Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 37

Search results for: Gap cavitation

37 An Experimental Study of Tip Vortex Cavitation Inception in an Axial Flow Pump

Authors: Mohammad Taghi Shervani Tabar, Zahra Poursharifi

Abstract:

The interaction of the blade tip with the casing boundary layer and the leakage flow may lead to a kind of cavitation namely tip vortex cavitation. In this study, the onset of tip vortex cavitation was experimentally investigated in an axial flow pump. For a constant speed and a fixed angle of attack and by changing the flow rate, the pump head, input power, output power and efficiency were calculated and the pump characteristic curves were obtained. The cavitation phenomenon was observed with a camera and a stroboscope. Finally, the critical flow region, which tip vortex cavitation might have occurred, was identified. The results show that just by adjusting the flow rate, out of the specified region, the possibility of occurring tip vortex cavitation, decreases to a great extent.

Keywords: Axial flow pump, Gap cavitation, Leakage vortex, Tip vortex cavitation.

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36 Movement of Location of Tip Vortex Cavitation along Blade Edge due to Reduction of Flow Rate in an Axial Pump

Authors: Mohammad T. Shervani-Tabar, Navid Shervani-Tabar

Abstract:

Tip vortex cavitation is one of well known patterns of cavitation phenomenon which occurs in axial pumps. This pattern of cavitation occurs due to pressure difference between the pressure and suction sides of blades of an axial pump. Since the pressure in the pressure side of the blade is higher than the pressure in its suction side, thus a very small portion of liquid flow flows back from pressure side to the suction side. This fact is cause of tip vortex cavitation and gap cavitation that may occur in axial pumps. In this paper the results of our experimental investigation about movement of tip vortex cavitation along blade edge due to reduction of pump flow rate in an axial pump is reported. Results show that reduction of pump flow rate in conjunction with increasing of outlet pressure causes movement of tip vortex cavitation along blade edge towards the blade tip. Results also show that by approaching tip vortex cavitation to the blade tip, vortex tip pattern of cavitation replaces with a cavitation phenomenon on the blade tip. Furthermore by further reduction of pump flow rate and increasing of outlet pressure, an unstable cavitation phenomenon occurs between each blade leading edge and the next blade trailing edge.

Keywords: Axial Flow Pump, Cavitation, Gap Cavitation, Tip Vortex Cavitation.

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35 Investigation about Mechanical Equipment Needed to Break the Molecular Bonds of Heavy Oil by Using Hydrodynamic Cavitation

Authors: Mahdi Asghari

Abstract:

The cavitation phenomenon is the formation and production of micro-bubbles and eventually the bursting of the micro-bubbles inside the liquid fluid, which results in localized high pressure and temperature, causing physical and chemical fluid changes. This pressure and temperature are predicted to be 2000 atmospheres and 5000 °C, respectively. As a result of small bubbles bursting from this process, temperature and pressure increase momentarily and locally, so that the intensity and magnitude of these temperatures and pressures provide the energy needed to break the molecular bonds of heavy compounds such as fuel oil. In this paper, we study the theory of cavitation and the methods of cavitation production by acoustic and hydrodynamic methods and the necessary mechanical equipment and reactors for industrial application of the hydrodynamic cavitation method to break down the molecular bonds of the fuel oil and convert it into useful and economical products.

Keywords: Cavitation, hydrodynamic cavitation, cavitation reactor, fuel oil.

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34 Metal Berthelot Tubes with Windows for Observing Cavitation under Static Negative Pressure

Authors: K. Hiro, Y. Imai, T. Sasayama

Abstract:

Cavitation under static negative pressure is not revealed well. The Berthelot method to generate such negative pressure can be a means to study cavitation inception. In this study, metal Berthelot tubes built in observation windows are newly developed and are checked whether high static negative pressure is generated or not. Negative pressure in the tube with a pair of a corundum plate and an aluminum gasket increased with temperature cycles. The trend was similar to that as reported before.

Keywords: Berthelot method, negative pressure, cavitation.

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33 Numerical Simulation of Cavitation and Aeration in Discharge Gated Tunnel of a Dam Based on the VOF Method

Authors: Razieh Jalalabadi, Norouz Mohammad Nouri

Abstract:

Cavitation, usually known as a destructive phenomenon, involves turbulent unsteady two-phase flow. Having such features, cavitating flows have been turned to a challenging topic in numerical studies and many researches are being done for better understanding of bubbly flows and proposing solutions to reduce its consequent destructive effects. Aeration may be regarded as an effective protection against cavitation erosion in many hydraulic structures, like gated tunnels. The paper concerns numerical simulation of flow in discharge gated tunnel of a dam using ing RNG k -ε model coupled with the volume of fluid (VOF) method and the zone which is susceptible of cavitation inception in the tunnel is predicted. In the second step, a vent is considered in the mentioned zone for aeration and the numerical simulation is done again to study the effects of aeration. The results show that aeration is an impressively useful method to exclude cavitation in mentioned tunnels.

Keywords: Aeration, Cavitation, Two-phase flow, TurbulentFlow, Volume of Fluid (VOF) method.

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32 Modeling of the Cavitation by Bubble around a NACA0009 Profile

Authors: L. Hammadi, D. Boukhaloua

Abstract:

In this study, a numerical model was developed to predict cavitation phenomena around a NACA0009 profile. The equations of the Rayleigh-Plesset and modified Rayleigh-Plesset are used to modeling the cavitation by bubble around a NACA0009 profile. The study shows that the distributions of pressures around extrados and intrados of profile for angle of incidence equal zero are the same. The study also shows that the increase in the angle of incidence makes it possible to differentiate the pressures on the intrados and the extrados.

Keywords: Cavitation, NACA0009 profile, flow, pressure coefficient.

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31 A Study on Prediction of Cavitation for Centrifugal Pump

Authors: Myung Jin Kim, Hyun Bae Jin, Wui Jun Chung

Abstract:

In this study, to accurately predict cavitation of a centrifugal pump, numerical analysis was compared with experimental results modeled on a small industrial centrifugal pump. In this study, numerical analysis was compared with experimental results modeled on a small industrial centrifugal pump for reliable prediction on cavitation of a centrifugal pump. To improve validity of the numerical analysis, transient analysis was conducted on the calculated domain of full-type geometry, such as an experimental apparatus. The numerical analysis from the results was considered to be a reliable prediction of cavitaion.

Keywords: Centrifugal Pump, Cavitation, NPSH, CFD.

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30 Simulations of Cryogenic Cavitation of Low Temperature Fluids with Thermodynamics Effects

Authors: A. Alhelfi, B. Sunden

Abstract:

Cavitation in cryogenic liquids is widely present in contemporary science. In the current study, we re-examine a previously validated acoustic cavitation model which was developed for a gas bubble in liquid water. Furthermore, simulations of cryogenic fluids including the thermal effect, the effect of acoustic pressure amplitude and the frequency of sound field on the bubble dynamics are presented. A gas bubble (Helium) in liquids Nitrogen, Oxygen and Hydrogen in an acoustic field at ambient pressure and low temperature is investigated numerically. The results reveal that the oscillation of the bubble in liquid Hydrogen fluctuates more than in liquids Oxygen and Nitrogen. The oscillation of the bubble in liquids Oxygen and Nitrogen is approximately similar.

Keywords: Cryogenic liquids, cavitation, rocket engineering, ultrasound.

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29 Detecting Cavitation in a Vertical Sea water Centrifugal Lift Pump Related to Iran Oil Industry Cooling Water Circulation System

Authors: Omid A. Zargar

Abstract:

Cavitation is one of the most well-known process faults that may occur in different industrial equipment especially centrifugal pumps. Cavitation also may happen in water pumps and turbines. Sometimes cavitation has been severe enough to wear holes in the impeller and damage the vanes to such a degree that the impeller becomes very ineffective. More commonly, the pump efficiency will decrease significantly during cavitation and continue to decrease as damage to the impeller increases. Typically, when cavitation occurs, an audible sound similar to ‘marbles’ or ‘crackling’ is reported to be emitted from the pump. In this paper, the most effective monitoring items and techniques in detecting cavitation discussed in details. Besides, some successful solutions for solving this problem for sea water vertical Centrifugal lift Pump discussed through a case history related to Iran oil industry. Furthermore, balance line modification, strainer choking and random resonance in sea water pumps discussed. In addition, a new Method for diagnosing mechanical conditions of sea water vertical Centrifugal lift Pumps introduced. This method involves disaggregating bus current by device into disaggregated currents having correspondences with operating currents in response to measured bus current. Moreover, some new patents and innovations in mechanical sea water pumping and cooling systems discussed in this paper.

Keywords: Cavitation, Vibration Analysis, Centrifugal Pump, Vertical Pump, Sea Water Pump, Balance Line, Strainer, Time Wave Form (TWF), Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)

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28 High Specific Speed in Circulating Water Pump Can Cause Cavitation, Noise and Vibration

Authors: Chandra Gupt Porwal

Abstract:

Excessive vibration means increased wear, increased repair efforts, bad product selection & quality and high energy consumption. This may be sometimes experienced by cavitation or suction/discharge recirculation which could occur only when net positive suction head available NPSHA drops below the net positive suction head required NPSHR. Cavitation can cause axial surging, if it is excessive, will damage mechanical seals, bearings, possibly other pump components frequently, and shorten the life of the impeller. Efforts have been made to explain Suction Energy (SE), Specific Speed (Ns), Suction Specific Speed (Nss), NPSHA, NPSHR & their significance, possible reasons of cavitation /internal recirculation, its diagnostics and remedial measures to arrest and prevent cavitation in this paper. A case study is presented by the author highlighting that the root cause of unwanted noise and vibration is due to cavitation, caused by high specific speeds or inadequate net- positive suction head available which results in damages to material surfaces of impeller & suction bells and degradation of machine performance, its capacity and efficiency too. Author strongly recommends revisiting the technical specifications of CW pumps to provide sufficient NPSH margin ratios >1.5, for future projects and Nss be limited to 8500 - 9000 for cavitation free operation.

Keywords: Best efficiency point (BEP), Net positive suction head NPSHA, NPSHR, Specific Speed NS, Suction Specific Speed Nss.

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27 Distortion of Flow Measurement and Cavitation Occurs Due to Orifice Inlet Velocity Profiles

Authors: Byung-Soo Shin, Nam-Seok Kim, Sang-Kyu Lee, O-Hyun Keum

Abstract:

This analysis investigates the distortion of flow measurement and the increase of cavitation along orifice flowmeter. The analysis using the numerical method (CFD) validated the distortion of flow measurement through the inlet velocity profile considering the convergence and grid dependency. Realizable k-e model was selected and y+ was about 50 in this numerical analysis. This analysis also estimated the vulnerability of cavitation effect due to inlet velocity profile. The investigation concludes that inclined inlet velocity profile could vary the pressure which was measured at pressure tab near pipe wall and it led to distort the pressure values ranged from -3.8% to 5.3% near the orifice plate and to make the increase of cavitation. The investigation recommends that the fully developed inlet velocity flow is beneficial to accurate flow measurement in orifice flowmeter.

Keywords: Orifice, k-e model, CFD

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26 Multiple Approaches for Ultrasonic Cavitation Monitoring of Oxygen-Loaded Nanodroplets

Authors: Simone Galati, Adriano Troia

Abstract:

Ultrasound (US) is widely used in medical field for a variety diagnostic techniques but, in recent years, it has also been creating great interest for therapeutic aims. Regarding drug delivery, the use of US as an activation source provides better spatial delivery confinement and limits the undesired side effects. However, at present there is no complete characterization at a fundamental level of the different signals produced by sono-activated nanocarriers. Therefore, the aim of this study is to obtain a metrological characterization of the cavitation phenomena induced by US through three parallel investigation approaches. US was focused into a channel of a customized phantom in which a solution with oxygen-loaded nanodroplets (OLNDs) was led to flow and the cavitation activity was monitored. Both quantitative and qualitative real-time analysis were performed giving information about the dynamics of bubble formation, oscillation and final implosion with respect to the working acoustic pressure and the type of nanodroplets, compared with pure water. From this analysis a possible interpretation of the observed results is proposed.

Keywords: Cavitation, Drug Delivery, Nanodroplets, Ultrasound.

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25 Hybrid Advanced Oxidative Pretreatment of Complex Industrial Effluent for Biodegradability Enhancement

Authors: K. Paradkar, S. N. Mudliar, A. Sharma, A. B. Pandit, R. A. Pandey

Abstract:

The study explores the hybrid combination of Hydrodynamic Cavitation (HC) and Subcritical Wet Air Oxidation-based pretreatment of complex industrial effluent to enhance the biodegradability selectively (without major COD destruction) to facilitate subsequent enhanced downstream processing via anaerobic or aerobic biological treatment. Advanced oxidation based techniques can be less efficient as standalone options and a hybrid approach by combining Hydrodynamic Cavitation (HC), and Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) can lead to a synergistic effect since both the options are based on common free radical mechanism. The HC can be used for initial turbulence and generation of hotspots which can begin the free radical attack and this agitating mixture then can be subjected to less intense WAO since initial heat (to raise the activation energy) can be taken care by HC alone. Lab-scale venturi-based hydrodynamic cavitation and wet air oxidation reactor with biomethanated distillery wastewater (BMDWW) as a model effluent was examined for establishing the proof-of-concept. The results indicated that for a desirable biodegradability index (BOD: COD - BI) enhancement (up to 0.4), the Cavitation (standalone) pretreatment condition was: 5 bar and 88 min reaction time with a COD reduction of 36 % and BI enhancement of up to 0.27 (initial BI - 0.17). The optimum WAO condition (standalone) was: 150oC, 6 bar and 30 minutes with 31% COD reduction and 0.33 BI. The hybrid pretreatment (combined Cavitation + WAO) worked out to be 23.18 min HC (at 5 bar) followed by 30 min WAO at 150oC, 6 bar, at which around 50% COD was retained yielding a BI of 0.55. FTIR & NMR analysis of pretreated effluent indicated dissociation and/or reorientation of complex organic compounds in untreated effluent to simpler organic compounds post-pretreatment.

Keywords: BI, hybrid, hydrodynamic cavitation, wet air oxidation.

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24 Analysis of Impact Load Induced by Ultrasonic Cavitation Bubble Collapse Using Thin Film Pressure Sensors

Authors: Moiz S. Vohra, Nagalingam Arun Prasanth, Wei L. Tan, S. H. Yeo

Abstract:

The understanding of generation and collapse of acoustic cavitation bubbles are prerequisites for application of cavitation erosion. Microbubbles generated due to rapid fluctuation of pressure induced by propagation of ultrasonic wave lead to formation of high velocity microjets and or shock waves upon collapse. Due to vast application of ultrasonic, it is important to characterize and understand cavitation collapse pressure under the radiating surface at different conditions. A comparative investigation is carried out to determine impact load and dynamic pressure distribution exerted upon bubble collapse using thin film pressure sensors. Measurements were recorded at different input conditions such as amplitude, stand-off distance, insertion depth of the horn inside the liquid and pulse on-off time of acoustic vibrations. Impact force of 2.97 N is recorded at amplitude of 108 μm and stand-off distance of 1 mm from the sensor film, whereas impulsive force as low as 0.4 N is recorded at amplitude of 12 μm and stand-off distance of 5 mm from the sensor film. The results drawn from the investigation indicated that variety of impact loads can be achieved by controlling generation and collapse of bubbles, making it suitable to use for numerous application.

Keywords: Ultrasonic cavitation, bubble collapse, pressure mapping sensor, impact load.

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23 Numerical Simulation of Three-Dimensional Cavitating Turbulent Flow in Francis Turbines with ANSYS

Authors: Raza Abdulla Saeed

Abstract:

In this study, the three-dimensional cavitating turbulent flow in a complete Francis turbine is simulated using mixture model for cavity/liquid two-phase flows. Numerical analysis is carried out using ANSYS CFX software release 12, and standard k-ε turbulence model is adopted for this analysis. The computational fluid domain consist of spiral casing, stay vanes, guide vanes, runner and draft tube. The computational domain is discretized with a threedimensional mesh system of unstructured tetrahedron mesh. The finite volume method (FVM) is used to solve the governing equations of the mixture model. Results of cavitation on the runner’s blades under three different boundary conditions are presented and discussed. From the numerical results it has been found that the numerical method was successfully applied to simulate the cavitating two-phase turbulent flow through a Francis turbine, and also cavitation is clearly predicted in the form of water vapor formation inside the turbine. By comparison the numerical prediction results with a real runner; it’s shown that the region of higher volume fraction obtained by simulation is consistent with the region of runner cavitation damage.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, Hydraulic Francis Turbine, Numerical Simulation, Two-Phase Mixture Cavitation Model.

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22 A DOE Study of Ultrasound Intensified Removal of Phenol

Authors: P. R. Rahul, A. Kannan

Abstract:

Ultrasound-aided adsorption of phenol by Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) was investigated at different frequencies ranging from 35 kHz, 58 kHz, and 192 kHz. Other factors influencing adsorption such as Adsorbent dosage (g/L), the initial concentration of the phenol solution (ppm) and RPM was also considered along with the frequency variable. However, this study involved calorimetric measurements which helped is determining the effect of frequency on the % removal of phenol from the power dissipated to the system was normalized. It was found that low frequency (35 kHz) cavitation effects had a profound influence on the % removal of phenol per unit power. This study also had cavitation mapping of the ultrasonic baths, and it showed that the effect of cavitation on the adsorption system is irrespective of the position of the vessel. Hence, the vessel was placed at the center of the bath. In this study, novel temperature control and monitoring system to make sure that the system is under proper condition while operations. From the BET studies, it was found that there was only 5% increase in the surface area and hence it was concluded that ultrasound doesn’t profoundly alter the equilibrium value of the adsorption system. DOE studies indicated that adsorbent dosage has a higher influence on the % removal in comparison with other factors.

Keywords: Ultrasound, adsorption, granulated activated carbon, phenol.

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21 Negative Pressures of Ca. -20 MPA for Water Enclosed into a Metal Berthelot Tube under a Vacuum Condition

Authors: K. Hiro, Y. Imai, M. Tanji, H. Deguchi, K. Hatari

Abstract:

Negative pressures of liquids have been expected to contribute many kinds of technology. Nevertheless, experiments for subjecting liquids which have not too small volumes to negative pressures are difficult even now. The reason of the difficulties is because the liquids tend to generate cavities easily. In order to remove cavitation nuclei, an apparatus for enclosing water into a metal Berthelot tube under vacuum conditions was developed. By using the apparatus, negative pressures for water rose to ca. -20 MPa. This is the highest value for water in metal Berthelot tubes. Results were explained by a traditional crevice model. Keywords

Keywords: Berthelot method, negative pressure, cavitation

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20 Ultrasound Therapy: Amplitude Modulation Technique for Tissue Ablation by Acoustic Cavitation

Authors: Fares A. Mayia, Mahmoud A. Yamany, Mushabbab A. Asiri

Abstract:

In recent years, non-invasive Focused Ultrasound (FU) has been utilized for generating bubbles (cavities) to ablate target tissue by mechanical fractionation. Intensities >10 kW/cm2 are required to generate the inertial cavities. The generation, rapid growth, and collapse of these inertial cavities cause tissue fractionation and the process is called Histotripsy. The ability to fractionate tissue from outside the body has many clinical applications including the destruction of the tumor mass. The process of tissue fractionation leaves a void at the treated site, where all the affected tissue is liquefied to particles at sub-micron size. The liquefied tissue will eventually be absorbed by the body. Histotripsy is a promising non-invasive treatment modality. This paper presents a technique for generating inertial cavities at lower intensities (< 1 kW/cm2). The technique (patent pending) is based on amplitude modulation (AM), whereby a low frequency signal modulates the amplitude of a higher frequency FU wave. Cavitation threshold is lower at low frequencies; the intensity required to generate cavitation in water at 10 kHz is two orders of magnitude lower than the intensity at 1 MHz. The Amplitude Modulation technique can operate in both continuous wave (CW) and pulse wave (PW) modes, and the percentage modulation (modulation index) can be varied from 0 % (thermal effect) to 100 % (cavitation effect), thus allowing a range of ablating effects from Hyperthermia to Histotripsy. Furthermore, changing the frequency of the modulating signal allows controlling the size of the generated cavities. Results from in vitro work demonstrate the efficacy of the new technique in fractionating soft tissue and solid calcium carbonate (Chalk) material. The technique, when combined with MR or Ultrasound imaging, will present a precise treatment modality for ablating diseased tissue without affecting the surrounding healthy tissue.

Keywords: Focused ultrasound therapy, Histotripsy, generation of inertial cavitation, mechanical tissue ablation.

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19 Investigation of Recirculation Effects on the Formation of Vapor Bubbles in Centrifugal Pump Blades

Authors: Mohammad Taghi Shervani Tabar, Seyyed Hojjat Majidi, Zahra Poursharifi

Abstract:

Cavitation in pumps is known as the formation of vapor bubbles due to pressure drop and collapsing these bubbles. In some conditions, it has been observed that the formation of bubbles occurs at the pressure side of centrifugal pump blades. In this study, the formation of bubbles at the pressure side of blades has been investigated. Water is used in this study as the fluid and performance curves were depicted for different flow rates in an approximately constant speed. The results show that when a centrifugal pump works in low flow rates, a secondary flow namely recirculation starts to begin. In this condition, separation of flow increases which causes vortex formation and local pressure drop and eventually the formation of vapor bubbles starts.

Keywords: Cavitation, Centrifugal pump, Recirculation, Vapor bubble.

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18 Image Analysis of Fine Structures of Supercavitation in the Symmetric Wake of a Cylinder

Authors: Y. Obikane , M.Kaneko, K.Kakioka, K.Ogura

Abstract:

The fine structure of supercavitation in the wake of a symmetrical cylinder is studied with high-speed video cameras. The flow is observed in a cavitation tunnel at the speed of 8m/sec when the sidewall and the wake are partially filled with the massive cavitation bubbles. The present experiment observed that a two-dimensional ripple wave with a wave length of 0.3mm is propagated in a downstream direction, and then abruptly increases to a thicker three-dimensional layer. IR-photography recorded that the wakes originated from the horseshoe vortexes alongside the cylinder. The wake was developed to inside the dead water zone, which absorbed the bubbly wake propelled from the separated vortices at the center of the cylinder. A remote sensing classification technique (maximum most likelihood) determined that the surface porosity was 0.2, and the mean speed in the mixed wake was 7m/sec. To confirm the existence of two-dimensional wave motions in the interface, the experiments were conducted at a very low frequency, and showed similar gravity waves in both the upper and lower interfaces.

Keywords: Supercavitation, density gradient correlation

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17 Ultrasound Mechanical Index as a Parameter Affecting of the Ability of Proliferation of Cells

Authors: Z. Hormozi Moghaddam, M. Mokhtari-Dizaji, M. Movahedin, M. E. Ravari

Abstract:

Mechanical index (MI) is used for quantifying acoustic cavitation and the relationship between acoustic pressure and the frequency. In this study, modeling of the MI was applied to provide treatment protocol and to understand the effective physical processes on reproducibility of stem cells. The acoustic pressure and MI equations are modeled and solved to estimate optimal MI for 28, 40, 150 kHz and 1 MHz frequencies. Radial and axial acoustic pressure distribution was extracted. To validate the results of the modeling, the acoustic pressure in the water and near field depth was measured by a piston hydrophone. Results of modeling and experiments show that the model is consistent well to experimental results with 0.91 and 0.90 correlation of coefficient (p<0.05) for 1 MHz and 40 kHz. Low intensity ultrasound with 0.40 MI is more effective on the proliferation rate of the spermatogonial stem cells during the seven days of culture, in contrast, high MI has a harmful effect on the spermatogonial stem cells. This model provides proper treatment planning in vitro and in vivo by estimating the cavitation phenomenon.

Keywords: Ultrasound, mechanical index, modeling, stem cell.

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16 Effect of Local Dual Frequency Sonication on Drug Distribution from Nanomicelles

Authors: Hadi Hasanzadeh, Manijhe Mokhtari-Dizaji, S.Zahra Bathaie, Zuhair M. Hassan, Hamid R. Miri, Mahbobe Alamolhoda, Vahid Nilchiani, Hamid Goudarzi

Abstract:

The nanosized polymeric micelles release the drug due to acoustic cavitation, which is enhanced in dual frequency ultrasonic fields. In this study, adult female Balb/C mice were transplanted with spontaneous breast adenocarcinoma tumors and were injected with a dose of 1.3 mg/kg doxorubicin in one of three forms: free doxorubicin, micellar doxorubicin without sonication and micellar doxorubicin with sonication. To increase cavitation yield, the tumor region was sonicated with low level dual frequency of 3 MHz and 28 kHz. The animals were sacrificed 24 h after injection, and their tumor, heart, spleen, liver, kidneys and plasma were separated and homogenized. The drug content in their tumor, heart, spleen, liver, kidneys and plasma was determined using tissue fluorimetry. The results show that in the group that received micellar doxorubicin with sonication, the drug concentration in the tumor tissue was nine and three times higher than in the free doxorubicin group and the micellar doxorubicin without sonication group, respectively. In the micellar doxorubicin with sonication group, the drug concentration in other tissues was lower than other groups (p<0.05). We conclude that dual frequency sonication improves drug release from micelles and increases the drug uptake by tumors due to sonoporation.

Keywords: Nanomicelles, Dual frequency ultrasound, Drug delivery

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15 Clean Sky 2 – Project PALACE: Aeration’s Experimental Sound Velocity Investigations for High-Speed Gerotor Simulations

Authors: Benoît Mary, Thibaut Gras, Gaëtan Fagot, Yvon Goth, Ilyes Mnassri-Cetim

Abstract:

A Gerotor pump is composed of an external and internal gear with conjugate cycloidal profiles. From suction to delivery ports, the fluid is transported inside cavities formed by teeth and driven by the shaft. From a geometric and conceptional side it is worth to note that the internal gear has one tooth less than the external one. Simcenter Amesim v.16 includes a new submodel for modelling the hydraulic Gerotor pumps behavior (THCDGP0). This submodel considers leakages between teeth tips using Poiseuille and Couette flows contributions. From the 3D CAD model of the studied pump, the “CAD import” tool takes out the main geometrical characteristics and the submodel THCDGP0 computes the evolution of each cavity volume and their relative position according to the suction or delivery areas. This module, based on international publications, presents robust results up to 6 000 rpm for pressure greater than atmospheric level. For higher rotational speeds or lower pressures, oil aeration and cavitation effects are significant and highly drop the pump’s performance. The liquid used in hydraulic systems always contains some gas, which is dissolved in the liquid at high pressure and tends to be released in a free form (i.e. undissolved as bubbles) when pressure drops. In addition to gas release and dissolution, the liquid itself may vaporize due to cavitation. To model the relative density of the equivalent fluid, modified Henry’s law is applied in Simcenter Amesim v.16 to predict the fraction of undissolved gas or vapor. Three parietal pressure sensors have been set up upstream from the pump to estimate the sound speed in the oil. Analytical models have been compared with the experimental sound speed to estimate the occluded gas content. Simcenter Amesim v.16 model was supplied by these previous analyses marks which have successfully improved the simulations results up to 14 000 rpm. This work provides a sound foundation for designing the next Gerotor pump generation reaching high rotation range more than 25 000 rpm. This improved module results will be compared to tests on this new pump demonstrator.

Keywords: Gerotor pump, high speed, simulations, aeronautic, aeration, cavitation.

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14 Analytical, Numerical, and Experimental Research Approaches to Influence of Vibrations on Hydroelastic Processes in Centrifugal Pumps

Authors: Dinara F. Gaynutdinova, Vladimir Ya Modorsky, Nikolay A. Shevelev

Abstract:

The problem under research is that of unpredictable modes occurring in two-stage centrifugal hydraulic pump as a result of hydraulic processes caused by vibrations of structural components. Numerical, analytical and experimental approaches are considered. A hypothesis was developed that the problem of unpredictable pressure decrease at the second stage of centrifugal pumps is caused by cavitation effects occurring upon vibration. The problem has been studied experimentally and theoretically as of today. The theoretical study was conducted numerically and analytically. Hydroelastic processes in dynamic “liquid – deformed structure” system were numerically modelled and analysed. Using ANSYS CFX program engineering analysis complex and computing capacity of a supercomputer the cavitation parameters were established to depend on vibration parameters. An influence domain of amplitudes and vibration frequencies on concentration of cavitation bubbles was formulated. The obtained numerical solution was verified using CFM program package developed in PNRPU. The package is based on a differential equation system in hyperbolic and elliptic partial derivatives. The system is solved by using one of finite-difference method options – the particle-in-cell method. The method defines the problem solution algorithm. The obtained numerical solution was verified analytically by model problem calculations with the use of known analytical solutions of in-pipe piston movement and cantilever rod end face impact. An infrastructure consisting of an experimental fast hydro-dynamic processes research installation and a supercomputer connected by a high-speed network, was created to verify the obtained numerical solutions. Physical experiments included measurement, record, processing and analysis of data for fast processes research by using National Instrument signals measurement system and Lab View software. The model chamber end face oscillated during physical experiments and, thus, loaded the hydraulic volume. The loading frequency varied from 0 to 5 kHz. The length of the operating chamber varied from 0.4 to 1.0 m. Additional loads weighed from 2 to 10 kg. The liquid column varied from 0.4 to 1 m high. Liquid pressure history was registered. The experiment showed dependence of forced system oscillation amplitude on loading frequency at various values: operating chamber geometrical dimensions, liquid column height and structure weight. Maximum pressure oscillation (in the basic variant) amplitudes were discovered at loading frequencies of approximately 1,5 kHz. These results match the analytical and numerical solutions in ANSYS and CFM.

Keywords: Computing experiment, hydroelasticity, physical experiment, vibration.

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13 Experimental Study of Kiwi Juice under Sonication and Carbonation

Authors: N. Dizadji, P. Entezar, A. Afsari

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the experimental impacts of ultrasonic, carbonate and a combination of them on the quality of fresh kiwi juice. Today, non-thermal methods like ultrasonic, which have imperceptible effects on some properties of the juice such as taste, flavor and color, are commonly used for killing microorganisms.In this paper, some properties of kiwi fruit juice under ultrasonic, carbonate and a combination of them has been researched. Those properties include pH, acidity, transparency and Brix. Its impact on microorganisms has been studied as well.The results show that using a combination of carbonate and sonicate make the cavitation more severe without a perceptible effect on nonactivation of microorganisms.

Keywords: carbonate, juice, inactivation, ultrasonic

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12 Ultrasound-Assisted Pd Activation Process for Electroless Silver Plating

Authors: Chang-Myeon Lee, Min-Hyung Lee, Jin-Young Hur, Ho-Nyun Lee, Hong-Kee Lee

Abstract:

An ultrasound-assisted activation method for electroless silver plating is presented in this study. When the ultrasound was applied during the activation step, the amount of the Pd species adsorbed on substrate surfaces was higher than that of sample pretreated with a conventional activation process without ultrasound irradiation. With this activation method, it was also shown that the adsorbed Pd species with a size of about 5 nm were uniformly distributed on the surfaces, thus a smooth and uniform coating on the surfaces was obtained by subsequent electroless silver plating. The samples after each step were characterized by AFM, XPS, FIB, and SEM.

Keywords: Cavitation, Electroless silver, Pd activation, Ultrasonic

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11 Hydrodynamic Processes in Bubbly Liquid Flow in Tubes and Nozzles

Authors: Raisa Kh. Bolotnova, Marat N. Galimzianov, Andrey S. Topolnikov, Valeria A. Buzina, Uliana O. Agisheva

Abstract:

The hydrodynamic processes in bubbly liquid flowing in tubes and nozzles are studied theoretically and numerically. The principal regularities of non-stationary processes of boiling liquid outflow are established under conditions of experiments when the depressurization of a tube with high pressure inside occurs. The steady-state solution of bubbly liquid flow in the nozzle of round cross section with high pressure and temperature conditions inside bubbles is studied accounting for phase transition and chemical reactions.

Keywords: bubbly liquid, cavitation, chemical reactions, phase transition.

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10 Using of Cavitation Disperser, for Porous Ceramic and Concrete Material Preparation

Authors: A. Shishkin, A. Korjakins, V. Mironovs

Abstract:

Present paper describes method of obtaining clay ceramic foam (CCF) and foam concrete (FC), by direct foaming with high speed mixer-disperser (HSMD). Three foaming agents (FA) are compared for the FC and CCF production: SCHÄUMUNGSMITTEL W 53 FLÜSSIG (Zschimmer & Schwarz Gmbh, Germany), SCF- 1245 (Sika, test sample, Latvia) and FAB-12 (Elade, Latvija). CCF were obtained at 950, 1000°C, 1150°C and 1150°C firing temperature and have mechanical compressive strength 1.2, 2.55 and 4.3 MPa and porosity 79.4, 75.1, 71.6%, respectively. Obtained FC has 6-14 MPa compressive strength and porosity 44-55%. The goal of this work was development of a sustainable and durable ceramic cellular structures using HSMD.

Keywords: Ceramic foam, foam concrete, clay foam, open cell, close cell, direct foaming.

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9 Amplification of Compression Waves in Clean and Bubbly Liquid

Authors: Robert I. Nigmatulin, Raisa Kh. Bolotnova, Nailya K. Vakhitova, Andrey S. Topolnikov, Svetlana I. Konovalova, Nikolai A. Makhota

Abstract:

The theoretical investigation is carried out to describe the effect of increase of pressure waves amplitude in clean and bubbly liquid. The goal of the work is to capture the regime of multiple magnification of acoustic and shock waves in the liquid, which enables to get appropriate conditions to enlarge collapses of micro-bubbles. The influence of boundary conditions and frequency of the governing acoustic field is studied for the case of the cylindrical acoustic resonator. It has been observed the formation of standing waves with large amplitude at resonant frequencies. The interaction of the compression wave with gas and vapor bubbles is investigated for the convergent channel. It is shown theoretically that the chemical reactions, which occur inside gas bubbles, provide additional impulse to the wave, that affect strongly on the collapses of the vapor bubbles

Keywords: acoustics, cavitation, detonation, shock waves

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8 Photocatalytic and Sonophotocatalytic Degradation of Reactive Red 120 using Dye Sensitized TiO2 under Visible Light

Authors: S.K.Kavitha, P.N.Palanisamy

Abstract:

The accelerated sonophotocatalytic degradation of Reactive Red (RR) 120 dye under visible light using dye sensitized TiO2 activated by ultrasound has been carried out. The effect of sonolysis, photocatalysis and sonophotocatalysis under visible light has been examined to study the influence on the degradation rates by varying the initial substrate concentration, pH and catalyst loading to ascertain the synergistic effect on the degradation techniques. Ultrasonic activation contributes degradation through cavitation leading to the splitting of H2O2 produced by both photocatalysis and sonolysis. This results in the formation of oxidative species, such as singlet oxygen (1O2) and superoxide (O2 -●) radicals in the presence of oxygen. The increase in the amount of reactive radical species which induce faster oxidation of the substrate and degradation of intermediates and also the deaggregation of the photocatalyst are responsible for the synergy observed under sonication. A comparative study of photocatalysis and sonophotocatalysis using TiO2, Hombikat UV 100 and ZnO was also carried out.

Keywords: Photocatalysis, Reactive Red 120, Sonophotocatalysis, Sonolysis.

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