Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 104

Search results for: stereo correspondence

104 A New Algorithm to Stereo Correspondence Using Rank Transform and Morphology Based On Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Razagh Hafezi, Ahmad Keshavarz, Vida Moshfegh

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel algorithm of stereo correspondence with rank transform. In this algorithm we used the genetic algorithm to achieve the accurate disparity map. Genetic algorithms are efficient search methods based on principles of population genetic, i.e. mating, chromosome crossover, gene mutation, and natural selection. Finally morphology is employed to remove the errors and discontinuities.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, morphology, rank transform, stereo correspondence

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103 A Developmental Survey of Local Stereo Matching Algorithms

Authors: André Smith, Amr Abdel-Dayem

Abstract:

This paper presents an overview of the history and development of stereo matching algorithms. Details from its inception, up to relatively recent techniques are described, noting challenges that have been surmounted across these past decades. Different components of these are explored, though focus is directed towards the local matching techniques. While global approaches have existed for some time, and demonstrated greater accuracy than their counterparts, they are generally quite slow. Many strides have been made more recently, allowing local methods to catch up in terms of accuracy, without sacrificing the overall performance.

Keywords: Developmental survey, local stereo matching, stereo correspondence.

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102 A Comparison of Image Data Representations for Local Stereo Matching

Authors: André Smith, Amr Abdel-Dayem

Abstract:

The stereo matching problem, while having been present for several decades, continues to be an active area of research. The goal of this research is to find correspondences between elements found in a set of stereoscopic images. With these pairings, it is possible to infer the distance of objects within a scene, relative to the observer. Advancements in this field have led to experimentations with various techniques, from graph-cut energy minimization to artificial neural networks. At the basis of these techniques is a cost function, which is used to evaluate the likelihood of a particular match between points in each image. While at its core, the cost is based on comparing the image pixel data; there is a general lack of consistency as to what image data representation to use. This paper presents an experimental analysis to compare the effectiveness of more common image data representations. The goal is to determine the effectiveness of these data representations to reduce the cost for the correct correspondence relative to other possible matches.

Keywords: Colour data, local stereo matching, stereo correspondence, disparity map.

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101 On Phase Based Stereo Matching and Its Related Issues

Authors: Andr´as R¨ovid, Takeshi Hashimoto

Abstract:

The paper focuses on the problem of the point correspondence matching in stereo images. The proposed matching algorithm is based on the combination of simpler methods such as normalized sum of squared differences (NSSD) and a more complex phase correlation based approach, by considering the noise and other factors, as well. The speed of NSSD and the preciseness of the phase correlation together yield an efficient approach to find the best candidate point with sub-pixel accuracy in stereo image pairs. The task of the NSSD in this case is to approach the candidate pixel roughly. Afterwards the location of the candidate is refined by an enhanced phase correlation based method which in contrast to the NSSD has to run only once for each selected pixel.

Keywords: Stereo matching, Sub-pixel accuracy, phase correlation, SVD, NSSD.

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100 An Advanced Stereo Vision Based Obstacle Detection with a Robust Shadow Removal Technique

Authors: Saeid Fazli, Hajar Mohammadi D., Payman Moallem

Abstract:

This paper presents a robust method to detect obstacles in stereo images using shadow removal technique and color information. Stereo vision based obstacle detection is an algorithm that aims to detect and compute obstacle depth using stereo matching and disparity map. The proposed advanced method is divided into three phases, the first phase is detecting obstacles and removing shadows, the second one is matching and the last phase is depth computing. We propose a robust method for detecting obstacles in stereo images using a shadow removal technique based on color information in HIS space, at the first phase. In this paper we use Normalized Cross Correlation (NCC) function matching with a 5 × 5 window and prepare an empty matching table τ and start growing disparity components by drawing a seed s from S which is computed using canny edge detector, and adding it to τ. In this way we achieve higher performance than the previous works [2,17]. A fast stereo matching algorithm is proposed that visits only a small fraction of disparity space in order to find a semi-dense disparity map. It works by growing from a small set of correspondence seeds. The obstacle identified in phase one which appears in the disparity map of phase two enters to the third phase of depth computing. Finally, experimental results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: obstacle detection, stereo vision, shadowremoval, color, stereo matching

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99 Feature Based Dense Stereo Matching using Dynamic Programming and Color

Authors: Hajar Sadeghi, Payman Moallem, S. Amirhassn Monadjemi

Abstract:

This paper presents a new feature based dense stereo matching algorithm to obtain the dense disparity map via dynamic programming. After extraction of some proper features, we use some matching constraints such as epipolar line, disparity limit, ordering and limit of directional derivative of disparity as well. Also, a coarseto- fine multiresolution strategy is used to decrease the search space and therefore increase the accuracy and processing speed. The proposed method links the detected feature points into the chains and compares some of the feature points from different chains, to increase the matching speed. We also employ color stereo matching to increase the accuracy of the algorithm. Then after feature matching, we use the dynamic programming to obtain the dense disparity map. It differs from the classical DP methods in the stereo vision, since it employs sparse disparity map obtained from the feature based matching stage. The DP is also performed further on a scan line, between any matched two feature points on that scan line. Thus our algorithm is truly an optimization method. Our algorithm offers a good trade off in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency. Regarding the results of our experiments, the proposed algorithm increases the accuracy from 20 to 70%, and reduces the running time of the algorithm almost 70%.

Keywords: Chain Correspondence, Color Stereo Matching, Dynamic Programming, Epipolar Line, Stereo Vision.

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98 A Stereo Image Processing System for Visually Impaired

Authors: G. Balakrishnan, G. Sainarayanan, R. Nagarajan, Sazali Yaacob

Abstract:

This paper presents a review on vision aided systems and proposes an approach for visual rehabilitation using stereo vision technology. The proposed system utilizes stereo vision, image processing methodology and a sonification procedure to support blind navigation. The developed system includes a wearable computer, stereo cameras as vision sensor and stereo earphones, all moulded in a helmet. The image of the scene infront of visually handicapped is captured by the vision sensors. The captured images are processed to enhance the important features in the scene in front, for navigation assistance. The image processing is designed as model of human vision by identifying the obstacles and their depth information. The processed image is mapped on to musical stereo sound for the blind-s understanding of the scene infront. The developed method has been tested in the indoor and outdoor environments and the proposed image processing methodology is found to be effective for object identification.

Keywords: Blind navigation, stereo vision, image processing, object preference, music tones.

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97 Disparity Estimation for Objects of Interest

Authors: Yen San Yong, Hock Woon Hon

Abstract:

An algorithm for estimating the disparity of objects of interest is proposed. This algorithm uses image shifting and overlapping area to estimate the disparity value; thereby depth of the objects of interest can be obtained. The algorithm is able to perform at different levels of accuracy. However, as the accuracy increases the processing speed decreases. The algorithm is tested with static stereo images and sequence of stereo images. The experimental results are presented in this paper.

Keywords: stereo vision, binocular parallax

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96 Partial 3D Reconstruction using Evolutionary Algorithms

Authors: Mónica Pérez-Meza, Rodrigo Montúfar-Chaveznava

Abstract:

When reconstructing a scenario, it is necessary to know the structure of the elements present on the scene to have an interpretation. In this work we link 3D scenes reconstruction to evolutionary algorithms through the vision stereo theory. We consider vision stereo as a method that provides the reconstruction of a scene using only a couple of images of the scene and performing some computation. Through several images of a scene, captured from different positions, vision stereo can give us an idea about the threedimensional characteristics of the world. Vision stereo usually requires of two cameras, making an analogy to the mammalian vision system. In this work we employ only a camera, which is translated along a path, capturing images every certain distance. As we can not perform all computations required for an exhaustive reconstruction, we employ an evolutionary algorithm to partially reconstruct the scene in real time. The algorithm employed is the fly algorithm, which employ “flies" to reconstruct the principal characteristics of the world following certain evolutionary rules.

Keywords: 3D Reconstruction, Computer Vision, EvolutionaryAlgorithms, Vision Stereo.

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95 Enhancement of Stereo Video Pairs Using SDNs To Aid In 3D Reconstruction

Authors: Lewis E. Hibell, Honghai Liu, David J. Brown

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of enhancing images from a left and right stereo pair in order to increase the resolution of a 3D representation of a scene generated from that same pair. A new neural network structure known as a Self Delaying Dynamic Network (SDN) has been used to perform the enhancement. The advantage of SDNs over existing techniques such as bicubic interpolation is their ability to cope with motion and noise effects. SDNs are used to generate two high resolution images, one based on frames taken from the left view of the subject, and one based on the frames from the right. This new high resolution stereo pair is then processed by a disparity map generator. The disparity map generated is compared to two other disparity maps generated from the same scene. The first is a map generated from an original high resolution stereo pair and the second is a map generated using a stereo pair which has been enhanced using bicubic interpolation. The maps generated using the SDN enhanced pairs match more closely the target maps. The addition of extra noise into the input images is less problematic for the SDN system which is still able to out perform bicubic interpolation.

Keywords: Genetic Evolution, Image Enhancement, Neuron Networks, Stereo Vision

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94 Conceptual Analysis of Correspondence between Plantar Pressure and Corrective Insoles

Authors: Diana Cotoros, Mihaela Baritz, Anca Stanciu

Abstract:

Some theoretical and experimental aspects related to the conceptual analyses concerning the direct correspondence identification between the shape, area and orientation of plantar pressure and obtaining adequate corrective insoles by rapid prototyping are presented in this paper. In the first part of the paper there is the theoretical-correlative concept, which is the fundament of correspondence deduction between plantar surface characteristics and respectively corrective insoles. In the second part of the paper the experimental equipment used to analyze and perform the correspondence stages and then the integral ones between the analyzed foot shapes and the ones with corrective insoles is presented. In the final parte the results used to adapt the insoles obtained by rapid prototyping but also some specific aspects and conclusions of the conceptual analysis of direct and rapid correspondence are shown.

Keywords: Insoles, plantar surface, rapid prototyping, correspondence concept

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93 A Stereo Vision System for Top View Book Scanners

Authors: Erik Lilienblum, Robert Niese, Bernd Michaelis

Abstract:

This paper proposes a novel stereo vision technique for top view book scanners which provide us with dense 3d point clouds of page surfaces. This is a precondition to dewarp bound volumes independent of 2d information on the page. Our method is based on algorithms, which normally require the projection of pattern sequences with structured light. We use image sequences of the moving stripe lighting of the top view scanner instead of an additional light projection. Thus the stereo vision setup is simplified without losing measurement accuracy. Furthermore we improve a surface model dewarping method through introducing a difference vector based on real measurements. Although our proposed method is hardly expensive neither in calculation time nor in hardware requirements we present good dewarping results even for difficult examples.

Keywords: stereo vision, 3d surface reconstruction, dewarpingdocuments, book scanner

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92 High-Accuracy Satellite Image Analysis and Rapid DSM Extraction for Urban Environment Evaluations (Tripoli-Libya)

Authors: Abdunaser Abduelmula, Maria Luisa M. Bastos, José A. Gonçalves

Abstract:

Modelling of the earth's surface and evaluation of urban environment, with 3D models, is an important research topic. New stereo capabilities of high resolution optical satellites images, such as the tri-stereo mode of Pleiades, combined with new image matching algorithms, are now available and can be applied in urban area analysis. In addition, photogrammetry software packages gained new, more efficient matching algorithms, such as SGM, as well as improved filters to deal with shadow areas, can achieve more dense and more precise results. This paper describes a comparison between 3D data extracted from tri-stereo and dual stereo satellite images, combined with pixel based matching and Wallis filter. The aim was to improve the accuracy of 3D models especially in urban areas, in order to assess if satellite images are appropriate for a rapid evaluation of urban environments. The results showed that 3D models achieved by Pleiades tri-stereo outperformed, both in terms of accuracy and detail, the result obtained from a Geo-eye pair. The assessment was made with reference digital surface models derived from high resolution aerial photography. This could mean that tri-stereo images can be successfully used for the proposed urban change analyses.

Keywords: 3D Models, Environment, Matching, Pleiades.

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91 Mean Codeword Lengths and Their Correspondence with Entropy Measures

Authors: R.K.Tuli

Abstract:

The objective of the present communication is to develop new genuine exponentiated mean codeword lengths and to study deeply the problem of correspondence between well known measures of entropy and mean codeword lengths. With the help of some standard measures of entropy, we have illustrated such a correspondence. In literature, we usually come across many inequalities which are frequently used in information theory. Keeping this idea in mind, we have developed such inequalities via coding theory approach.

Keywords: Codeword, Code alphabet, Uniquely decipherablecode, Mean codeword length, Uncertainty, Noiseless channel

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90 Stereo Motion Tracking

Authors: Yudhajit Datta, Jonathan Bandi, Ankit Sethia, Hamsi Iyer

Abstract:

Motion Tracking and Stereo Vision are complicated, albeit well-understood problems in computer vision. Existing softwares that combine the two approaches to perform stereo motion tracking typically employ complicated and computationally expensive procedures. The purpose of this study is to create a simple and effective solution capable of combining the two approaches. The study aims to explore a strategy to combine the two techniques of two-dimensional motion tracking using Kalman Filter; and depth detection of object using Stereo Vision. In conventional approaches objects in the scene of interest are observed using a single camera. However for Stereo Motion Tracking; the scene of interest is observed using video feeds from two calibrated cameras. Using two simultaneous measurements from the two cameras a calculation for the depth of the object from the plane containing the cameras is made. The approach attempts to capture the entire three-dimensional spatial information of each object at the scene and represent it through a software estimator object. In discrete intervals, the estimator tracks object motion in the plane parallel to plane containing cameras and updates the perpendicular distance value of the object from the plane containing the cameras as depth. The ability to efficiently track the motion of objects in three-dimensional space using a simplified approach could prove to be an indispensable tool in a variety of surveillance scenarios. The approach may find application from high security surveillance scenes such as premises of bank vaults, prisons or other detention facilities; to low cost applications in supermarkets and car parking lots.

Keywords: Kalman Filter, Stereo Vision, Motion Tracking, Matlab, Object Tracking, Camera Calibration, Computer Vision System Toolbox.

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89 Accurate Dimensional Measurement of 3D Round Holes Based on Stereo Vision

Authors: Zhiguo Ren, Lilong Cai

Abstract:

This paper present an effective method to accurately reconstruct and measure the 3D curve edges of small industrial parts based on stereo vision. To effectively fit the curve of the measured parts using a series of line segments in the images, a strategy from coarse to fine is employed based on multi-scale curve fitting. After reconstructing the 3D curve of a hole through a curved surface, its axis is adjusted so that it is parallel to the Z axis with least squares error and the dimensions of the hole can be calculated on the XY plane easily. Experimental results show that the presented method can accurately measure the dimensions of round holes through a curved surface.

Keywords: Stereo Vision, 3D Round Hole Measurement, Curve Fitting, 3D Curve Reconstruction, Least Squares Error.

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88 FPGA based Relative Distance Measurement using Stereo Vision Technology

Authors: Manasi Pathade, Prachi Kadam, Renuka Kulkarni, Tejas Teredesai

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a novel concept of relative distance measurement using Stereo Vision Technology and discuss its implementation on a FPGA based real-time image processor. We capture two images using two CCD cameras and compare them. Disparity is calculated for each pixel using a real time dense disparity calculation algorithm. This algorithm is based on the concept of indexed histogram for matching. Disparity being inversely proportional to distance (Proved Later), we can thus get the relative distances of objects in front of the camera. The output is displayed on a TV screen in the form of a depth image (optionally using pseudo colors). This system works in real time on a full PAL frame rate (720 x 576 active pixels @ 25 fps).

Keywords: Stereo Vision, Relative Distance Measurement, Indexed Histogram, Real time FPGA Image Processor

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87 Visualization of Code Clone Detection Results and the Implementation with Structured Data

Authors: Kazuaki Maeda

Abstract:

This paper describes a code clone visualization method, called FC graph, and the implementation issues. Code clone detection tools usually show the results in a textual representation. If the results are large, it makes a problem to software maintainers with understanding them. One of the approaches to overcome the situation is visualization of code clone detection results. A scatter plot is a popular approach to the visualization. However, it represents only one-to-one correspondence and it is difficult to find correspondence of code clones over multiple files. FC graph represents correspondence among files, code clones and packages in Java. All nodes in FC graph are positioned using force-directed graph layout, which is dynami- cally calculated to adjust the distances of nodes until stabilizing them. We applied FC graph to some open source programs and visualized the results. In the author’s experience, FC graph is helpful to grasp correspondence of code clones over multiple files and also code clones with in a file.

Keywords: code clone detection, program comprehension, software maintenance, visualization

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86 3D Dense Correspondence for 3D Dense Morphable Face Shape Model

Authors: Tae in Seol, Sun-Tae Chung, Seongwon Cho

Abstract:

Realistic 3D face model is desired in various applications such as face recognition, games, avatars, animations, and etc. Construction of 3D face model is composed of 1) building a face shape model and 2) rendering the face shape model. Thus, building a realistic 3D face shape model is an essential step for realistic 3D face model. Recently, 3D morphable model is successfully introduced to deal with the various human face shapes. 3D dense correspondence problem should be precedently resolved for constructing a realistic 3D dense morphable face shape model. Several approaches to 3D dense correspondence problem in 3D face modeling have been proposed previously, and among them optical flow based algorithms and TPS (Thin Plate Spline) based algorithms are representative. Optical flow based algorithms require texture information of faces, which is sensitive to variation of illumination. In TPS based algorithms proposed so far, TPS process is performed on the 2D projection representation in cylindrical coordinates of the 3D face data, not directly on the 3D face data and thus errors due to distortion in data during 2D TPS process may be inevitable. In this paper, we propose a new 3D dense correspondence algorithm for 3D dense morphable face shape modeling. The proposed algorithm does not need texture information and applies TPS directly on 3D face data. Through construction procedures, it is observed that the proposed algorithm constructs realistic 3D face morphable model reliably and fast.

Keywords: 3D Dense Correspondence, 3D Morphable Face Shape Model, 3D Face Modeling.

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85 Optical 3D-Surface Reconstruction of Weak Textured Objects Based on an Approach of Disparity Stereo Inspection

Authors: Thomas Kerstein, Martin Laurowski, Philipp Klein, Michael Weyrich, Hubert Roth, Jürgen Wahrburg

Abstract:

Optical 3D measurement of objects is meaningful in numerous industrial applications. In various cases shape acquisition of weak textured objects is essential. Examples are repetition parts made of plastic or ceramic such as housing parts or ceramic bottles as well as agricultural products like tubers. These parts are often conveyed in a wobbling way during the automated optical inspection. Thus, conventional 3D shape acquisition methods like laser scanning might fail. In this paper, a novel approach for acquiring 3D shape of weak textured and moving objects is presented. To facilitate such measurements an active stereo vision system with structured light is proposed. The system consists of multiple camera pairs and auxiliary laser pattern generators. It performs the shape acquisition within one shot and is beneficial for rapid inspection tasks. An experimental setup including hardware and software has been developed and implemented.

Keywords: automated optical inspection, depth from structured light, stereo vision, surface reconstruction

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84 Robot Vision Application based on Complex 3D Pose Computation

Authors: F. Rotaru, S. Bejinariu, C. D. Niţâ, R. Luca, I. Pâvâloi, C. Lazâr

Abstract:

The paper presents a technique suitable in robot vision applications where it is not possible to establish the object position from one view. Usually, one view pose calculation methods are based on the correspondence of image features established at a training step and exactly the same image features extracted at the execution step, for a different object pose. When such a correspondence is not feasible because of the lack of specific features a new method is proposed. In the first step the method computes from two views the 3D pose of feature points. Subsequently, using a registration algorithm, the set of 3D feature points extracted at the execution phase is aligned with the set of 3D feature points extracted at the training phase. The result is a Euclidean transform which have to be used by robot head for reorientation at execution step.

Keywords: features correspondence, registration algorithm, robot vision, triangulation method.

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83 A Hybrid CamShift and l1-Minimization Video Tracking Algorithm

Authors: Clark Van Dam, Gagan Mirchandani

Abstract:

The Continuously Adaptive Mean-Shift (CamShift) algorithm, incorporating scene depth information is combined with the l1-minimization sparse representation based method to form a hybrid kernel and state space-based tracking algorithm. We take advantage of the increased efficiency of the former with the robustness to occlusion property of the latter. A simple interchange scheme transfers control between algorithms based upon drift and occlusion likelihood. It is quantified by the projection of target candidates onto a depth map of the 2D scene obtained with a low cost stereo vision webcam. Results are improved tracking in terms of drift over each algorithm individually, in a challenging practical outdoor multiple occlusion test case.

Keywords: CamShift, l1-minimization, particle filter, stereo vision, video tracking.

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82 Automatic 3D Reconstruction of Coronary Artery Centerlines from Monoplane X-ray Angiogram Images

Authors: Ali Zifan, Panos Liatsis, Panagiotis Kantartzis, Manolis Gavaises, Nicos Karcanias, Demosthenes Katritsis

Abstract:

We present a new method for the fully automatic 3D reconstruction of the coronary artery centerlines, using two X-ray angiogram projection images from a single rotating monoplane acquisition system. During the first stage, the input images are smoothed using curve evolution techniques. Next, a simple yet efficient multiscale method, based on the information of the Hessian matrix, for the enhancement of the vascular structure is introduced. Hysteresis thresholding using different image quantiles, is used to threshold the arteries. This stage is followed by a thinning procedure to extract the centerlines. The resulting skeleton image is then pruned using morphological and pattern recognition techniques to remove non-vessel like structures. Finally, edge-based stereo correspondence is solved using a parallel evolutionary optimization method based on f symbiosis. The detected 2D centerlines combined with disparity map information allow the reconstruction of the 3D vessel centerlines. The proposed method has been evaluated on patient data sets for evaluation purposes.

Keywords: Vessel enhancement, centerline extraction, symbiotic reconstruction.

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81 Correspondence Theorem for Anti L-fuzzy Normal Subgroups

Authors: Jian Tang, Yunfei Yao

Abstract:

In this paper the concept of the cosets of an anti Lfuzzy normal subgroup of a group is given. Furthermore, the group G/A of cosets of an anti L-fuzzy normal subgroup A of a group G is shown to be isomorphic to a factor group of G in a natural way. Finally, we prove that if f : G1 -→ G2 is an epimorphism of groups, then there is a one-to-one order-preserving correspondence between the anti L-fuzzy normal subgroups of G2 and those of G1 which are constant on the kernel of f.

Keywords: Group; anti L-fuzzy subgroups; anti L-fuzzy normal subgroups; cosets of an anti L-fuzzy normal subgroup.

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80 Ultra-Precise Hybrid Lens Distortion Correction

Authors: Christian Bräuer-Burchardt, Peter Kühmstedt, Gunther Notni

Abstract:

A new hybrid method to realise high-precision distortion determination for optical ultra-precision 3D measurement systems based on stereo cameras using active light projection is introduced. It consists of two phases: the basic distortion determination and the refinement. The refinement phase of the procedure uses a plane surface and projected fringe patterns as calibration tools to determine simultaneously the distortion of both cameras within an iterative procedure. The new technique may be performed in the state of the device “ready for measurement" which avoids errors by a later adjustment. A considerable reduction of distortion errors is achieved and leads to considerable improvements of the accuracy of 3D measurements, especially in the precise measurement of smooth surfaces.

Keywords: 3D Surface Measurement, Fringe Projection, Lens Distortion, Stereo.

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79 Audio Watermarking Based on Compression-expansion Technique

Authors: Say Wei Foo, Qi Dong

Abstract:

A novel robust audio watermarking scheme is proposed in this paper. In the proposed scheme, the host audio signals are segmented into frames. Two consecutive frames are assessed if they are suitable to represent a watermark bit. If so, frequency transform is performed on these two frames. The compressionexpansion technique is adopted to generate distortion over the two frames. The distortion is used to represent one watermark bit. Psychoacoustic model is applied to calculate local auditory mask to ensure that the distortion is not audible. The watermarking schemes using mono and stereo audio signals are designed differently. The correlation-based detection method is used to detect the distortion and extract embedded watermark bits. The experimental results show that the quality degradation caused by the embedded watermarks is perceptually transparent and the proposed schemes are very robust against different types of attacks.

Keywords: Audio watermarking, Compression-expansion, Stereo signals, Robustness.

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78 A Robust Method for Hand Tracking Using Mean-shift Algorithm and Kalman Filter in Stereo Color Image Sequences

Authors: Mahmoud Elmezain, Ayoub Al-Hamadi, Robert Niese, Bernd Michaelis

Abstract:

Real-time hand tracking is a challenging task in many computer vision applications such as gesture recognition. This paper proposes a robust method for hand tracking in a complex environment using Mean-shift analysis and Kalman filter in conjunction with 3D depth map. The depth information solve the overlapping problem between hands and face, which is obtained by passive stereo measuring based on cross correlation and the known calibration data of the cameras. Mean-shift analysis uses the gradient of Bhattacharyya coefficient as a similarity function to derive the candidate of the hand that is most similar to a given hand target model. And then, Kalman filter is used to estimate the position of the hand target. The results of hand tracking, tested on various video sequences, are robust to changes in shape as well as partial occlusion.

Keywords: Computer Vision and Image Analysis, Object Tracking, Gesture Recognition.

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77 Using Perspective Schemata to Model the ETL Process

Authors: Valeria M. Pequeno, Joao Carlos G. M. Pires

Abstract:

Data Warehouses (DWs) are repositories which contain the unified history of an enterprise for decision support. The data must be Extracted from information sources, Transformed and integrated to be Loaded (ETL) into the DW, using ETL tools. These tools focus on data movement, where the models are only used as a means to this aim. Under a conceptual viewpoint, the authors want to innovate the ETL process in two ways: 1) to make clear compatibility between models in a declarative fashion, using correspondence assertions and 2) to identify the instances of different sources that represent the same entity in the real-world. This paper presents the overview of the proposed framework to model the ETL process, which is based on the use of a reference model and perspective schemata. This approach provides the designer with a better understanding of the semantic associated with the ETL process.

Keywords: conceptual data model, correspondence assertions, data warehouse, data integration, ETL process, object relational database.

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76 Qualitative Data Analysis for Health Care Services

Authors: Taner Ersoz, Filiz Ersoz

Abstract:

This study was designed enable application of multivariate technique in the interpretation of categorical data for measuring health care services satisfaction in Turkey. The data was collected from a total of 17726 respondents. The establishment of the sample group and collection of the data were carried out by a joint team from The Ministry of Health and Turkish Statistical Institute (Turk Stat) of Turkey. The multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was used on the data of 2882 respondents who answered the questionnaire in full. The multiple correspondence analysis indicated that, in the evaluation of health services females, public employees, younger and more highly educated individuals were more concerned and complainant than males, private sector employees, older and less educated individuals. Overall 53 % of the respondents were pleased with the improvements in health care services in the past three years. This study demonstrates the public consciousness in health services and health care satisfaction in Turkey. It was found that most the respondents were pleased with the improvements in health care services over the past three years. Awareness of health service quality increases with education levels. Older individuals and males would appear to have lower expectancies in health services.

Keywords: Multiple correspondence analysis, optimal scaling, multivariate categorical data, health care services, health satisfaction survey, statistical visualizing, Turkey.

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75 Evaluation of the End Effect Impact on the Torsion Test for Determining the Shear Modulus of a Timber Beam through a Photogrammetry Approach

Authors: Niaz Gharavi, Hexin Zhang, Yanjun Xie

Abstract:

The timber beam end effect in the torsion test is evaluated using binocular stereo vision system. It is recommended by BS EN 408:2010+A1:2012 to exclude a distance of two to three times of cross-sectional thickness (b) from ends to avoid the end effect; whereas, this study indicates that this distance is not sufficiently far enough to remove this effect in slender cross-sections. The shear modulus of six timber beams with different aspect ratios is determined at the various angles and cross-sections. The result of this experiment shows that the end affected span of each specimen varies depending on their aspect ratios. It is concluded that by increasing the aspect ratio this span will increase. However, by increasing the distance from the ends to the values greater than 6b, the shear modulus trend becomes constant and end effect will be negligible. Moreover, it is concluded that end affected span is preferred to be depth-dependent rather than thickness-dependant.

Keywords: End effect, structural-size torsion test, shear properties, timber engineering, binocular stereo vision.

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