Search results for: Ultrasonic cavitation
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 172

Search results for: Ultrasonic cavitation

172 Analysis of Impact Load Induced by Ultrasonic Cavitation Bubble Collapse Using Thin Film Pressure Sensors

Authors: Moiz S. Vohra, Nagalingam Arun Prasanth, Wei L. Tan, S. H. Yeo

Abstract:

The understanding of generation and collapse of acoustic cavitation bubbles are prerequisites for application of cavitation erosion. Microbubbles generated due to rapid fluctuation of pressure induced by propagation of ultrasonic wave lead to formation of high velocity microjets and or shock waves upon collapse. Due to vast application of ultrasonic, it is important to characterize and understand cavitation collapse pressure under the radiating surface at different conditions. A comparative investigation is carried out to determine impact load and dynamic pressure distribution exerted upon bubble collapse using thin film pressure sensors. Measurements were recorded at different input conditions such as amplitude, stand-off distance, insertion depth of the horn inside the liquid and pulse on-off time of acoustic vibrations. Impact force of 2.97 N is recorded at amplitude of 108 μm and stand-off distance of 1 mm from the sensor film, whereas impulsive force as low as 0.4 N is recorded at amplitude of 12 μm and stand-off distance of 5 mm from the sensor film. The results drawn from the investigation indicated that variety of impact loads can be achieved by controlling generation and collapse of bubbles, making it suitable to use for numerous application.

Keywords: Ultrasonic cavitation, bubble collapse, pressure mapping sensor, impact load.

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171 Experimental Study of Kiwi Juice under Sonication and Carbonation

Authors: N. Dizadji, P. Entezar, A. Afsari

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the experimental impacts of ultrasonic, carbonate and a combination of them on the quality of fresh kiwi juice. Today, non-thermal methods like ultrasonic, which have imperceptible effects on some properties of the juice such as taste, flavor and color, are commonly used for killing microorganisms.In this paper, some properties of kiwi fruit juice under ultrasonic, carbonate and a combination of them has been researched. Those properties include pH, acidity, transparency and Brix. Its impact on microorganisms has been studied as well.The results show that using a combination of carbonate and sonicate make the cavitation more severe without a perceptible effect on nonactivation of microorganisms.

Keywords: carbonate, juice, inactivation, ultrasonic

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170 An Experimental Study of Tip Vortex Cavitation Inception in an Axial Flow Pump

Authors: Mohammad Taghi Shervani Tabar, Zahra Poursharifi

Abstract:

The interaction of the blade tip with the casing boundary layer and the leakage flow may lead to a kind of cavitation namely tip vortex cavitation. In this study, the onset of tip vortex cavitation was experimentally investigated in an axial flow pump. For a constant speed and a fixed angle of attack and by changing the flow rate, the pump head, input power, output power and efficiency were calculated and the pump characteristic curves were obtained. The cavitation phenomenon was observed with a camera and a stroboscope. Finally, the critical flow region, which tip vortex cavitation might have occurred, was identified. The results show that just by adjusting the flow rate, out of the specified region, the possibility of occurring tip vortex cavitation, decreases to a great extent.

Keywords: Axial flow pump, Gap cavitation, Leakage vortex, Tip vortex cavitation.

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169 Utilization of Schnerr-Sauer Cavitation Model for Simulation of Cavitation Inception and Super Cavitation

Authors: Mohammadreza Nezamirad, Azadeh Yazdi, Sepideh Amirahmadian, Nasim Sabetpour, Amirmasoud Hamedi

Abstract:

In this study, the Reynolds-Stress-Navier-Stokes framework is utilized to investigate the flow inside the diesel injector nozzle. The flow is assumed to be multiphase as the formation of vapor by pressure drop is visualized. For pressure and velocity linkage, the coupled algorithm is used. Since the cavitation phenomenon inherently is unsteady, the quasi-steady approach is utilized for saving time and resources in the current study. Schnerr-Sauer cavitation model is used, which was capable of predicting flow behavior both at the initial and final steps of the cavitation process. Two different turbulent models were used in this study to clarify which one is more capable in predicting cavitation inception and super-cavitation. It was found that K-ε was more compatible with the Shnerr-Sauer cavitation model; therefore, the mentioned model is used for the rest of this study.

Keywords: CFD, RANS, cavitation, fuel, injector.

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168 Movement of Location of Tip Vortex Cavitation along Blade Edge due to Reduction of Flow Rate in an Axial Pump

Authors: Mohammad T. Shervani-Tabar, Navid Shervani-Tabar

Abstract:

Tip vortex cavitation is one of well known patterns of cavitation phenomenon which occurs in axial pumps. This pattern of cavitation occurs due to pressure difference between the pressure and suction sides of blades of an axial pump. Since the pressure in the pressure side of the blade is higher than the pressure in its suction side, thus a very small portion of liquid flow flows back from pressure side to the suction side. This fact is cause of tip vortex cavitation and gap cavitation that may occur in axial pumps. In this paper the results of our experimental investigation about movement of tip vortex cavitation along blade edge due to reduction of pump flow rate in an axial pump is reported. Results show that reduction of pump flow rate in conjunction with increasing of outlet pressure causes movement of tip vortex cavitation along blade edge towards the blade tip. Results also show that by approaching tip vortex cavitation to the blade tip, vortex tip pattern of cavitation replaces with a cavitation phenomenon on the blade tip. Furthermore by further reduction of pump flow rate and increasing of outlet pressure, an unstable cavitation phenomenon occurs between each blade leading edge and the next blade trailing edge.

Keywords: Axial Flow Pump, Cavitation, Gap Cavitation, Tip Vortex Cavitation.

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167 Multiple Approaches for Ultrasonic Cavitation Monitoring of Oxygen-Loaded Nanodroplets

Authors: Simone Galati, Adriano Troia

Abstract:

Ultrasound (US) is widely used in medical field for a variety diagnostic techniques but, in recent years, it has also been creating great interest for therapeutic aims. Regarding drug delivery, the use of US as an activation source provides better spatial delivery confinement and limits the undesired side effects. However, at present there is no complete characterization at a fundamental level of the different signals produced by sono-activated nanocarriers. Therefore, the aim of this study is to obtain a metrological characterization of the cavitation phenomena induced by US through three parallel investigation approaches. US was focused into a channel of a customized phantom in which a solution with oxygen-loaded nanodroplets (OLNDs) was led to flow and the cavitation activity was monitored. Both quantitative and qualitative real-time analysis were performed giving information about the dynamics of bubble formation, oscillation and final implosion with respect to the working acoustic pressure and the type of nanodroplets, compared with pure water. From this analysis a possible interpretation of the observed results is proposed.

Keywords: Cavitation, Drug Delivery, Nanodroplets, Ultrasound.

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166 Investigation about Mechanical Equipment Needed to Break the Molecular Bonds of Heavy Oil by Using Hydrodynamic Cavitation

Authors: Mahdi Asghari

Abstract:

The cavitation phenomenon is the formation and production of micro-bubbles and eventually the bursting of the micro-bubbles inside the liquid fluid, which results in localized high pressure and temperature, causing physical and chemical fluid changes. This pressure and temperature are predicted to be 2000 atmospheres and 5000 °C, respectively. As a result of small bubbles bursting from this process, temperature and pressure increase momentarily and locally, so that the intensity and magnitude of these temperatures and pressures provide the energy needed to break the molecular bonds of heavy compounds such as fuel oil. In this paper, we study the theory of cavitation and the methods of cavitation production by acoustic and hydrodynamic methods and the necessary mechanical equipment and reactors for industrial application of the hydrodynamic cavitation method to break down the molecular bonds of the fuel oil and convert it into useful and economical products.

Keywords: Cavitation, hydrodynamic cavitation, cavitation reactor, fuel oil.

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165 Metal Berthelot Tubes with Windows for Observing Cavitation under Static Negative Pressure

Authors: K. Hiro, Y. Imai, T. Sasayama

Abstract:

Cavitation under static negative pressure is not revealed well. The Berthelot method to generate such negative pressure can be a means to study cavitation inception. In this study, metal Berthelot tubes built in observation windows are newly developed and are checked whether high static negative pressure is generated or not. Negative pressure in the tube with a pair of a corundum plate and an aluminum gasket increased with temperature cycles. The trend was similar to that as reported before.

Keywords: Berthelot method, negative pressure, cavitation.

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164 A DOE Study of Ultrasound Intensified Removal of Phenol

Authors: P. R. Rahul, A. Kannan

Abstract:

Ultrasound-aided adsorption of phenol by Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) was investigated at different frequencies ranging from 35 kHz, 58 kHz, and 192 kHz. Other factors influencing adsorption such as Adsorbent dosage (g/L), the initial concentration of the phenol solution (ppm) and RPM was also considered along with the frequency variable. However, this study involved calorimetric measurements which helped is determining the effect of frequency on the % removal of phenol from the power dissipated to the system was normalized. It was found that low frequency (35 kHz) cavitation effects had a profound influence on the % removal of phenol per unit power. This study also had cavitation mapping of the ultrasonic baths, and it showed that the effect of cavitation on the adsorption system is irrespective of the position of the vessel. Hence, the vessel was placed at the center of the bath. In this study, novel temperature control and monitoring system to make sure that the system is under proper condition while operations. From the BET studies, it was found that there was only 5% increase in the surface area and hence it was concluded that ultrasound doesn’t profoundly alter the equilibrium value of the adsorption system. DOE studies indicated that adsorbent dosage has a higher influence on the % removal in comparison with other factors.

Keywords: Ultrasound, adsorption, granulated activated carbon, phenol.

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163 Numerical Simulation of Cavitation and Aeration in Discharge Gated Tunnel of a Dam Based on the VOF Method

Authors: Razieh Jalalabadi, Norouz Mohammad Nouri

Abstract:

Cavitation, usually known as a destructive phenomenon, involves turbulent unsteady two-phase flow. Having such features, cavitating flows have been turned to a challenging topic in numerical studies and many researches are being done for better understanding of bubbly flows and proposing solutions to reduce its consequent destructive effects. Aeration may be regarded as an effective protection against cavitation erosion in many hydraulic structures, like gated tunnels. The paper concerns numerical simulation of flow in discharge gated tunnel of a dam using ing RNG k -ε model coupled with the volume of fluid (VOF) method and the zone which is susceptible of cavitation inception in the tunnel is predicted. In the second step, a vent is considered in the mentioned zone for aeration and the numerical simulation is done again to study the effects of aeration. The results show that aeration is an impressively useful method to exclude cavitation in mentioned tunnels.

Keywords: Aeration, Cavitation, Two-phase flow, TurbulentFlow, Volume of Fluid (VOF) method.

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162 Modeling of the Cavitation by Bubble around a NACA0009 Profile

Authors: L. Hammadi, D. Boukhaloua

Abstract:

In this study, a numerical model was developed to predict cavitation phenomena around a NACA0009 profile. The equations of the Rayleigh-Plesset and modified Rayleigh-Plesset are used to modeling the cavitation by bubble around a NACA0009 profile. The study shows that the distributions of pressures around extrados and intrados of profile for angle of incidence equal zero are the same. The study also shows that the increase in the angle of incidence makes it possible to differentiate the pressures on the intrados and the extrados.

Keywords: Cavitation, NACA0009 profile, flow, pressure coefficient.

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161 A Study on Prediction of Cavitation for Centrifugal Pump

Authors: Myung Jin Kim, Hyun Bae Jin, Wui Jun Chung

Abstract:

In this study, to accurately predict cavitation of a centrifugal pump, numerical analysis was compared with experimental results modeled on a small industrial centrifugal pump. In this study, numerical analysis was compared with experimental results modeled on a small industrial centrifugal pump for reliable prediction on cavitation of a centrifugal pump. To improve validity of the numerical analysis, transient analysis was conducted on the calculated domain of full-type geometry, such as an experimental apparatus. The numerical analysis from the results was considered to be a reliable prediction of cavitaion.

Keywords: Centrifugal Pump, Cavitation, NPSH, CFD.

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160 Simulations of Cryogenic Cavitation of Low Temperature Fluids with Thermodynamics Effects

Authors: A. Alhelfi, B. Sunden

Abstract:

Cavitation in cryogenic liquids is widely present in contemporary science. In the current study, we re-examine a previously validated acoustic cavitation model which was developed for a gas bubble in liquid water. Furthermore, simulations of cryogenic fluids including the thermal effect, the effect of acoustic pressure amplitude and the frequency of sound field on the bubble dynamics are presented. A gas bubble (Helium) in liquids Nitrogen, Oxygen and Hydrogen in an acoustic field at ambient pressure and low temperature is investigated numerically. The results reveal that the oscillation of the bubble in liquid Hydrogen fluctuates more than in liquids Oxygen and Nitrogen. The oscillation of the bubble in liquids Oxygen and Nitrogen is approximately similar.

Keywords: Cryogenic liquids, cavitation, rocket engineering, ultrasound.

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159 Detecting Cavitation in a Vertical Sea water Centrifugal Lift Pump Related to Iran Oil Industry Cooling Water Circulation System

Authors: Omid A. Zargar

Abstract:

Cavitation is one of the most well-known process faults that may occur in different industrial equipment especially centrifugal pumps. Cavitation also may happen in water pumps and turbines. Sometimes cavitation has been severe enough to wear holes in the impeller and damage the vanes to such a degree that the impeller becomes very ineffective. More commonly, the pump efficiency will decrease significantly during cavitation and continue to decrease as damage to the impeller increases. Typically, when cavitation occurs, an audible sound similar to ‘marbles’ or ‘crackling’ is reported to be emitted from the pump. In this paper, the most effective monitoring items and techniques in detecting cavitation discussed in details. Besides, some successful solutions for solving this problem for sea water vertical Centrifugal lift Pump discussed through a case history related to Iran oil industry. Furthermore, balance line modification, strainer choking and random resonance in sea water pumps discussed. In addition, a new Method for diagnosing mechanical conditions of sea water vertical Centrifugal lift Pumps introduced. This method involves disaggregating bus current by device into disaggregated currents having correspondences with operating currents in response to measured bus current. Moreover, some new patents and innovations in mechanical sea water pumping and cooling systems discussed in this paper.

Keywords: Cavitation, Vibration Analysis, Centrifugal Pump, Vertical Pump, Sea Water Pump, Balance Line, Strainer, Time Wave Form (TWF), Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)

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158 High Specific Speed in Circulating Water Pump Can Cause Cavitation, Noise and Vibration

Authors: Chandra Gupt Porwal

Abstract:

Excessive vibration means increased wear, increased repair efforts, bad product selection & quality and high energy consumption. This may be sometimes experienced by cavitation or suction/discharge recirculation which could occur only when net positive suction head available NPSHA drops below the net positive suction head required NPSHR. Cavitation can cause axial surging, if it is excessive, will damage mechanical seals, bearings, possibly other pump components frequently, and shorten the life of the impeller. Efforts have been made to explain Suction Energy (SE), Specific Speed (Ns), Suction Specific Speed (Nss), NPSHA, NPSHR & their significance, possible reasons of cavitation /internal recirculation, its diagnostics and remedial measures to arrest and prevent cavitation in this paper. A case study is presented by the author highlighting that the root cause of unwanted noise and vibration is due to cavitation, caused by high specific speeds or inadequate net- positive suction head available which results in damages to material surfaces of impeller & suction bells and degradation of machine performance, its capacity and efficiency too. Author strongly recommends revisiting the technical specifications of CW pumps to provide sufficient NPSH margin ratios >1.5, for future projects and Nss be limited to 8500 - 9000 for cavitation free operation.

Keywords: Best efficiency point (BEP), Net positive suction head NPSHA, NPSHR, Specific Speed NS, Suction Specific Speed Nss.

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157 Distortion of Flow Measurement and Cavitation Occurs Due to Orifice Inlet Velocity Profiles

Authors: Byung-Soo Shin, Nam-Seok Kim, Sang-Kyu Lee, O-Hyun Keum

Abstract:

This analysis investigates the distortion of flow measurement and the increase of cavitation along orifice flowmeter. The analysis using the numerical method (CFD) validated the distortion of flow measurement through the inlet velocity profile considering the convergence and grid dependency. Realizable k-e model was selected and y+ was about 50 in this numerical analysis. This analysis also estimated the vulnerability of cavitation effect due to inlet velocity profile. The investigation concludes that inclined inlet velocity profile could vary the pressure which was measured at pressure tab near pipe wall and it led to distort the pressure values ranged from -3.8% to 5.3% near the orifice plate and to make the increase of cavitation. The investigation recommends that the fully developed inlet velocity flow is beneficial to accurate flow measurement in orifice flowmeter.

Keywords: Orifice, k-e model, CFD

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156 Calcium Silicate Bricks – Ultrasonic Pulse Method: Effects of Natural Frequency of Transducers on Measurement Results

Authors: Jiri Brozovsky

Abstract:

Modulus of elasticity is one of the important parameters of construction materials, which considerably influence their deformation properties and which can also be determined by means of non-destructive test methods like ultrasonic pulse method. However, measurement results of ultrasonic pulse methods are influenced by various factors, one of which is the natural frequency of the transducers. The paper states knowledge about influence of natural frequency of the transducers (54; 82 and 150kHz) on ultrasonic pulse velocity and dynamic modulus of elasticity (Young's Dynamic modulus of elasticity). Differences between ultrasonic pulse velocity and dynamic modulus of elasticity were found with the same smallest dimension of test specimen in the direction of sounding and density their value decreases as the natural frequency of transducers grew.

Keywords: Calcium silicate brick, ultrasonic pulse method, ultrasonic pulse velocity, dynamic modulus of elasticity.

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155 The Comprehensive Study Based on Ultrasonic and X-ray Visual Technology for GIS Equipment Detection

Authors: Wei Zhang, Hong Yu, Xian-ping Zhao, Da-da Wang, Fei Xue

Abstract:

For lack of the visualization of the ultrasonic detection method of partial discharge (PD), the ultrasonic detection technology combined with the X-ray visual detection method (UXV) is proposed. The method can conduct qualitative analysis accurately and conduct reliable positioning diagnosis to the internal insulation defects of GIS, and while it could make up the blindness of the X-ray visual detection method and improve the detection rate. In this paper, an experimental model of GIS is used as the trial platform, a variety of insulation defects are set inside the GIS cavity. With the proposed method, the ultrasonic method is used to conduct the preliminary detection, and then the X-ray visual detection is used to locate and diagnose precisely. Therefore, the proposed UXV technology is feasible and practical.

Keywords: GIS, ultrasonic, visual detection, X-ray

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154 Design of a Pulse Generator Based on a Programmable System-on-Chip (PSoC) for Ultrasonic Applications

Authors: Pedro Acevedo, Carlos Díaz, Mónica Vázquez, Joel Durán

Abstract:

This paper describes the design of a pulse generator based on the Programmable System-on-Chip (PSoC) module. In this module, using programmable logic is possible to implement different pulses which are required for ultrasonic applications, either in a single channel or multiple channels. This module can operate with programmable frequencies from 3-74 MHz; its programming may be versatile covering a wide range of ultrasonic applications. It is ideal for low-power ultrasonic applications where PZT or PVDF transducers are used.

Keywords: pulse generator, PVDF, Programmable System-on-Chip (PSoC), ultrasonic transducer

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153 Effect of Needle Height on Discharge Coefficient and Cavitation Number

Authors: Azadeh Yazdi, Mohammadreza Nezamirad, Sepideh Amirahmadian, Nasim Sabetpour, Amirmasoud Hamedi

Abstract:

Cavitation inside diesel injector nozzle is investigated using Reynolds-Stress-Navier stokes equations. Schnerr-Sauer cavitation model is used for modeling cavitation inside diesel injector nozzle. The carrying fluid utilized in the current study is diesel fuel. The flow is verified at the beginning by comparing with the previous experimental data and it was found that K-Epsilon turbulent model could lead to a better accuracy comparing to K-Omega turbulent model. Moreover, mass flow rate obtained numerically is compared with the experimental value and discrepancy was found to be less than 5% - which shows the accuracy of the current results. Finally, a real-size four-hole nozzle is investigated and the flow inside it is visualized based on velocity profile, discharge coefficient and cavitation number. It was found that the mesh density could be reduced significantly by utilizing periodic boundary condition. Velocity contour at the mid nozzle showed that maximum value of velocity occurs at the end of the needle before entering the orifice area. Last but not least, at the same boundary conditions, when different needle heights were utilized, it was found that as needle height increases with an increase in cavitation number, discharge coefficient increases, while the mentioned increases is more tangible at smaller values of needle heights.

Keywords: cavitation, diesel fuel, CFD, real size nozzle, mass flow rate

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152 Effect of Vibration Amplitude and Welding Force on Weld Strength of Ultrasonic Metal Welding

Authors: Ziad. Sh. Al Sarraf

Abstract:

Ultrasonic metal welding has been the subject of ongoing research and development, most recently concentrating on metal joining in miniature devices, for example to allow solder-free wire bonding. As well as at the small scale, there are also opportunities to research the joining of thicker sheet metals and to widen the range of similar and dissimilar materials that can be successfully joined using this technology. This study presents the design, characterisation and test of a lateral-drive ultrasonic metal spot welding device. The ultrasonic metal spot welding horn is modelled using finite element analysis (FEA) and its vibration behaviour is characterised experimentally to ensure ultrasonic energy is delivered effectively to the weld coupon. The welding stack and fixtures are then designed and mounted on a test machine to allow a series of experiments to be conducted for various welding and ultrasonic parameters. Weld strength is subsequently analysed using tensile-shear tests. The results show how the weld strength is particularly sensitive to the combination of clamping force and ultrasonic vibration amplitude of the welding tip, but there are optimal combinations of these and also limits that must be clearly identified.

Keywords: Ultrasonic welding, vibration amplitude, welding force, weld strength.

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151 Frequency and Amplitude Measurement of a Vibrating Object in Water Using Ultrasonic Speckle Technique

Authors: Hongmao Zhu, Jun Chu, Lei Shen, Zhihua Luo

Abstract:

The principle of frequency and amplitude measurement of a vibrating object in water using ultrasonic speckle technique is presented in this paper. Compared with other traditional techniques, the ultrasonic speckle technique can be applied to vibration measurement of a nonmetal object with rough surface in water in a noncontact way. The relationship between speckle movement and object movement was analyzed. Based on this study, an ultrasonic speckle measurement system was set up. With this system the frequency and amplitude of an underwater vibrating cantilever beam was detected. The result shows that the experimental data is in good agreement with the calibrating data.

Keywords: Frequency, Amplitude, Vibration measurement, Ultrasonic speckle

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150 Feature Preserving Nonlinear Diffusion for Ultrasonic Image Denoising and Edge Enhancement

Authors: Shujun Fu, Qiuqi Ruan, Wenqia Wang, Yu Li

Abstract:

Utilizing echoic intension and distribution from different organs and local details of human body, ultrasonic image can catch important medical pathological changes, which unfortunately may be affected by ultrasonic speckle noise. A feature preserving ultrasonic image denoising and edge enhancement scheme is put forth, which includes two terms: anisotropic diffusion and edge enhancement, controlled by the optimum smoothing time. In this scheme, the anisotropic diffusion is governed by the local coordinate transformation and the first and the second order normal derivatives of the image, while the edge enhancement is done by the hyperbolic tangent function. Experiments on real ultrasonic images indicate effective preservation of edges, local details and ultrasonic echoic bright strips on denoising by our scheme.

Keywords: anisotropic diffusion, coordinate transformationdirectional derivatives, edge enhancement, hyperbolic tangentfunction, image denoising.

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149 Predicting Oil Content of Fresh Palm Fruit Using Transmission-Mode Ultrasonic Technique

Authors: Sutthawee Suwannarat, Thanate Khaorapapong, Mitchai Chongcheawchamnan

Abstract:

In this paper, an ultrasonic technique is proposed to predict oil content in a fresh palm fruit. This is accomplished by measuring the attenuation based on ultrasonic transmission mode. Several palm fruit samples with known oil content by Soxhlet extraction (ISO9001:2008) were tested with our ultrasonic measurement. Amplitude attenuation data results for all palm samples were collected. The Feedforward Neural Networks (FNNs) are applied to predict the oil content for the samples. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Mean Absolute Error (MAE) of the FNN model for predicting oil content percentage are 7.6186 and 5.2287 with the correlation coefficient (R) of 0.9193.

Keywords: Non-destructive, ultrasonic testing, oil content, fresh palm fruit, neural network.

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148 Adaptive Anisotropic Diffusion for Ultrasonic Image Denoising and Edge Enhancement

Authors: Shujun Fu, Qiuqi Ruan, Wenqia Wang, Yu Li

Abstract:

Utilizing echoic intension and distribution from different organs and local details of human body, ultrasonic image can catch important medical pathological changes, which unfortunately may be affected by ultrasonic speckle noise. A feature preserving ultrasonic image denoising and edge enhancement scheme is put forth, which includes two terms: anisotropic diffusion and edge enhancement, controlled by the optimum smoothing time. In this scheme, the anisotropic diffusion is governed by the local coordinate transformation and the first and the second order normal derivatives of the image, while the edge enhancement is done by the hyperbolic tangent function. Experiments on real ultrasonic images indicate effective preservation of edges, local details and ultrasonic echoic bright strips on denoising by our scheme.

Keywords: anisotropic diffusion, coordinate transformation, directional derivatives, edge enhancement, hyperbolic tangent function, image denoising.

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147 Effect of Different Diesel Fuels on Formation of the Cavitation Phenomena

Authors: Mohammadreza Nezamirad, Sepideh Amirahmadian, Nasim Sabetpour, Azadeh Yazdi, Amirmasoud Hamedi

Abstract:

Cavitation inside a diesel injector nozzle is investigated numerically in this study. The Reynolds Stress Navier Stokes set of equations (RANS) are utilized to investigate flow behavior inside the nozzle numerically. Moreover, K-ε turbulent model is found to be a better approach comparing to K-ω turbulent model. The Winklhofer rectangular shape nozzle is also simulated in order to verify the current numerical scheme, and with the mass flow rate approach, the current solution is verified. Afterward, a six-hole real size nozzle was simulated and it was found that among the different fuels used in this study with the same condition, diesel fuel provides the largest length of cavitation. Also, it was found that at the same boundary condition, rapeseed methyl ester (RME) fuel leads to the highest value of discharge coefficient and mass flow rate.

Keywords: cavitation, diesel fuel, CFD, real size nozzle, discharge coefficient

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146 Hybrid Advanced Oxidative Pretreatment of Complex Industrial Effluent for Biodegradability Enhancement

Authors: K. Paradkar, S. N. Mudliar, A. Sharma, A. B. Pandit, R. A. Pandey

Abstract:

The study explores the hybrid combination of Hydrodynamic Cavitation (HC) and Subcritical Wet Air Oxidation-based pretreatment of complex industrial effluent to enhance the biodegradability selectively (without major COD destruction) to facilitate subsequent enhanced downstream processing via anaerobic or aerobic biological treatment. Advanced oxidation based techniques can be less efficient as standalone options and a hybrid approach by combining Hydrodynamic Cavitation (HC), and Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) can lead to a synergistic effect since both the options are based on common free radical mechanism. The HC can be used for initial turbulence and generation of hotspots which can begin the free radical attack and this agitating mixture then can be subjected to less intense WAO since initial heat (to raise the activation energy) can be taken care by HC alone. Lab-scale venturi-based hydrodynamic cavitation and wet air oxidation reactor with biomethanated distillery wastewater (BMDWW) as a model effluent was examined for establishing the proof-of-concept. The results indicated that for a desirable biodegradability index (BOD: COD - BI) enhancement (up to 0.4), the Cavitation (standalone) pretreatment condition was: 5 bar and 88 min reaction time with a COD reduction of 36 % and BI enhancement of up to 0.27 (initial BI - 0.17). The optimum WAO condition (standalone) was: 150oC, 6 bar and 30 minutes with 31% COD reduction and 0.33 BI. The hybrid pretreatment (combined Cavitation + WAO) worked out to be 23.18 min HC (at 5 bar) followed by 30 min WAO at 150oC, 6 bar, at which around 50% COD was retained yielding a BI of 0.55. FTIR & NMR analysis of pretreated effluent indicated dissociation and/or reorientation of complex organic compounds in untreated effluent to simpler organic compounds post-pretreatment.

Keywords: BI, hybrid, hydrodynamic cavitation, wet air oxidation.

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145 Evaluating the Tool Wear Rate in Ultrasonic Machining of Titanium using Design of Experiments Approach

Authors: Jatinder Kumar, Vinod Kumar

Abstract:

Ultrasonic machining (USM) is a non-traditional machining process being widely used for commercial machining of brittle and fragile materials such as glass, ceramics and semiconductor materials. However, USM could be a viable alternative for machining a tough material such as titanium; and this aspect needs to be explored through experimental research. This investigation is focused on exploring the use of ultrasonic machining for commercial machining of pure titanium (ASTM Grade-I) and evaluation of tool wear rate (TWR) under controlled experimental conditions. The optimal settings of parameters are determined through experiments planned, conducted and analyzed using Taguchi method. In all, the paper focuses on parametric optimization of ultrasonic machining of pure titanium metal with TWR as response, and validation of the optimized value of TWR by conducting confirmatory experiments.

Keywords: Ultrasonic machining, titanium, tool wear rate

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144 Determination of Seismic Wave of Consolidated Granite Rock in Penang Island: UltrasonicTesting Method Vs Seismic Refraction Method

Authors: Mohd Hafiz Musa, Zulfadhli Hasan Adli, M . N . Khairul Arifin

Abstract:

In seismic survey, the information regarding the velocity of compression wave (Vp) as well as shear wave (Vs) are very useful especially during the seismic interpretation. Previous studies showed that both Vp and Vs determined by above methods are totally different with respect to each other but offered good approximation. In this study, both Vp and Vs of consolidated granite rock were studied by using ultrasonic testing method and seismic refraction method. In ultrasonic testing, two different condition of rock are used which is dry and wet. The differences between Vp and Vs getting by using ultrasonic testing and seismic refraction were investigated and studied. The effect of water content in granite rock towards the value of Vp and Vs during ultrasonic testing are also measured. Within this work, the tolerance of the differences between the velocity of seismic wave getting from ultrasonic testing and the velocity of seismic wave getting from seismic refraction are also measured and investigated.

Keywords: Compressional wave, Granite, Shear Wave, Velocity

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143 Compressive Strength Evaluation of Underwater Concrete Structures Integrating the Combination of Rebound Hardness and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Methods with Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Seunghee Park, Junkyeong Kim, Eun-Seok Shin, Sang-Hun Han

Abstract:

In this study, two kinds of nondestructive evaluation  (NDE) techniques (rebound hardness and ultrasonic pulse velocity  methods) are investigated for the effective maintenance of underwater  concrete structures. A new methodology to estimate the underwater  concrete strengths more effectively, named “artificial neural network  (ANN) – based concrete strength estimation with the combination of  rebound hardness and ultrasonic pulse velocity methods” is proposed  and verified throughout a series of experimental works.

 

Keywords: Underwater Concrete, Rebound Hardness, Schmidt hammer, Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity, Ultrasonic Sensor, Artificial Neural Networks, ANN.

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