Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 180

Search results for: Vertical extension

180 A Study on Performance-Based Design Analysis for Vertical Extension of Apartment Units

Authors: Minsun Kim, Ki-Sun Choi, Hyun-Jee Lee, Young-Chan You

Abstract:

There is no reinforcement example for the renovation of the vertical and horizontal extension to existing building structures which is a shear wall type in apartment units in Korea. Among these existing structures, the structures which are shear wall type are rare overseas, while Korea has many shear wall apartment units. Recently, in Korea, a few researchers are trying to confirm the possibility of the vertical extension in existing building with shear walls. This study evaluates the possibility of the renovation by applying performance-based seismic design to existing buildings with shear walls in the analysis phase of the structure. In addition, force-based seismic design, used by general structural engineers in Korea, is carried out to compare the amount of reinforcement of walls, which is a main component of wall structure. As a result, we suggest that performance-based design obtains more economical advantages than force-based seismic design.

Keywords: Vertical extension, performance-based design, renovation, shear wall structure, structural analysis.

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179 Some Issues with Extension of an HPC Cluster

Authors: Pil Seong Park

Abstract:

Homemade HPC clusters are widely used in many small labs, because they are easy to build and cost-effective. Even though incremental growth is an advantage of clusters, it results in heterogeneous systems anyhow. Instead of adding new nodes to the cluster, we can extend clusters to include some other Internet servers working independently on the same LAN, so that we can make use of their idle times, especially during the night. However extension across a firewall raises some security problems with NFS. In this paper, we propose a method to solve such a problem using SSH tunneling, and suggest a modified structure of the cluster that implements it.

Keywords: Extension of HPC clusters, Security, NFS, SSH tunneling.

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178 LOWL: Logic and OWL, an Extension

Authors: M. Mohsenzadeh, F. Shams, M. Teshnehlab

Abstract:

Current research on semantic web aims at making intelligent web pages meaningful for machines. In this way, ontology plays a primary role. We believe that logic can help ontology languages (such as OWL) to be more fluent and efficient. In this paper we try to combine logic with OWL to reduce some disadvantages of this language. Therefore we extend OWL by logic and also show how logic can satisfy our future expectations of an ontology language.

Keywords: Logical Programming, OWL, Language Extension.

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177 Analysis of Building Response from Vertical Ground Motions

Authors: George C. Yao, Chao-Yu Tu, Wei-Chung Chen, Fung-Wen Kuo, Yu-Shan Chang

Abstract:

Building structures are subjected to both horizontal and vertical ground motions during earthquakes, but only the horizontal ground motion has been extensively studied and considered in design. Most of the prevailing seismic codes assume the vertical component to be 1/2 to 2/3 of the horizontal one. In order to understand the building responses from vertical ground motions, many earthquakes records are studied in this paper. System identification methods (ARX Model) are used to analyze the strong motions and to find out the characteristics of the vertical amplification factors and the natural frequencies of buildings. Analysis results show that the vertical amplification factors for high-rise buildings and low-rise building are 1.78 and 2.52 respectively, and the average vertical amplification factor of all buildings is about 2. The relationship between the vertical natural frequency and building height was regressed to a suggested formula in this study. The result points out an important message; the taller the building is, the greater chance of resonance of vertical vibration on the building will be.

Keywords: Vertical ground motion, vertical amplification factor, natural frequency, component.

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176 Reconstitute Information about Discontinued Water Quality Variables in the Nile Delta Monitoring Network Using Two Record Extension Techniques

Authors: Bahaa Khalil, Taha B. M. J. Ouarda, André St-Hilaire

Abstract:

The world economic crises and budget constraints have caused authorities, especially those in developing countries, to rationalize water quality monitoring activities. Rationalization consists of reducing the number of monitoring sites, the number of samples, and/or the number of water quality variables measured. The reduction in water quality variables is usually based on correlation. If two variables exhibit high correlation, it is an indication that some of the information produced may be redundant. Consequently, one variable can be discontinued, and the other continues to be measured. Later, the ordinary least squares (OLS) regression technique is employed to reconstitute information about discontinued variable by using the continuously measured one as an explanatory variable. In this paper, two record extension techniques are employed to reconstitute information about discontinued water quality variables, the OLS and the Line of Organic Correlation (LOC). An empirical experiment is conducted using water quality records from the Nile Delta water quality monitoring network in Egypt. The record extension techniques are compared for their ability to predict different statistical parameters of the discontinued variables. Results show that the OLS is better at estimating individual water quality records. However, results indicate an underestimation of the variance in the extended records. The LOC technique is superior in preserving characteristics of the entire distribution and avoids underestimation of the variance. It is concluded from this study that the OLS can be used for the substitution of missing values, while LOC is preferable for inferring statements about the probability distribution.

Keywords: Record extension, record augmentation, monitoringnetworks, water quality indicators.

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175 Capacity Building of Extension Agents for Sustainable Dissemination of Agricultural Information and Technologies in Developing Countries

Authors: Michael T. Ajayi, Oluwakemi E. Fapojuwo

Abstract:

Farmers are in need of regular and relevant information relating to new technologies. Production of extension materials has been found to be useful in facilitating the process. Extension materials help to provide information to reach large numbers of farmers quickly and economically. However, as good as extension materials are, previous materials produced are not used by farmers. The reasons for this include lack of involvement of farmers in the production of the extension materials, most of the extension materials are not relevant to the farmers’ environments, the agricultural extension agents lack capacity to prepare the materials, and many extension agents lack commitment. These problems led to this innovative capacity building of extension agents. This innovative approach involves five stages. The first stage is the diagnostic survey of farmers’ environment to collect useful information. The second stage is the development and production of draft extension materials. The third stage is the field testing and evaluation of draft materials by the same famers that were involved at the diagnostic stage. The fourth stage is the revision of the draft extension materials by incorporating suggestions from farmers. The fifth stage is the action plans. This process improves the capacity of agricultural extension agents in the preparation of extension materials and also promotes engagement of farmers and beneficiaries in the process. The process also makes farmers assume some level of ownership of the exercise and the extension materials.

Keywords: Capacity building, dissemination, extension agents, information/technologies.

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174 PAPR Reduction of FBMC Using Sliding Window Tone Reservation Active Constellation Extension Technique

Authors: V. Sandeep Kumar, S. Anuradha

Abstract:

The high Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAR) in Filter Bank Multicarrier with Offset Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (FBMC-OQAM) can significantly reduce power efficiency and performance. In this paper, we address the problem of PAPR reduction for FBMC-OQAM systems using Tone Reservation (TR) technique. Due to the overlapping structure of FBMCOQAM signals, directly applying TR schemes of OFDM systems to FBMC-OQAM systems is not effective. We improve the tone reservation (TR) technique by employing sliding window with Active Constellation Extension for the PAPR reduction of FBMC-OQAM signals, called sliding window tone reservation Active Constellation Extension (SW-TRACE) technique. The proposed SW-TRACE technique uses the peak reduction tones (PRTs) of several consecutive data blocks to cancel the peaks of the FBMC-OQAM signal inside a window, with dynamically extending outer constellation points in active(data-carrying) channels, within margin-preserving constraints, in order to minimize the peak magnitude. Analysis and simulation results compared to the existing Tone Reservation (TR) technique for FBMC/OQAM system. The proposed method SW-TRACE has better PAPR performance and lower computational complexity.

Keywords: FBMC-OQAM, peak-to-average power ratio, sliding window, tone reservation Active Constellation Extension.

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173 Generalized Method for Estimating Best-Fit Vertical Alignments for Profile Data

Authors: Said M. Easa, Shinya Kikuchi

Abstract:

When the profile information of an existing road is missing or not up-to-date and the parameters of the vertical alignment are needed for engineering analysis, the engineer has to recreate the geometric design features of the road alignment using collected profile data. The profile data may be collected using traditional surveying methods, global positioning systems, or digital imagery. This paper develops a method that estimates the parameters of the geometric features that best characterize the existing vertical alignments in terms of tangents and the expressions of the curve, that may be symmetrical, asymmetrical, reverse, and complex vertical curves. The method is implemented using an Excel-based optimization method that minimizes the differences between the observed profile and the profiles estimated from the equations of the vertical curve. The method uses a 'wireframe' representation of the profile that makes the proposed method applicable to all types of vertical curves. A secondary contribution of this paper is to introduce the properties of the equal-arc asymmetrical curve that has been recently developed in the highway geometric design field.

Keywords: Optimization, parameters, data, reverse, spreadsheet, vertical curves

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172 Human Walking Vertical Force and Vertical Vibration of Pedestrian Bridge Induced by Its Higher Components

Authors: M. Yoneda

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to identify human walking vertical force by using FFT power spectrum density from the experimental acceleration data of the human body. An experiment on human walking is carried out on a stationary floor especially paying attention to higher components of dynamic vertical walking force. Based on measured acceleration data of the human lumbar part, not only in-phase component with frequency of 2fw, 3fw, but also in-opposite-phase component with frequency of 0.5 fw, 1.5 fw, 2.5 fw where fw is the walking rate is observed. The vertical vibration of pedestrian bridge induced by higher components of human walking vertical force is also discussed in this paper. A full scale measurement for the existing pedestrian bridge with center span length of 33 m is carried out focusing on the resonance phenomenon due to higher components of human walking vertical force. Dynamic response characteristics excited by these vertical higher components of human walking are revealed from the dynamic design viewpoint of pedestrian bridge.

Keywords: Simplified method, Human walking vertical force, Higher component, Pedestrian bridge vibration.

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171 Study of the Vertical Handoff in Heterogeneous Networks and Implement Based On Opnet

Authors: W. Benaatou, A. Latif

Abstract:

In this document we studied more in detail the Performances of the vertical handover in the networks WLAN, WiMAX, UMTS before studying of it the Procedure of Handoff Vertical, the whole buckled by simulations putting forward the performances of the handover in the heterogeneous networks. The goal of Vertical Handover is to carry out several accesses in real-time in the heterogeneous networks. This makes it possible a user to use several networks (such as WLAN UMTS andWiMAX) in parallel, and the system to commutate automatically at another basic station, without disconnecting itself, as if there were no cut and with little loss of data as possible.

Keywords: Vertical handoff, WLAN, UMTS, WIMAX, Heterogeneous.

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170 Numerical Evaluation of the Aerodynamic Efficiency of the Stevens and Jolly Vertical- Axis Windmill (1895)

Authors: M. Raciti Castelli, E. Benini

Abstract:

This paper presents a numerical investigation of the unsteady flow around an American 19th century vertical-axis windmill: the Stevens & Jolly rotor, patented on April 16, 1895. The computational approach used is based on solving the complete transient Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (t-RANS) equations: a full campaign of numerical simulation has been performed using the k-ω SST turbulence model. Flow field characteristics have been investigated for several values of tip speed ratio and for a constant unperturbed free-stream wind velocity of 6 m/s, enabling the study of some unsteady flow phenomena in the rotor wake. Finally, the global power generated from the windmill has been determined for each simulated angular velocity, allowing the calculation of the rotor power-curve.

Keywords: CFD, vertical-axis rotor, windmill.

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169 Vertical Micromirror Fabrication by X-ray Lithography for Single Mode Optical Fiber Switching Applications

Authors: R. Chimchang, R. Tongta, R. Phatthanakun

Abstract:

Inthis paper, design and fabrication of vertical micromirror for optical switching applications of single mode optical fibers are proposed. The structure of micromirror will be created from negative photoresist (SU-8) on X-ray lithography using X-ray from synchrotron light source. The properties of X-ray from synchrotron light source are high-energy electrons which can construct materials that have a high aspect ratio. In addition, the technique of gold coating of reflective material has been used for change direction of light between two pairs of optical fibers. At a wavelength of 1310 nm with minimum average loss of 5.305 dB is obtained.

Keywords: vertical micromirror, negative photoresist, X-ray lithography

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168 Impact of Height of Silicon Pillar on Vertical DG-MOSFET Device

Authors: K. E. Kaharudin, A. H. Hamidon, F. Salehuddin

Abstract:

Vertical Double Gate (DG) Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) is believed to suppress various short channel effect problems. The gate to channel coupling in vertical DG-MOSFET are doubled, thus resulting in higher current density. By having two gates, both gates are able to control the channel from both sides and possess better electrostatic control over the channel. In order to ensure that the transistor possess a superb turn-off characteristic, the subs-threshold swing (SS) must be kept at minimum value (60-90mV/dec). By utilizing SILVACO TCAD software, an n-channel vertical DG-MOSFET was successfully designed while keeping the sub-threshold swing (SS) value as minimum as possible. From the observation made, the value of sub-threshold swing (SS) was able to be varied by adjusting the height of the silicon pillar. The minimum value of sub-threshold swing (SS) was found to be 64.7mV/dec with threshold voltage (VTH) of 0.895V. The ideal height of the vertical DG-MOSFET pillar was found to be at 0.265 µm.

Keywords: DG-MOSFET, pillar, SCE, vertical

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167 Residents’ Perceptions towards the Application of Vertical Landscape in Cairo, Egypt

Authors: Yomna Amr Ahmed Lotfi Koraim, Dalia Moati Rasmi Elkhateeb

Abstract:

Vertical landscape is introduced in this study as an alternative innovative technology for urban sustainable developments for its diverse environmental, economic, and psycho-social advantages. The main aim is to investigate the social acceptance of vertical landscape in Cairo, Egypt. The study objectives were to explore the perceptions of residents concerning this certain phenomenon and their opinions about its implementation. Survey questionnaires were administrated to 60 male and female residents from the Greater Cairo area. Despite the various concerns expressed about the application of vertical landscape, there was a clear majority of approval about its suitability. This is quite encouraging for the prospect of vertical landscape implementation in Cairo, Egypt.

Keywords: Vertical landscape, green facades, social acceptance, sustainable urban development.

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166 Parametric Study of Vertical Diffusion Still for Water Desalination

Authors: A. Seleem, M. Mortada, M. El Morsi, M. Younan

Abstract:

Diffusion stills have been effective in water desalination. The present work represents a model of the distillation process by using vertical single-effect diffusion stills. A semianalytical model has been developed to model the process. A software computer code using Engineering Equation Solver EES software has been developed to solve the equations of the developed model. An experimental setup has been constructed, and used for the validation of the model. The model is also validated against former literature results. The results obtained from the present experimental test rig, and the data from the literature, have been compared with the results of the code to find its best range of validity. In addition, a parametric analysis of the system has been developed using the model to determine the effect of operating conditions on the system's performance. The dominant parameters that affect the productivity of the still are the hot plate temperature that ranges from (55- 90°C) and feed flow rate in range of (0.00694-0.0211 kg/m2-s).

Keywords: Analytical Model, Solar Distillation, Sustainable Water Systems, Vertical Diffusion Still.

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165 Numerical Solution of Transient Natural Convection in Vertical Heated Rectangular Channel between Two Vertical Parallel MTR-Type Fuel Plates

Authors: Djalal Hamed

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to perform, by mean of the finite volume method, a numerical solution of the transient natural convection in a narrow rectangular channel between two vertical parallel Material Testing Reactor (MTR)-type fuel plates, imposed under a heat flux with a cosine shape to determine the margin of the nuclear core power at which the natural convection cooling mode can ensure a safe core cooling, where the cladding temperature should not reach a specific safety limits (90 °C). For this purpose, a computer program is developed to determine the principal parameters related to the nuclear core safety, such as the temperature distribution in the fuel plate and in the coolant (light water) as a function of the reactor core power. Throughout the obtained results, we noticed that the core power should not reach 400 kW, to ensure a safe passive residual heat removing from the nuclear core by the upward natural convection cooling mode.

Keywords: Buoyancy force, friction force, friction factor, finite volume method, transient natural convection, thermal hydraulic analysis, vertical heated rectangular channel.

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164 Numerical Simulation of the Flow Field around a Vertical Flat Plate of Infinite Extent

Authors: Marco Raciti Castelli, Paolo Cioppa, Ernesto Benini

Abstract:

This paper presents a CFD analysis of the flow field around a thin flat plate of infinite span inclined at 90° to a fluid stream of infinite extent. Numerical predictions have been compared to experimental measurements, in order to assess the potential of the finite volume code of determining the aerodynamic forces acting on a bluff body invested by a fluid stream of infinite extent. Several turbulence models and spatial node distributions have been tested. Flow field characteristics in the neighborhood of the flat plate have been investigated, allowing the development of a preliminary procedure to be used as guidance in selecting the appropriate grid configuration and the corresponding turbulence model for the prediction of the flow field over a two-dimensional vertical flat plate.

Keywords: CFD, vertical flat plate, aerodynamic force

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163 Steady State Natural Convection in Vertical Heated Rectangular Channel between Two Vertical Parallel MTR-Type Fuel Plates

Authors: Djalal Hamed

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to perform an analytic solution of steady state natural convection in a narrow rectangular channel between two vertical parallel MTR-type fuel plates, imposed under a cosine shape heat flux to determine the margin of the nuclear core power at which the natural convection cooling mode can ensure a safe core cooling, where the cladding temperature should not be reach the specific safety limits (90 °C). For this purpose, a simple computer program is developed to determine the principal parameter related to the nuclear core safety such as the temperature distribution in the fuel plate and in the coolant (light water) as a function of the reactor power. Our results are validated throughout a comparison against the results of another published work, which is considered like a reference of this study.

Keywords: Buoyancy force, friction force, friction factor, MTR-type fuel, natural convection, vertical heated rectangular channel.

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162 Measurement of Convective Heat Transfer from a Vertical Flat Plate Using Mach-Zehnder Interferometer with Wedge Fringe Setting

Authors: Divya Haridas, C. B. Sobhan

Abstract:

Laser interferometric methods have been utilized for the measurement of natural convection heat transfer from a heated vertical flat plate, in the investigation presented here. The study mainly aims at comparing two different fringe orientations in the wedge fringe setting of Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI), used for the measurements. The interference fringes are set in horizontal and vertical orientations with respect to the heated surface, and two different fringe analysis methods, namely the stepping method and the method proposed by Naylor and Duarte, are used to obtain the heat transfer coefficients. The experimental system is benchmarked with theoretical results, thus validating its reliability in heat transfer measurements. The interference fringe patterns are analyzed digitally using MATLAB 7 and MOTIC Plus softwares, which ensure improved efficiency in fringe analysis, hence reducing the errors associated with conventional fringe tracing. The work also discuss the relative merits and limitations of the two methods used.

Keywords: MZI, Natural Convection, Naylor Method, Vertical Flat Plate.

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161 Integration of Resistive Switching Memory Cell with Vertical Nanowire Transistor

Authors: Xiang Li, Zhixian Chen, Zheng Fang, Aashit Kamath, Xinpeng Wang, Navab Singh, Guo-Qiang Lo, Dim-Lee Kwong

Abstract:

We integrate TiN/Ni/HfO2/Si RRAM cell with a vertical gate-all-around (GAA) nanowire transistor to achieve compact 4F2 footprint in a 1T1R configuration. The tip of the Si nanowire (source of the transistor) serves as bottom electrode of the memory cell. Fabricated devices with nanowire diameter ~ 50nm demonstrate ultra-low current/power switching; unipolar switching with 10μA/30μW SET and 20μA/30μW RESET and bipolar switching with 20nA/85nW SET and 0.2nA/0.7nW RESET. Further, the switching current is found to scale with nanowire diameter making the architecture promising for future scaling.

Keywords: RRAM, 1T1R, gate-all-around FET, nanowire FET, vertical MOSFETs

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160 Effect of One-Handed Pushing and Puling Strength at Different Handle Heights in Vertical Direction

Authors: Tarik H. Badi, Amer A. Boushaala

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to measure the maximal isometric strength and to investigate the effects of different handleheights and elbow angles with respect to Mid. sagittal plane on the pushing and pulling strength in vertical direction. Eight male subjects performed a series of static strength measurement for each subject. The highest isometric strength was found in pulling at shoulder height (S.H.) (Mean = 60.29 lb., SD = 16.78 lb.) and the lowest isometric strength was found also in pulling at elbow height (E.H.) (Mean = 33.06 lb., SD = 6.56 lb.). Although the isometric strengths were higher at S.H than at E.H. for both activities, the maximal isometric strengths were compared statistically. ANOVA was performed. The results of the experiment revealed that there was a significant different between handle heights. However, there were no significant different between angles and activities, also no correlation between grip strength and activities.

Keywords: Pushing and pulling, one arm, vertical direction, isometric strength.

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159 Horizontal and Vertical Illuminance Correlations in a Case Study for Shaded South Facing Surfaces

Authors: S. Matour, M. Mahdavinejad, R. Fayaz

Abstract:

Daylight utilization is a key factor in achieving visual and thermal comfort, and energy savings in integrated building design. However, lack of measured data related to this topic has become a major challenge with the increasing need for integrating lighting concepts and simulations in the early stages of design procedures. The current paper deals with the values of daylight illuminance on horizontal and south facing vertical surfaces; the data are estimated using IESNA model and measured values of the horizontal and vertical illuminance, and a regression model with an acceptable linear correlation is obtained. The resultant illuminance frequency curves are useful for estimating daylight availability on south facing surfaces in Tehran. In addition, the relationship between indirect vertical illuminance and the corresponding global horizontal illuminance is analyzed. A simple parametric equation is proposed in order to predict the vertical illumination on a shaded south facing surface. The equation correlates the ratio between the vertical and horizontal illuminance to the solar altitude and is used with another relationship for prediction of the vertical illuminance. Both equations show good agreement, which allows for calculation of indirect vertical illuminance on a south facing surface at any time throughout the year.

Keywords: Tehran daylight availability, horizontal illuminance, vertical illuminance, diffuse illuminance.

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158 Numerical Modeling of Natural Convection on Various Configuration of Rectangular Fin Arrays on Vertical Base Plates

Authors: H.R.Goshayeshi, M.Fahim inia, M.M.Naserian

Abstract:

In this research, the laminar heat transfer of natural convection on vertical surfaces has been investigated. Most of the studies on natural convection have been considered constantly whereas velocity and temperature domain, do not change with time, transient one are used a lot. Governing equations are solved using a finite volume approach. The convective terms are discretized using the power-law scheme, whereas for diffusive terms the central difference is employed. Coupling between the velocity and pressure is made with SIMPLE algorithm. The resultant system of discretized linear algebraic equations is solved with an alternating direction implicit scheme. Then a configuration of rectangular fins is put in different ways on the surface and heat transfer of natural convection on these surfaces without sliding is studied and finally optimization is done.

Keywords: Natural convection, vertical surfaces, SIMPLE algorithm, Rectangular fins.

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157 Numerical Investigation of the Optimal Spatial Domain Discretization for the 2-D Analysis of a Darrieus Vertical-Axis Water Turbine

Authors: M. Raciti Castelli, S. De Betta, E. Benini

Abstract:

The optimal grid spacing and turbulence model for the 2D numerical analysis of a vertical-axis water turbine (VAWaterT) operating in a 2 m/s freestream current has been investigated. The results of five different spatial domain discretizations and two turbulence models (k-ω SST and k-ε RNG) have been compared, in order to gain the optimal y+ parameter distribution along the blade walls during a full rotor revolution. The resulting optimal mesh has appeared to be quite similar to that obtained for the numerical analysis of a vertical-axis wind turbine.

Keywords: CFD, vertical axis water turbine, NACA 0025, blade y+.

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156 Proposal of a Means for Reducing the Torque Variation on a Vertical-Axis Water Turbine by Increasing the Blade Number

Authors: M. Raciti Castelli, S. De Betta, E. Benini

Abstract:

This paper presents a means for reducing the torque variation during the revolution of a vertical-axis water turbine (VAWaterT) by increasing the blade number. For this purpose, twodimensional CFD analyses have been performed on a straight-bladed Darrieus-type rotor. After describing the computational model and the relative validation procedure, a complete campaign of simulations, based on full RANS unsteady calculations, is proposed for a three, four and five-bladed rotor architectures, characterized by a NACA 0025 airfoil. For each proposed rotor configuration, flow field characteristics are investigated at several values of tip speed ratio, allowing a quantification of the influence of blade number on flow geometric features and dynamic quantities, such as rotor torque and power. Finally, torque and power curves are compared for the three analyzed architectures, achieving a quantification of the effect of blade number on overall rotor performance.

Keywords: Vertical-Axis Water Turbine, rotor solidity, CFD, NACA 0025

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155 The Shaping of a Triangle Steel Plate into an Equilateral Vertical Steel by Finite-Element Modeling

Authors: Tsung-Chia Chen

Abstract:

The orthogonal processes to shape the triangle steel plate into a equilateral vertical steel are examined by an incremental elasto-plastic finite-element method based on an updated Lagrangian formulation. The highly non-linear problems due to the geometric changes, the inelastic constitutive behavior and the boundary conditions varied with deformation are taken into account in an incremental manner. On the contact boundary, a modified Coulomb friction mode is specially considered. A weighting factor r-minimum is employed to limit the step size of loading increment to linear relation. In particular, selective reduced integration was adopted to formulate the stiffness matrix. The simulated geometries of verticality could clearly demonstrate the vertical processes until unloading. A series of experiments and simulations were performed to validate the formulation in the theory, leading to the development of the computer codes. The whole deformation history and the distribution of stress, strain and thickness during the forming process were obtained by carefully considering the moving boundary condition in the finite-element method. Therefore, this modeling can be used for judging whether a equilateral vertical steel can be shaped successfully. The present work may be expected to improve the understanding of the formation of the equilateral vertical steel.

Keywords: Elasto-plastic, finite element, orthogonal pressing process, vertical steel.

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154 The Effect of Vertical Shear-Link in Improving the Seismic Performance of Structures with Eccentrically Bracing Systems

Authors: Mohammad Reza Baradaran, Farhad Hamzezarghani, Mehdi Rastegari Ghiri, Zahra Mirsanjari

Abstract:

Passive control methods can be utilized to build earthquake resistant structures, and also to strengthen the vulnerable ones. In this paper, we studied the effect of this system in increasing the ductility and energy dissipation and also modeled the behavior of this type of eccentric bracing, and compared the hysteresis diagram of the modeled samples with the laboratory samples. We studied several samples of frames with vertical shear-links in order to assess the behavior of this type of eccentric bracing. Each of these samples was modeled in finite element software ANSYS 9.0, and was analyzed under the static cyclic loading. It was found that vertical shear-links have a more stable hysteresis loops. Another analysis showed that using honeycomb beams as the horizontal beam along with steel reinforcement has no negative effect on the hysteresis behavior of the sample.

Keywords: Vertical shear-link, passive control, cyclic analysis, energy dissipation, honeycomb beam.

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153 Vertical Silicon Nanowire MOSFET With A Fully-Silicided (FUSI) NiSi2 Gate

Authors: Z. X. Chen, N. Singh, D.-L. Kwong

Abstract:

This paper presents a vertical silicon nanowire n- MOSFET integrated with a CMOS-compatible fully-silicided (FUSI) NiSi2 gate. Devices with nanowire diameter of 50nm show good electrical performance (SS < 70mV/dec, DIBL < 30mV/V, Ion/Ioff > 107). Most significantly, threshold voltage tunability of about 0.2V is shown. Although threshold voltage remains low for the 50nm diameter device, it is expected to become more positive as nanowire diameter reduces.

Keywords: NiSi , fully-silicided (FUSI) gate, vertical siliconnanowire (SiNW), CMOS compatible.

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152 Impact of Process Variations on the Vertical Silicon Nanowire Tunneling FET (TFET)

Authors: Z. X. Chen, T. S. Phua, X. P. Wang, G. -Q. Lo, D. -L. Kwong

Abstract:

This paper presents device simulations on the vertical silicon nanowire tunneling FET (VSiNW TFET). Simulations show that a narrow nanowire and thin gate oxide is required for good performance, which is expected even for conventional MOSFETs. The gate length also needs to be more than the nanowire diameter to prevent short channel effects. An effect more unique to TFET is the need for abrupt source to channel junction, which is shown to improve the performance. The ambipolar effect suppression by reducing drain doping concentration is also explored and shown to have little or no effect on performance.

Keywords: Device simulation, MEDICI, tunneling FET (TFET), vertical silicon nanowire.

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151 Study on Mixed Convection Heat Transfer in Vertical Ducts with Radiation Effects

Authors: G. Rajamohan, N. Ramesh, P. Kumar

Abstract:

Experiments have been performed to investigate the radiation effects on mixed convection heat transfer for thermally developing airflow in vertical ducts with two differentially heated isothermal walls and two adiabatic walls. The investigation covers the Reynolds number Re = 800 to Re = 2900, heat flux varied from 256 W/m2 to 863 W/m2, hot wall temperature ranges from 27°C to 100 °C, aspect ratios 1 & 0.5 and the emissivity of internal walls are 0.05 and 0.85. In the present study, combined flow visualization was conducted to observe the flow patterns. The effect of surface temperature along the walls was studied to investigate the local Nusselt number variation within the duct. The result shows that flow condition and radiation significantly affect the total Nusselt number and tends to reduce the buoyancy condition.

Keywords: Mixed convection, vertical duct, thermally developing and radiation effects.

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