer helps the capillary expand for more air flux and at the same time, allows conicity of the bearing surface to form when the air pressure is enhanced. Therefore the bearing has the better ability of passive compensation. In the present example, as compared with the typical model, the new designs can nearly double the load capability and offer four times static stiffness.

Keywords: Aerostatic, bearing, elastomer, static stiffness.

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2532 Solving SPDEs by a Least Squares Method

Authors: Hassan Manouzi

Abstract:

We present in this paper a useful strategy to solve stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) involving stochastic coefficients. Using the Wick-product of higher order and the Wiener-Itˆo chaos expansion, the SPDEs is reformulated as a large system of deterministic partial differential equations. To reduce the computational complexity of this system, we shall use a decomposition-coordination method. To obtain the chaos coefficients in the corresponding deterministic equations, we use a least square formulation. Once this approximation is performed, the statistics of the numerical solution can be easily evaluated.

Keywords: Least squares, Wick product, SPDEs, finite element, Wiener chaos expansion, gradient method.

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2531 Compressive Strength and Capillary Water Absorption of Concrete Containing Recycled Aggregate

Authors: Yeşim Tosun, Remzi Şahin

Abstract:

This paper presents results of compressive strength, capillary water absorption, and density tests conducted on concrete containing recycled aggregate (RCA) which is obtained from structural waste generated by the construction industry in Turkey. In the experiments, 0%, 15%, 30%, 45% and 60% of the normal (natural) coarse aggregate was replaced by the recycled aggregate. Maximum aggregate particle sizes were selected as 16 mm, 22,4 mm and 31,5 mm; and 0,06%, 0,13% and 0,20% of air-entraining agent (AEA) were used in mixtures. Fly ash and superplasticizer were used as a mineral and chemical admixture, respectively. The same type (CEM I 42.5) and constant dosage of cement were used in the study. Water/cement ratio was kept constant as 0.53 for all mixture. It was concluded that capillary water absorption, compressive strength, and density of concrete decreased with increasing RCA ratio. Increasing in maximum aggregate particle size and amount of AEA also affect the properties of concrete significantly.

Keywords: Capillary water absorption, compressive strength, density, recycled concrete aggregates.

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2530 Estimation of Relative Permeabilities and Capillary Pressures in Shale Using Simulation Method

Authors: F. C. Amadi, G. C. Enyi, G. Nasr

Abstract:

Relative permeabilities are practical factors that are used to correct the single phase Darcy’s law for application to multiphase flow. For effective characterisation of large-scale multiphase flow in hydrocarbon recovery, relative permeability and capillary pressures are used. These parameters are acquired via special core flooding experiments. Special core analysis (SCAL) module of reservoir simulation is applied by engineers for the evaluation of these parameters. But, core flooding experiments in shale core sample are expensive and time consuming before various flow assumptions are achieved for instance Darcy’s law. This makes it imperative for the application of coreflooding simulations in which various analysis of relative permeabilities and capillary pressures of multiphase flow can be carried out efficiently and effectively at a relative pace. This paper presents a Sendra software simulation of core flooding to achieve to relative permeabilities and capillary pressures using different correlations. The approach used in this study was three steps. The first step, the basic petrophysical parameters of Marcellus shale sample such as porosity was determined using laboratory techniques. Secondly, core flooding was simulated for particular scenario of injection using different correlations. And thirdly the best fit correlations for the estimation of relative permeability and capillary pressure was obtained. This research approach saves cost and time and very reliable in the computation of relative permeability and capillary pressures at steady or unsteady state, drainage or imbibition processes in oil and gas industry when compared to other methods.

Keywords: Special core analysis (SCAL), relative permeability, capillary pressures, drainage, imbibition.

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2529 High Aspect Ratio SiO2 Capillary Based On Silicon Etching and Thermal Oxidation Process for Optical Modulator

Authors: N. V. Toan, S. Sangu, T. Saitoh, N. Inomata, T. Ono

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and fabrication of an optical window for an optical modulator toward image sensing applications. An optical window consists of micrometer-order SiO2 capillaries (porous solid) that can modulate transmission light intensity by moving the liquid in and out of porous solid. A high optical transmittance of the optical window can be achieved due to refractive index matching when the liquid is penetrated into the porous solid. Otherwise, its light transmittance is lower because of light reflection and scattering by air holes and capillary walls. Silicon capillaries fabricated by deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) process are completely oxidized to form the SiO2 capillaries. Therefore, high aspect ratio SiO2 capillaries can be achieved based on silicon capillaries formed by DRIE technique. Large compressive stress of the oxide causes bending of the capillary structure, which is reduced by optimizing the design of device structure. The large stress of the optical window can be released via thin supporting beams. A 7.2 mm x 9.6 mm optical window area toward a fully integrated with the image sensor format is successfully fabricated and its optical transmittance is evaluated with and without inserting liquids (ethanol and matching oil). The achieved modulation range is approximately 20% to 35% with and without liquid penetration in visible region (wavelength range from 450 nm to 650 nm).

Keywords: Thermal oxidation process, SiO2 capillaries, optical window, light transmittance, image sensor, liquid penetration.

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2528 MHD Boundary Layer Flow of a Nanofluid Past a Wedge Shaped Wick in Heat Pipe

Authors: Ziya Uddin

Abstract:

This paper deals with the theoretical and numerical investigation of magneto hydrodynamic boundary layer flow of a nanofluid past a wedge shaped wick in heat pipe used for the cooling of electronic components and different type of machines. To incorporate the effect of nanoparticle diameter, concentration of nanoparticles in the pure fluid, nanothermal layer formed around the nanoparticle and Brownian motion of nanoparticles etc., appropriate models are used for the effective thermal and physical properties of nanofluids. To model the rotation of nanoparticles inside the base fluid, microfluidics theory is used. In this investigation ethylene glycol (EG) based nanofluids, are taken into account. The non-linear equations governing the flow and heat transfer are solved by using a very effective particle swarm optimization technique along with Runge-Kutta method. The values of heat transfer coefficient are found for different parameters involved in the formulation viz. nanoparticle concentration, nanoparticle size, magnetic field and wedge angle etc. It is found that, the wedge angle, presence of magnetic field, nanoparticle size and nanoparticle concentration etc. have prominent effects on fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics for the considered configuration.

Keywords: Heat transfer, Heat pipe, numerical modeling, nanofluid applications, particle swarm optimization, wedge shaped wick.

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2527 Numerical Simulation of a Conventional Heat Pipe

Authors: Shoeib Mahjoub, Ali Mahtabroshan

Abstract:

The steady incompressible flow has been solved in cylindrical coordinates in both vapour region and wick structure. The governing equations in vapour region are continuity, Navier-Stokes and energy equations. These equations have been solved using SIMPLE algorithm. For study of parameters variation on heat pipe operation, a benchmark has been chosen and the effect of changing one parameter has been analyzed when the others have been fixed.

Keywords: Vapour region, conventional heat pipe, numerical simulation.

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2526 Study on Electrohydrodynamic Capillary Instability with Heat and Mass Transfer

Authors: D. K. Tiwari, Mukesh Kumar Awasthi, G. S. Agrawal

Abstract:

The effect of an axial electric field on the capillary instability of a cylindrical interface in the presence of heat and mass transfer has been investigated using viscous potential flow theory. In viscous potential flow, the viscous term in Navier-Stokes equation vanishes as vorticity is zero but viscosity is not zero. Viscosity enters through normal stress balance in the viscous potential flow theory and tangential stresses are not considered. A dispersion relation that accounts for the growth of axisymmetric waves is derived and stability is discussed theoretically as well as numerically. Stability criterion is given by critical value of applied electric field as well as critical wave number. Various graphs have been drawn to show the effect of various physical parameters such as electric field, heat transfer capillary number, conductivity ratio, permittivity ratio on the stability of the system. It has been observed that the axial electric field and heat and mass transfer both have stabilizing effect on the stability of the system.

Keywords: Capillary instability, Viscous potential flow, Heat and mass transfer, Axial electric field.

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2525 Surface Modification by EUV laser Beam based on Capillary Discharge

Authors: O. Frolov, K. Kolacek, J. Schmidt, J. Straus, V. Prukner, A. Shukurov

Abstract:

Many applications require surface modification and micro-structuring of polymers. For these purposes is mainly used ultraviolet (UV) radiation from excimer lamps or excimer lasers. However, these sources have a decided disadvantage - degrading the polymer deep inside due to relatively big radiation penetration depth which may exceed 100 μm. In contrast, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation is absorbed in a layer approximately 100 nm thick only. In this work, the radiation from a discharge-plasma EUV source (with wavelength 46.9 nm) based on a capillary discharge driver is focused with a spherical Si/Sc multilayer mirror for surface modification of PMMA sample or thin gold layer (thickness about 40 nm). It was found that the focused EUV laser beam is capable by one shot to ablate PMMA or layer of gold, even if the focus is significantly influenced by astigmatism.

Keywords: ablation, capillary discharge, EUV laser, surface modification

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2524 Thermal Insulating Silicate Materials Suitable for Thermal Insulation and Rehabilitation Structures

Authors: J. Hroudova, M. Sedlmajer, J. Zach

Abstract:

Problems insulation of building structures is often closely connected with the problem of moisture remediation. In the case of historic buildings or if only part of the redevelopment of envelope of structures, it is not possible to apply the classical external thermal insulation composite systems. This application is mostly effective thermal insulation plasters with high porosity and controlled capillary properties which assures improvement of thermal properties construction, its diffusion openness towards the external environment and suitable treatment capillary properties of preventing the penetration of liquid moisture and salts thereof toward the outer surface of the structure. With respect to the current trend of reducing the energy consumption of building structures and reduce the production of CO2 is necessary to develop capillary-active materials characterized by their low density, low thermal conductivity while maintaining good mechanical properties. The aim of researchers at the Faculty of Civil Engineering, Brno University of Technology is the development and study of hygrothermal behaviour of optimal materials for thermal insulation and rehabilitation of building structures with the possible use of alternative, less energy demanding binders in comparison with conventional, frequently used binder, which represents cement. The paper describes the evaluation of research activities aimed at the development of thermal insulation and repair materials using lightweight aggregate and alternative binders such as metakaolin and finely ground fly ash.

Keywords: Thermal insulating plasters, rehabilitation materials, thermal conductivity, lightweight aggregate, alternative binders.

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2523 Performance of Flat Plate Loop Heat Pipe for Thermal Management of Lithium-Ion Battery in Electric Vehicle Application

Authors: Bambang Ariantara, Nandy Putra, Rangga Aji Pamungkas

Abstract:

The development of electric vehicle batteries have resulted in very high energy density lithium-ion batteries. However, this progress is accompanied by the risk of thermal runaway, which can result in serious accidents. Heat pipes are heat exchangers that are suitable to be applied in electric vehicle battery thermal management for their lightweight, compact size and do not require external power supply. This paper aims to examine experimentally a Flat Plate Loop Heat Pipe (FPLHP) performance as a heat exchanger in thermal management system of lithium-ion battery for electric vehicle application. The heat generation of the battery was simulated using a cartridge heater. Stainless steel screen mesh was used as the capillary wick. Distilled water, alcohol and acetone were used as working fluids with a filling ratio of 60%. It was found that acetone gives the best performance that produces thermal resistance of 0.22 W/°C with 50°C evaporator temperature at heat flux load of 1.61 W/cm2.

Keywords: Electric vehicle, flat plate loop heat pipe, lithium-ion battery, thermal management system.

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2522 Analysis of Capillary Coating Die Flow in an Optical Fiber Coating Applicator

Authors: Kyoungjin Kim

Abstract:

Viscous heating becomes significant in the high speed resin coating process of glass fibers for optical fiber manufacturing. This study focuses on the coating resin flows inside the capillary coating die of optical fiber coating applicator and they are numerically simulated to examine the effects of viscous heating and subsequent temperature increase in coating resin. Resin flows are driven by fast moving glass fiber and the pressurization at the coating die inlet, while the temperature dependent viscosity of liquid coating resin plays an important role in the resin flow. It is found that the severe viscous heating near the coating die wall profoundly alters the radial velocity profiles and that the increase of final coating thickness by die pressurization is amplified if viscous heating is present.

Keywords: Optical fiber manufacturing, Optical fiber coating, Capillary flow, Viscous heating, Flow simulation

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2521 Behavior of Droplets in Microfluidic System with T-Junction

Authors: A. Guellati, F-M Lounis, N. Guemras, K. Daoud

Abstract:

Micro droplet formation is considered as a growing emerging area of research due to its wide-range application in chemistry as well as biology. The mechanism of micro droplet formation using two immiscible liquids running through a T-junction has been widely studied. We believe that the flow of these two immiscible phases can be of greater important factor that could have an impact on out-flow hydrodynamic behavior, the droplets generated and the size of the droplets. In this study, the type of the capillary tubes used also represents another important factor that can have an impact on the generation of micro droplets. The tygon capillary tubing with hydrophilic inner surface doesn't allow regular out-flows due to the fact that the continuous phase doesn't adhere to the wall of the capillary inner surface. Teflon capillary tubing, presents better wettability than tygon tubing, and allows to obtain steady and regular regimes of out-flow, and the micro droplets are homogeneoussize. The size of the droplets is directly dependent on the flows of the continuous and dispersed phases. Thus, as increasing the flow of the continuous phase, to flow of the dispersed phase stationary, the size of the drops decreases. Inversely, while increasing the flow of the dispersed phase, to flow of the continuous phase stationary, the size of the droplet increases.

Keywords: Microfluidic system, micro droplets generation, T-junction.

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2520 Viscous Potential Flow Analysis of Electrohydrodynamic Capillary Instability through Porous Media

Authors: Mukesh Kumar Awasth, Mohammad Tamsir

Abstract:

The effect of porous medium on the capillary instability of a cylindrical interface in the presence of axial electric field has been investigated using viscous potential flow theory. In viscous potential flow, the viscous term in Navier-Stokes equation vanishes as vorticity is zero but viscosity is not zero. Viscosity enters through normal stress balance in the viscous potential flow theory and tangential stresses are not considered. A dispersion relation that accounts for the growth of axisymmetric waves is derived and stability is discussed theoretically as well as numerically. Stability criterion is given by critical value of applied electric field as well as critical wave number. Various graphs have been drawn to show the effect of various physical parameters such as electric field, viscosity ratio, permittivity ratio on the stability of the system. It has been observed that the axial electric field and porous medium both have stabilizing effect on the stability of the system.

Keywords: Capillary instability, Viscous potential flow, Porous media, Axial electric field.

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2519 Comprehensive Evaluation on China-s Industrial Structure Optimization from the Perspective of Coordination

Authors: Ying Wang

Abstract:

From the perspective of industrial structure coordination and based on an explicit definition for the connotation of industrial structure coordination, the synergetic coefficients are used to measure the coordination degree between three industries' input structure and output structure, and then the efficacy function method is employed to comprehensively evaluate the level of China-s industrial structure optimization. It is showed that Chinese industrial structure presented a "v-shaped" variation tendency between 1996 and 2008, and its industrial structure adjustment got obvious achievements after 2003, with the industrial structure optimization level increasing continuously. However in 2009, the level of China-s industrial structure optimization declined sharply due to the decreasing contribution degree of value added structure and energy structure coordination and the lower coordination degree of value added structure and capital structure.

Keywords: China's industrial structure, Coordination degree, Efficacy function, Synergetic coefficients

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2518 A High Thermal Dissipation Performance Polyethyleneterephthalate Heat Pipe

Authors: Chih-Chieh Chen, Chih-Hao Chen, Guan-Wei Wu, Sih-Li Chen

Abstract:

A high thermal dissipation performance polyethylene terephthalate heat pipe has been fabricated and tested in this research. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is used as the container material instead of copper. Copper mesh and methanol are sealed in the middle of two PET films as the wick structure and working fluid. Although the thermal conductivity of PET (0.15-0.24 W/m·K) is much smaller than copper (401 W/m·K), the experiment results reveal that the PET heat pipe can reach a minimum thermal resistance of 0.146 (oC/W) and maximum effective thermal conductivity of 18,310 (W/m·K) with 36.9 vol% at 26 W input power. However, when the input power is larger than 30 W, the laminated PET will debond due to the high vapor pressure of methanol.

Keywords: PET, heat pipe, thermal resistance, effective thermal conductivity.

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2517 On CR-Structure and F-Structure Satisfying Polynomial Equation

Authors: Manisha Kankarej

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to show a relation between CR structure and F-structure satisfying polynomial equation. In this paper, we have checked the significance of CR structure and F-structure on Integrability conditions and Nijenhuis tensor. It was proved that all the properties of Integrability conditions and Nijenhuis tensor are satisfied by CR structures and F-structure satisfying polynomial equation.

Keywords: CR-submainfolds, CR-structure, Integrability condition & Nijenhuis tensor.

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2516 Polymer Aerostatic Thrust Bearing under Circular Support for High Static Stiffness

Authors: S. W. Lo, C.-H. Yu

Abstract:

A new design of aerostatic thrust bearing is proposed for high static stiffness. The bearing body, which is mead of polymer covered with metallic membrane, is held by a circular ring. Such a support helps form a concave air gap to grasp the air pressure. The polymer body, which can be made rapidly by either injection or molding is able to provide extra damping under dynamic loading. The smooth membrane not only serves as the bearing surface but also protects the polymer body. The restrictor is a capillary inside a silicone tube. It can passively compensate the variation of load by expanding the capillary diameter for more air flux. In the present example, the stiffness soars from 15.85 N/μm of typical bearing to 349.85 N/μm at bearing elevation 9.5 μm; meanwhile the load capacity also enhances from 346.86 N to 704.18 N.

Keywords: Aerostatic, bearing, polymer, static stiffness.

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2515 Integrated Flavor Sensor Using Microbead Array

Authors: Ziba Omidi, Min-Ki Kim

Abstract:

This research presents the design, fabrication and application of a flavor sensor for an integrated electronic tongue and electronic nose that can allow rapid characterization of multi-component mixtures in a solution. The odor gas and liquid are separated using hydrophobic porous membrane in micro fluidic channel. The sensor uses an array composed of microbeads in micromachined cavities localized on silicon wafer. Sensing occurs via colorimetric and fluorescence changes to receptors and indicator molecules that are attached to termination sites on the polymeric microbeads. As a result, the sensor array system enables simultaneous and near-real-time analyses using small samples and reagent volumes with the capacity to incorporate significant redundancies. One of the key parts of the system is a passive pump driven only by capillary force. The hydrophilic surface of the fluidic structure draws the sample into the sensor array without any moving mechanical parts. Since there is no moving mechanical component in the structure, the size of the fluidic structure can be compact and the fabrication becomes simple when compared to the device including active microfluidic components. These factors should make the proposed system inexpensive to mass-produce, portable and compatible with biomedical applications.

Keywords: Optical Sensor, Semiconductor manufacturing, Smell sensor, Taste sensor.

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2514 Flat Miniature Heat Pipes for Electronics Cooling: State of the Art, Experimental and Theoretical Analysis

Authors: M.C. Zaghdoudi, S. Maalej, J. Mansouri, M.B.H. Sassi

Abstract:

An experimental study is realized in order to verify the Mini Heat Pipe (MHP) concept for cooling high power dissipation electronic components and determines the potential advantages of constructing mini channels as an integrated part of a flat heat pipe. A Flat Mini Heat Pipe (FMHP) prototype including a capillary structure composed of parallel rectangular microchannels is manufactured and a filling apparatus is developed in order to charge the FMHP. The heat transfer improvement obtained by comparing the heat pipe thermal resistance to the heat conduction thermal resistance of a copper plate having the same dimensions as the tested FMHP is demonstrated for different heat input flux rates. Moreover, the heat transfer in the evaporator and condenser sections are analyzed, and heat transfer laws are proposed. In the theoretical part of this work, a detailed mathematical model of a FMHP with axial microchannels is developed in which the fluid flow is considered along with the heat and mass transfer processes during evaporation and condensation. The model is based on the equations for the mass, momentum and energy conservation, which are written for the evaporator, adiabatic, and condenser zones. The model, which permits to simulate several shapes of microchannels, can predict the maximum heat transfer capacity of FMHP, the optimal fluid mass, and the flow and thermal parameters along the FMHP. The comparison between experimental and model results shows the good ability of the numerical model to predict the axial temperature distribution along the FMHP.

Keywords: Electronics Cooling, Micro Heat Pipe, Mini Heat Pipe, Mini Heat Spreader, Capillary grooves.

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2513 Social Structure, Involuntary Relations, and Urban Poverty

Authors: Mahmood Niroobakhsh

Abstract:

This article deals with special structuralism approaches to explain a certain kind of social problem. Widespread presence of poverty is a reminder of deep-rooted unresolved problems of social relations. The expected role from an individual for the social system recognizes poverty derived from an interrelated social structure. By the time, enabled to act on his role in the course of social interaction, reintegration of the poor in society may take place. Poverty and housing type are reflections of the underlying social structure, primarily structure’s elements, systemic interrelations, and the overall strength or weakness of that structure. Poverty varies based on social structure in that the stronger structures are less likely to produce poverty.

Keywords: Absolute poverty, relative poverty, social structure, urban poverty.

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2512 Soil Moisture Regulation in Irrigated Agriculture

Authors: I. Kruashvili, I. Inashvili, K. Bziava, M. Lomishvili

Abstract:

Seepage capillary anomalies in the active layer of soil, related to the soil water movement, often cause variation of soil hydrophysical properties and become one of the main objectives of the hydroecology. It is necessary to mention that all existing equations for computing the seepage flow particularly from soil channels, through dams, bulkheads, and foundations of hydraulic engineering structures are preferable based on the linear seepage law. Regarding the existing beliefs, anomalous seepage is based on postulates according to which the fluid in free volume is characterized by resistance against shear deformation and is presented in the form of initial gradient. According to the above-mentioned information, we have determined: Equation to calculate seepage coefficient when the velocity of transition flow is equal to seepage flow velocity; by means of power function, equations for the calculation of average and maximum velocities of seepage flow have been derived; taking into consideration the fluid continuity condition, average velocity for calculation of average velocity in capillary tube has been received.

Keywords: Seepage, soil, velocity, water.

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