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Physicochemical and Thermal Characterization of Starch from Three Different Plantain Cultivars in Puerto Rico

Authors: Carmen E. Pérez-Donado, Fernando Pérez-Muñoz, Rosa N. Chávez-Jáuregui

Abstract:

Plantain contains starch as the main component and represents a relevant source of this carbohydrate. Starches from different cultivars of plantain and bananas have been studied for industrialization purposes due to their morphological and thermal characteristics and their influence in food products. This study aimed to characterize the physical, chemical, and thermal properties of starch from three different plantain cultivated in Puerto Rico: Maricongo, Maiden and FHIA 20. Amylose and amylopectin content, color, granular size, morphology, and thermal properties were determined. According to the amylose content in starches, FHIA 20 presented lowest content of the three cultivars studied. In terms of color, Maiden and FHIA 20 starches exhibited significantly higher whiteness indexes compared to Maricongo starch. Starches of the three cultivars had an elongated-ovoid morphology, with a smooth surface and a non-porous appearance. Regardless of similarities in their morphology, FHIA 20 exhibited a lower aspect ratio since its granules tended to be more elongated. Comparison of the thermal properties of starches showed that initial starch gelatinization temperature was similar among cultivars. However, FHIA 20 starch presented a noticeably higher final gelatinization temperature (87.95°C) and transition enthalpy than Maricongo (79.69°C) and Maiden (77.40°C). Despite similarities, starches from plantain cultivars showed differences in their composition and thermal behavior. This represents an opportunity to diversify plantain starch use in food-related applications.

Keywords: aspect ratio, morphology, Musa spp., starch, thermal properties, amylose content

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