Search results for: corner
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 63

Search results for: corner

63 Feature Point Detection by Combining Advantages of Intensity-based Approach and Edge-based Approach

Authors: Sungho Kim, Chaehoon Park, Yukyung Choi, Soon Kwon, In So Kweon

Abstract:

In this paper, a novel corner detection method is presented to stably extract geometrically important corners. Intensity-based corner detectors such as the Harris corner can detect corners in noisy environments but has inaccurate corner position and misses the corners of obtuse angles. Edge-based corner detectors such as Curvature Scale Space can detect structural corners but show unstable corner detection due to incomplete edge detection in noisy environments. The proposed image-based direct curvature estimation can overcome limitations in both inaccurate structural corner detection of the Harris corner detector (intensity-based) and the unstable corner detection of Curvature Scale Space caused by incomplete edge detection. Various experimental results validate the robustness of the proposed method.

Keywords: Feature, intensity, contour, hybrid.

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62 X-Corner Detection for Camera Calibration Using Saddle Points

Authors: Abdulrahman S. Alturki, John S. Loomis

Abstract:

This paper discusses a corner detection algorithm for camera calibration. Calibration is a necessary step in many computer vision and image processing applications. Robust corner detection for an image of a checkerboard is required to determine intrinsic and extrinsic parameters. In this paper, an algorithm for fully automatic and robust X-corner detection is presented. Checkerboard corner points are automatically found in each image without user interaction or any prior information regarding the number of rows or columns. The approach represents each X-corner with a quadratic fitting function. Using the fact that the X-corners are saddle points, the coefficients in the fitting function are used to identify each corner location. The automation of this process greatly simplifies calibration. Our method is robust against noise and different camera orientations. Experimental analysis shows the accuracy of our method using actual images acquired at different camera locations and orientations.

Keywords: Camera Calibration, Corner Detector, Saddle Points, X-Corners.

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61 Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor-Only Process Corner Monitoring Circuit

Authors: Davit Mirzoyan, Ararat Khachatryan

Abstract:

A process corner monitoring circuit (PCMC) is presented in this work. The circuit generates a signal, the logical value of which depends on the process corner only. The signal can be used in both digital and analog circuits for testing and compensation of process variations (PV). The presented circuit uses only metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistors, which allow increasing its detection accuracy, decrease power consumption and area. Due to its simplicity the presented circuit can be easily modified to monitor parametrical variations of only n-type and p-type MOS (NMOS and PMOS, respectively) transistors, resistors, as well as their combinations. Post-layout simulation results prove correct functionality of the proposed circuit, i.e. ability to monitor the process corner (equivalently die-to-die variations) even in the presence of within-die variations.

Keywords: Detection, monitoring, process corner, process variation.

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60 An Efficient Fundamental Matrix Estimation for Moving Object Detection

Authors: Yeongyu Choi, Ju H. Park, S. M. Lee, Ho-Youl Jung

Abstract:

In this paper, an improved method for estimating fundamental matrix is proposed. The method is applied effectively to monocular camera based moving object detection. The method consists of corner points detection, moving object’s motion estimation and fundamental matrix calculation. The corner points are obtained by using Harris corner detector, motions of moving objects is calculated from pyramidal Lucas-Kanade optical flow algorithm. Through epipolar geometry analysis using RANSAC, the fundamental matrix is calculated. In this method, we have improved the performances of moving object detection by using two threshold values that determine inlier or outlier. Through the simulations, we compare the performances with varying the two threshold values.

Keywords: Corner detection, optical flow, epipolar geometry, RANSAC.

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59 Influence of Outer Corner Radius in Equal Channel Angular Pressing

Authors: Basavaraj V. Patil, Uday Chakkingal, T. S. Prasanna Kumar

Abstract:

Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) is currently being widely investigated because of its potential to produce ultrafine grained microstructures in metals and alloys. A sound knowledge of the plastic deformation and strain distribution is necessary for understanding the relationships between strain inhomogeneity and die geometry. Considerable research has been reported on finite element analysis of this process, assuming threedimensional plane strain condition. However, the two-dimensional models are not suitable due to the geometry of the dies, especially in cylindrical ones. In the present work, three-dimensional simulation of ECAP process was carried out for six outer corner radii (sharp to 10 mm in steps of 2 mm), with channel angle 105¶Çü▒, for strain hardening aluminium alloy (AA 6101) using ABAQUS/Standard software. Strain inhomogeneity is presented and discussed for all cases. Pattern of strain variation along selected radial lines in the body of the workpiece is presented. It is found from the results that the outer corner has a significant influence on the strain distribution in the body of work-piece. Based on inhomogeneity and average strain criteria, there is an optimum outer corner radius.

Keywords: Equal Channel Angular Pressing, Finite Element Analysis, strain inhomogeneity, plastic equivalent strain, ultra fine grain size, aluminium alloy 6101.

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58 Finite Element Modelling of Log Wall Corner Joints

Authors: R. Kalantari, G. Hafeez

Abstract:

The paper presents outcomes of the numerical research performed on standard and dovetail corner joints under lateral loads. An overview of the past research on log shear walls is also presented. To the authors’ best knowledge, currently, there are no specific design guidelines available in the code for the design of log shear walls, implying the need to investigate the performance of log shear walls. This research explores the performance of the log shear wall corner joint system of standard joint and dovetail types using numerical methods based on research available in the literature. A parametric study is performed to study the effect of gap size provided between two orthogonal logs and the presence of wood and steel dowels provided as joinery between log courses on the performance of such a structural system. The research outcomes are the force-displacement curves. Variability of 8% is seen in the reaction forces with the change of gap size for the case of the standard joint, while a variation of 10% is observed in the reaction forces for the dovetail joint system.

Keywords: dovetail joint, finite element modelling, log shear walls, standard joint

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57 Seat Assignment Problem Optimization

Authors: Mohammed Salem Alzahrani

Abstract:

In this paper the optimality of the solution of an existing real word assignment problem known as the seat assignment problem using Seat Assignment Method (SAM) is discussed. SAM is the newly driven method from three existing methods, Hungarian Method, Northwest Corner Method and Least Cost Method in a special way that produces the easiness & fairness among all methods that solve the seat assignment problem.

Keywords: Assignment Problem, Hungarian Method, Least Cost Method, Northwest Corner Method, Seat Assignment Method (SAM), A Real Word Assignment Problem.

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56 Design and Characterization of a CMOS Process Sensor Utilizing Vth Extractor Circuit

Authors: Rohana Musa, Yuzman Yusoff, Chia Chieu Yin, Hanif Che Lah

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and characterization of a low power Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) process sensor. The design is targeted for implementation using Silterra’s 180 nm CMOS process technology. The proposed process sensor employs a voltage threshold (Vth) extractor architecture for detection of variations in the fabrication process. The process sensor generates output voltages in the range of 401 mV (fast-fast corner) to 443 mV (slow-slow corner) at nominal condition. The power dissipation for this process sensor is 6.3 µW with a supply voltage of 1.8V with a silicon area of 190 µm X 60 µm. The preliminary result of this process sensor that was fabricated indicates a close resemblance between test and simulated results.

Keywords: CMOS Process sensor, Process, Voltage and Temperature (PVT) sensor, threshold extractor circuit, Vth extractor circuit.

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55 Decentralized Handoff for Microcellular Mobile Communication System using Fuzzy Logic

Authors: G. M. Mir, N. A. Shah, Moinuddin

Abstract:

Efficient handoff algorithms are a cost-effective way of enhancing the capacity and QoS of cellular system. The higher value of hysteresis effectively prevents unnecessary handoffs but causes undesired cell dragging. This undesired cell dragging causes interference or could lead to dropped calls in microcellular environment. The problems are further exacerbated by the corner effect phenomenon which causes the signal level to drop by 20-30 dB in 10-20 meters. Thus, in order to maintain reliable communication in a microcellular system new and better handoff algorithms must be developed. A fuzzy based handoff algorithm is proposed in this paper as a solution to this problem. Handoff on the basis of ratio of slopes of normal signal loss to the actual signal loss is presented. The fuzzy based solution is supported by comparing its results with the results obtained in analytical solution.

Keywords: Slope ratio, handoff, corner effect, fuzzy logic.

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54 A Novel 14 nm Extended Body FinFET for Reduced Corner Effect, Self-Heating Effect, and Increased Drain Current

Authors: Cheng-Hsien Chang, Jyi-Tsong Lin, Po-Hsieh Lin, Hung-Pei Hsu, Chan-Hsiang Chang, Ming-Tsung Shih, Shih-Chuan Tseng, Min-Yan Lin

Abstract:

In this paper, we have proposed a novel FinFET with extended body under the poly gate, which is called EB-FinFET, and its characteristic is demonstrated by using three-dimensional (3-D) numerical simulation. We have analyzed and compared it with conventional FinFET. The extended body height dependence on the drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) and subthreshold swing (S.S) have been also investigated. According to the 3-D numerical simulation, the proposed structure has a firm structure, an acceptable short channel effect (SCE), a reduced series resistance, an increased on state drain current (I on) and a large normalized I DS. Furthermore, the structure can also improve corner effect and reduce self-heating effect due to the extended body. Our results show that the EBFinFET is excellent for nanoscale device.

Keywords: SOI, FinFET, tri-gate, self-heating effect.

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53 Feature Point Reduction for Video Stabilization

Authors: Theerawat Songyot, Tham Manjing, Bunyarit Uyyanonvara, Chanjira Sinthanayothin

Abstract:

Corner detection and optical flow are common techniques for feature-based video stabilization. However, these algorithms are computationally expensive and should be performed at a reasonable rate. This paper presents an algorithm for discarding irrelevant feature points and maintaining them for future use so as to improve the computational cost. The algorithm starts by initializing a maintained set. The feature points in the maintained set are examined against its accuracy for modeling. Corner detection is required only when the feature points are insufficiently accurate for future modeling. Then, optical flows are computed from the maintained feature points toward the consecutive frame. After that, a motion model is estimated based on the simplified affine motion model and least square method, with outliers belonging to moving objects presented. Studentized residuals are used to eliminate such outliers. The model estimation and elimination processes repeat until no more outliers are identified. Finally, the entire algorithm repeats along the video sequence with the points remaining from the previous iteration used as the maintained set. As a practical application, an efficient video stabilization can be achieved by exploiting the computed motion models. Our study shows that the number of times corner detection needs to perform is greatly reduced, thus significantly improving the computational cost. Moreover, optical flow vectors are computed for only the maintained feature points, not for outliers, thus also reducing the computational cost. In addition, the feature points after reduction can sufficiently be used for background objects tracking as demonstrated in the simple video stabilizer based on our proposed algorithm.

Keywords: background object tracking, feature point reduction, low cost tracking, video stabilization.

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52 Research of the Behavior of Solar Module Frame Installed by Solar Clamping System by Finite Element Method

Authors: Li-Chung Su, Chia-Yu Chen, Tzu-Yuan Lai, Sheng-Jye Hwang

Abstract:

Mechanical design of the thin-film solar framed module and mounting system is important to enhance module reliability and to increase areas of applications. The stress induced by different mounting positions played a main role controlling the stability of the whole mechanical structure. From the finite element method, under the pressure from the back of module, the stress at Lc (center point of the Long frame) increased and the stresses at Center, Corner and Sc (center point of the Short frame) decreased while the mounting position was away from the center of the module. In addition, not only the stress of the glass but also the stress of the frame decreased. Accordingly it was safer to mount in the position away from the center of the module. The emphasis of designing frame system of the module was on the upper support of the Short frame. Strength of the overall structure and design of the corner were also important due to the complexity of the stress in the Long frame.

Keywords: Finite element method, Framed module, Mountingposition

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51 Experimental Investigation on Flexural Behaviors in Framed Structure of PST Method

Authors: S. Hong, H. Kim, D. Cho, S. Park

Abstract:

Existing underground pipe jacking methods use a reinforcing rod in a steel tube to obtain structural stiffness. However, some problems such as inconvenience of works and expensive materials resulted from limited working space and reinforcing works are existed. To resolve these problems, a new pipe jacking method, namely PST (Prestressed Segment Tunnel) method, was developed which used joint to connect the steel segment and form erection structure. For evaluating the flexural capacity of the PST method structure, a experimental test was conducted. The parameters considered in the test were span-to-depth ratio of segment, diameter of steel tube at the corner, prestressing force, and welding of joint. The flexural behaviours with the effect of load capacity in serviceability state according to different parameters were examined.. The frame with long segments could increase flexural stiffness and the specimen with large diameter of concave corner showed excellent resistance ability to the negative moment. In addition, welding of joints increased the flexural capacity.

Keywords: PST method, Pipe jacking method, Flexural behavior, Prestressed concrete.

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50 Performance Analysis of New Types of Reference Targets Based on Spaceborne and Airborne SAR Data

Authors: Y. S. Zhou, C. R. Li, L. L. Tang, C. X. Gao, D. J. Wang, Y. Y. Guo

Abstract:

Triangular trihedral corner reflector (CR) has been widely used as point target for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) calibration and image quality assessment. The additional “tip” of the triangular plate does not contribute to the reflector’s theoretical RCS and if it interacts with a perfectly reflecting ground plane, it will yield an increase of RCS at the radar bore-sight and decrease the accuracy of SAR calibration and image quality assessment. Regarding this problem, two types of CRs were manufactured. One was the hexagonal trihedral CR. It is a self-illuminating CR with relatively small plate edge length, while large edge length usually introduces unexpected edge diffraction error. The other was the triangular trihedral CR with extended bottom plate which considers the effect of ‘tip’ into the total RCS. In order to assess the performance of the two types of new CRs, flight campaign over the National Calibration and Validation Site for High Resolution Remote Sensors was carried out. Six hexagonal trihedral CRs and two bottom-extended trihedral CRs, as well as several traditional triangular trihedral CRs, were deployed. KOMPSAT-5 X-band SAR image was acquired for the performance analysis of the hexagonal trihedral CRs. C-band airborne SAR images were acquired for the performance analysis of the bottom-extended trihedral CRs. The analysis results showed that the impulse response function of both the hexagonal trihedral CRs and bottom-extended trihedral CRs were much closer to the ideal sinc-function than the traditional triangular trihedral CRs. The flight campaign results validated the advantages of new types of CRs and they might be useful in the future SAR calibration mission.

Keywords: Synthetic Aperture Radar, calibration, corner reflector, KOMPSAT-5.

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49 Producing Graphical User Interface from Activity Diagrams

Authors: Ebitisam K. Elberkawi, Mohamed M. Elammari

Abstract:

Graphical User Interface (GUI) is essential to programming, as is any other characteristic or feature, due to the fact that GUI components provide the fundamental interaction between the user and the program. Thus, we must give more interest to GUI during building and development of systems. Also, we must give a greater attention to the user who is the basic corner in the dealing with the GUI. This paper introduces an approach for designing GUI from one of the models of business workflows which describe the workflow behavior of a system, specifically through Activity Diagrams (AD).

Keywords: Activity Diagram, Graphical User Interface.

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48 Computing Visibility Subsets in an Orthogonal Polyhedron

Authors: Jefri Marzal, Hong Xie, Chun Che Fung

Abstract:

Visibility problems are central to many computational geometry applications. One of the typical visibility problems is computing the view from a given point. In this paper, a linear time procedure is proposed to compute the visibility subsets from a corner of a rectangular prism in an orthogonal polyhedron. The proposed algorithm could be useful to solve classic 3D problems.

Keywords: Visibility, rectangular prism, orthogonal polyhedron.

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47 Intensity of Singular Stress Field at the Corner of Adhesive Layer in Bonded Plate

Authors: Nao-Aki Noda, Yu Zhang, Ken-Tarou Takaishi, Hiroyuki Shibahara

Abstract:

In this paper the strength of adhesive joint under tension and bending is discussed on the basis of intensity of singular stress by the application of FEM. A useful method is presented with focusing on the stress at the edge of interface between the adhesive and adherent obtained by FEM. After analyzing the adhesive joint strength with all material combinations, it is found that to improve the interface strength, thin adhesive layers are desirable because the intensity of singular stress decreases with decreasing the thickness.

Keywords: Adhesive, Adherent, Intensity of singular stress, Bonded strip

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46 Vortex Formation in Lid-driven Cavity with Disturbance Block

Authors: Maysam Saidi, Hassan Basirat Tabrizi, Reza Maddahian

Abstract:

In this paper, numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effect of disturbance block on flow field of the classical square lid-driven cavity. Attentions are focused on vortex formation and studying the effect of block position on its structure. Corner vortices are different upon block position and new vortices are produced because of the block. Finite volume method is used to solve Navier-Stokes equations and PISO algorithm is employed for the linkage of velocity and pressure. Verification and grid independency of results are reported. Stream lines are sketched to visualize vortex structure in different block positions.

Keywords: Disturbance Block, Finite Volume Method, Lid-Driven Cavity

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45 Study of Fast Etching of Silicon for the Fabrication of Bulk Micromachined MEMS Structures

Authors: V. Swarnalatha, A. V. Narasimha Rao, P. Pal

Abstract:

The present research reports the investigation of fast etching of silicon for the fabrication of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) structures using silicon wet bulk micromachining. Low concentration tetramethyl-ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and hydroxylamine (NH2OH) are used as main etchant and additive, respectively. The concentration of NH2OH is varied to optimize the composition to achieve best etching characteristics such as high etch rate, significantly high undercutting at convex corner for the fast release of the microstructures from the substrate, and improved etched surface morphology. These etching characteristics are studied on Si{100} and Si{110} wafers as they are most widely used in the fabrication of MEMS structures as wells diode, transistors and integrated circuits.

Keywords: KOH, MEMS, micromachining, silicon, TMAH, wet anisotropic etching.

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44 Effects of Geometry on Intensity of Singular Stress Fields at the Corner of Single-Lap Joints

Authors: Yu Zhang, Nao-Aki Noda, Kentaro Takaishi

Abstract:

This paper discusses effects of adhesive thickness, overlap length and material combinations on the single-lap joints strength from the point of singular stress fields. A useful method calculating the ratio of intensity of singular stress is proposed using FEM for different adhesive thickness and overlap length. It is found that the intensity of singular stress increases with increasing adhesive thickness, and decreases with increasing overlap length. The increment and decrement are different depending on material combinations between adhesive and adherent.

Keywords: Adhesive thickness, Overlap length, Intensity ofsingular stress, Single-lap joint

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43 Localization for Indoor Service Robot Using Natural Landmark on the Ceiling

Authors: Seung-Hun Kim, Changwoo Park

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a localization of a mobile robot with localization modules which have two ceiling-view cameras in indoor environments. We propose two kinds of localization method. The one is the localization in the local space; we use the line feature and the corner feature between the ceiling and wall. The other is the localization in the large space; we use the natural features such as bulbs, structures on the ceiling. These methods are installed on the embedded module able to mount on the robot. The embedded module has two cameras to be able to localize in both the local space and the large spaces. The experiment is practiced in our indoor test-bed and a government office. The proposed method is proved by the experimental results.

Keywords: Robot, Localization, Indoor, Ceiling vision, Local space, Large space, Complex space.

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42 Seat Assignment Model for Student Admissions Process at Saudi Higher Education Institutions

Authors: Mohammed Salem Alzahrani

Abstract:

In this paper, student admission process is studied to optimize the assignment of vacant seats with three main objectives. Utilizing all vacant seats, satisfying all programs of study admission requirements and maintaining fairness among all candidates are the three main objectives of the optimization model. Seat Assignment Method (SAM) is used to build the model and solve the optimization problem with help of Northwest Coroner Method and Least Cost Method. A closed formula is derived for applying the priority of assigning seat to candidate based on SAM.

Keywords: Admission Process Model, Assignment Problem, Hungarian Method, Least Cost Method, Northwest Corner Method, Seat Assignment Method (SAM).

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41 An Alternative Proof for the NP-completeness of Top Right Access point-Minimum Length Corridor Problem

Authors: Priyadarsini P.L.K, Hemalatha T.

Abstract:

In the Top Right Access point Minimum Length Corridor (TRA-MLC) problem [1], a rectangular boundary partitioned into rectilinear polygons is given and the problem is to find a corridor of least total length and it must include the top right corner of the outer rectangular boundary. A corridor is a tree containing a set of line segments lying along the outer rectangular boundary and/or on the boundary of the rectilinear polygons. The corridor must contain at least one point from the boundaries of the outer rectangle and also the rectilinear polygons. Gutierrez and Gonzalez [1] proved that the MLC problem, along with some of its restricted versions and variants, are NP-complete. In this paper, we give a shorter proof of NP-Completeness of TRA-MLC by findig the reduction in the following way.

Keywords: NP-complete, 2-connected planar graph, Grid embedding of a plane graph.

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40 Stress Variation of Underground Building Structure during Top-Down Construction

Authors: Soo-yeon Seo, Seol-ki Kim, Su-jin Jung

Abstract:

In the construction of a building, it is necessary to minimize construction period and secure enough work space for stacking of materials during the construction especially in city area. In this manner, various top-down construction methods have been developed and widely used in Korea. This paper investigates the stress variation of underground structure of a building constructed by using SPS (Strut as Permanent System) known as a top-down method in Korea through an analytical approach. Various types of earth pressure distribution related to ground condition were considered in the structural analysis of an example structure at each step of the excavation. From the analysis, the most high member force acting on beams was found when the ground type was medium sandy soil and a stress concentration was found in corner area.

Keywords: Construction of building, top-down construction method, earth pressure distribution, member force, stress concentration.

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39 Optimal Location of the I/O Point in the Parking System

Authors: Jing Zhang, Jie Chen

Abstract:

In this paper, we deal with the optimal I/O point location in an automated parking system. In this system, the S/R machine (storage and retrieve machine) travels independently in vertical and horizontal directions. Based on the characteristics of the parking system and the basic principle of AS/RS system (Automated Storage and Retrieval System), we obtain the continuous model in units of time. For the single command cycle using the randomized storage policy, we calculate the probability density function for the system travel time and thus we develop the travel time model. And we confirm that the travel time model shows a good performance by comparing with discrete case. Finally in this part, we establish the optimal model by minimizing the expected travel time model and it is shown that the optimal location of the I/O point is located at the middle of the left-hand above corner.

Keywords: Parking system, optimal location, response time, S/R machine.

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38 Solutions of Fuzzy Transportation Problem Using Best Candidates Method and Different Ranking Techniques

Authors: M. S. Annie Christi

Abstract:

Transportation Problem (TP) is based on supply and demand of commodities transported from one source to the different destinations. Usual methods for finding solution of TPs are North-West Corner Rule, Least Cost Method Vogel’s Approximation Method etc. The transportation costs tend to vary at each time. We can use fuzzy numbers which would give solution according to this situation. In this study the Best Candidate Method (BCM) is applied. For ranking Centroid Ranking Technique (CRT) and Robust Ranking Technique have been adopted to transform the fuzzy TP and the above methods are applied to EDWARDS Vacuum Company, Crawley, in West Sussex in the United Kingdom. A Comparative study is also given. We see that the transportation cost can be minimized by the application of CRT under BCM.

Keywords: Best candidates method, centroid ranking technique, robust ranking technique, transportation problem, fuzzy transportation problem.

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37 Active Contours with Prior Corner Detection

Authors: U.A.A. Niroshika, Ravinda G.N. Meegama

Abstract:

Deformable active contours are widely used in computer vision and image processing applications for image segmentation, especially in biomedical image analysis. The active contour or “snake" deforms towards a target object by controlling the internal, image and constraint forces. However, if the contour initialized with a lesser number of control points, there is a high probability of surpassing the sharp corners of the object during deformation of the contour. In this paper, a new technique is proposed to construct the initial contour by incorporating prior knowledge of significant corners of the object detected using the Harris operator. This new reconstructed contour begins to deform, by attracting the snake towards the targeted object, without missing the corners. Experimental results with several synthetic images show the ability of the new technique to deal with sharp corners with a high accuracy than traditional methods.

Keywords: Active Contours, Image Segmentation, Harris Operator, Snakes

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36 Simulation of Effect of Current Stressing on Reliability of Solder Joints with Cu-Pillar Bumps

Authors: Y. Li, Q. S. Zhang, H. Z. Huang, B. Y. Wu

Abstract:

The mechanism behind the electromigration and thermomigration failure in flip-chip solder joints with Cu-pillar bumps was investigated in this paper through using finite element method. Hot spot and the current crowding occurrs in the upper corner of copper column instead of solders of the common solder ball. The simulation results show that the change in thermal gradient is noticeable, which might greatly affect the reliability of solder joints with Cu-pillar bumps under current stressing. When the average applied current density is increased from 1×104 A/cm2 to 3×104 A/cm2 in solders, the thermal gradient would increase from 74 K/cm to 901 K/cm at an ambient temperature of 25°C. The force from thermal gradient of 901 K/cm can nearly induce thermomigration by itself. With the increase in applied current, the thermal gradient is growing. It is proposed that thermomigration likely causes a serious reliability issue for Cu column based interconnects.

Keywords: Simulation, Cu-pillar bumps, Electromigration, Thermomigration.

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35 Researching International PhD Algerian Students’ Communication Challenges in Speaking When Discussing and Interacting with Their British Peers: A Researcher’s Interpretive Perspective through the Use of Semi-Structured Interview

Authors: H. Maita

Abstract:

This paper addresses the issue of the speaking challenges that the Algerian PhD students experience during their studies abroad, particularly in UK territory; more specifically, this study describes how these students may deal with such challenges and whether the cultural differences is one core reason in such dilemma or not. To this end, an understanding and interpretation of what actually encompasses both linguistic interference and cultural differences are required. Throughout the paper there is an attempt to explain the theoretical basis of the interpretive research and to theoretically discuss the pivotal use of the interview, as a data collection tool, in interpretive research. Thus, the central issue of this study is to frame the theoretical perspective of the interpretive research through the discussion of PhD Algerian’s communication and interaction challenges in the EFL context. This study is a corner stone for other research studies to further investigate the issue related to communication challenges because no specific findings will be pointed out in this research.

Keywords: EFL, communication, interaction, interpretive research.

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34 Localisation of Anatomical Soft Tissue Landmarks of the Head in CT Images

Authors: M. Ovinis, D. Kerr, K. Bouazza-Marouf, M. Vloeberghs

Abstract:

In this paper, algorithms for the automatic localisation of two anatomical soft tissue landmarks of the head the medial canthus (inner corner of the eye) and the tragus (a small, pointed, cartilaginous flap of the ear), in CT images are describet. These landmarks are to be used as a basis for an automated image-to-patient registration system we are developing. The landmarks are localised on a surface model extracted from CT images, based on surface curvature and a rule based system that incorporates prior knowledge of the landmark characteristics. The approach was tested on a dataset of near isotropic CT images of 95 patients. The position of the automatically localised landmarks was compared to the position of the manually localised landmarks. The average difference was 1.5 mm and 0.8 mm for the medial canthus and tragus, with a maximum difference of 4.5 mm and 2.6 mm respectively.The medial canthus and tragus can be automatically localised in CT images, with performance comparable to manual localisation

Keywords: Anatomical soft tissue landmarks, automatic localisation, Computed Tomography (CT)

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