Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 62

Search results for: Jorge J. Carvalho

62 Effects of a Nectandra Membranacea Extract on Labeling of Blood Constituents with Technetium-99m and on the Morphology of Red Blood Cells

Authors: Silvana R.F. Moreno, Jorge J. Carvalho, Ana L. Nascimento, Mario Pereira, Luiz Q. A. Caldas, Mário Bernardo-Filho

Abstract:

The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the possible interference of a Nectandra membranacea extract (i) on the labeling of blood cells (BC), (ii) on the labeling process of BC and plasma (P) proteins with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) and (iii) on the morphology of red blood cells (RBC). Blood samples were incubated with a Nectandra membranacea crude extract, stannous chloride, Tc- 99m (sodium pertechnetate) was added, and soluble (SF) and insoluble (IF) fractions were isolated. Morphometry studies were performed with blood samples incubated with Nectandra membranacea extract. The results show that the Nectandra membranacea extract does not promote significant alteration of the labeling of BC, IF-P and IF-BC. The Nectandra membranacea extract was able to alter the erythrocyte membrane morphology, but these morphological changes were not capable to interfere on the labeling of blood constituents with Tc-99m.

Keywords: in vitro study, Nectandra membranacea, red bloodcell, technetium-99m

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61 Used Frying Oil for Biodiesel Production Over Kaolinite as Catalyst

Authors: Jorge Ramírez-Ortiz, Jorge Medina-Valtierra, Merced Martínez Rosales

Abstract:

Biodiesel production with used frying by transesterification reaction with methanol, using a commercial kaolinite thermally-activated solid acid catalyst was investigated. The surface area, the average pore diameter and pore volume of the kaolinite catalyst were 10 m2/g, 13.0 nm and 30 mm3/g, respectively. The optimal conditions for the transesterification reaction were determined to be oil/methanol, in a molar ratio 1:31, temperature 160 ºC and catalyst concentration of 3% (w/w). The yield of fatty acids methyl esters (FAME) was 92.4% after 2 h of reaction. This method of preparation of biodiesel can be a positive alternative for utilizing used frying corn oil for feedstock of biodiesel combined with the inexpensive catalyst.

Keywords: Biodiesel, frying corn oil, kaolinite, transesterification

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60 Development and Validation of the Response to Stressful Situations Scale in the General Population

Authors: C. Barreto Carvalho, C. da Motta, M. Sousa, J. Cabral, A. L. Carvalho, E. B. Peixoto

Abstract:

The aim of the current study was to develop and validate a Response to Stressful Situations Scale (RSSS) for the Portuguese population. This scale assesses the degree of stress experienced in scenarios that can constitute positive, negative and more neutral stressors, and also describes the physiological, emotional and behavioral reactions to those events according to their intensity. These scenarios include typical stressor scenarios relevant to patients with schizophrenia, which are currently absent from most scales, assessing specific risks that these stressors may bring on subjects, which may prove useful in non-clinical and clinical populations (i.e. Patients with mood or anxiety disorders, schizophrenia). Results from Principal Components Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of two adult samples from general population allowed to confirm a three-factor model with good fit indices: χ2 (144)= 370.211, p = 0.000; GFI = 0.928; CFI = 0.927; TLI = 0.914, RMSEA = 0.055, P(rmsea ≤0.005) = .096; PCFI = .781. Further data analysis of the scale revealed that RSSS is an adequate assessment tool of stress response in adults to be used in further research and clinical settings, with good psychometric characteristics, adequate divergent and convergent validity, good temporal stability and high internal consistency.

Keywords: Assessment, stress events, stress response, stress vulnerability.

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59 Using the Keystrokes Dynamic for Systems of Personal Security

Authors: Gláucya C. Boechat, Jeneffer C. Ferreira, Edson C. B. Carvalho

Abstract:

This paper presents a boarding on biometric authentication through the Keystrokes Dynamics that it intends to identify a person from its habitual rhythm to type in conventional keyboard. Seven done experiments: verifying amount of prototypes, threshold, features and the variation of the choice of the times of the features vector. The results show that the use of the Keystroke Dynamics is simple and efficient for personal authentication, getting optimum resulted using 90% of the features with 4.44% FRR and 0% FAR.

Keywords: Biometrics techniques, Keystroke Dynamics, patternrecognition.

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58 Continuous Threshold Prey Harvesting in Predator-Prey Models

Authors: Jonathan Bohn, Jorge Rebaza, Kaitlin Speer

Abstract:

The dynamics of a predator-prey model with continuous threshold policy harvesting functions on the prey is studied. Theoretical and numerical methods are used to investigate boundedness of solutions, existence of bionomic equilibria, and the stability properties of coexistence equilibrium points and periodic orbits. Several bifurcations as well as some heteroclinic orbits are computed.

Keywords: Predator-prey models, threshold harvesting, dynamicalsystems

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57 Comparative Analysis of Two Modeling Approaches for Optimizing Plate Heat Exchangers

Authors: Fábio A. S. Mota, Mauro A. S. S. Ravagnani, E. P. Carvalho

Abstract:

In the present paper the design of plate heat exchangers is formulated as an optimization problem considering two mathematical modelling. The number of plates is the objective function to be minimized, considering implicitly some parameters configuration. Screening is the optimization method used to solve the problem. Thermal and hydraulic constraints are verified, not viable solutions are discarded and the method searches for the convergence to the optimum, case it exists. A case study is presented to test the applicability of the developed algorithm. Results show coherency with the literature.

Keywords: Plate heat exchanger, optimization, modeling, simulation.

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56 On the Move to Semantic Web Services

Authors: Jorge Cardoso

Abstract:

Semantic Web services will enable the semiautomatic and automatic annotation, advertisement, discovery, selection, composition, and execution of inter-organization business logic, making the Internet become a common global platform where organizations and individuals communicate with each other to carry out various commercial activities and to provide value-added services. There is a growing consensus that Web services alone will not be sufficient to develop valuable solutions due the degree of heterogeneity, autonomy, and distribution of the Web. This paper deals with two of the hottest R&D and technology areas currently associated with the Web – Web services and the Semantic Web. It presents the synergies that can be created between Web Services and Semantic Web technologies to provide a new generation of eservices.

Keywords: Semantic Web, Web service, Web process, WWW.

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55 Agile Index: Automotive Supply Chain

Authors: Susana G. Azevedo, Helena Carvalho, V. Cruz –Machado

Abstract:

The supply chains (SCs) have to appeal to new management paradigms to improve their ability to respond rapidly and cost effectively to unpredictable changes in markets and increasing levels of environmental turbulence, both in terms of volume and variety. In this highly demanded context, the Agile paradigm provides the capabilities to SC quickly adapt to changes in the market requirements. The purpose of this paper is to suggest an Agile Index to assess the agility of the automotive companies and corresponding SCs. The proposed integrated assessment model incorporates Agile practices weighted according to their importance to the automotive SC competitiveness and obtained from the Delphi technique.

Keywords: Agile, Supply chain management, Index, Delphitechnique.

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54 Hydrochemical Contamination Profiling and Spatial-Temporal Mapping with the Support of Multivariate and Cluster Statistical Analysis

Authors: S. Barbosa, M. Pinto, J. A. Almeida, E. Carvalho, C. Diamantino

Abstract:

The aim of this work was to test a methodology able to generate spatial-temporal maps that can synthesize simultaneously the trends of distinct hydrochemical indicators in an old radium-uranium tailings dam deposit. Multidimensionality reduction derived from principal component analysis and subsequent data aggregation derived from clustering analysis allow to identify distinct hydrochemical behavioral profiles and generate synthetic evolutionary hydrochemical maps.

Keywords: Contamination plume migration, K-means of PCA scores, groundwater and mine water monitoring, spatial-temporal hydrochemical trends.

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53 Touching Interaction: An NFC-RFID Combination

Authors: Eduardo Álvarez, Gerardo Quiroga, Jorge Orozco, Gabriel Chavira

Abstract:

AmI proposes a new way of thinking about computers, which follows the ideas of the Ubiquitous Computing vision of Mark Weiser. In these, there is what is known as a Disappearing Computer Initiative, with users immersed in intelligent environments. Hence, technologies need to be adapted so that they are capable of replacing the traditional inputs to the system by embedding these in every-day artifacts. In this work, we present an approach, which uses Radiofrequency Identification (RFID) and Near Field Communication (NFC) technologies. In the latter, a new form of interaction appears by contact. We compare both technologies by analyzing their requirements and advantages. In addition, we propose using a combination of RFID and NFC.

Keywords: Touching interaction, ambient intelligence, NFC, RFID.

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52 Steady State of Passive and Active Suspensions in the Physical Domain

Authors: Gilberto Gonzalez-A, Jorge Madrigal

Abstract:

The steady state response of bond graphs representing passive and active suspension is presented. A bond graph with preferred derivative causality assignment to get the steady state is proposed. A general junction structure of this bond graph is proposed. The proposed methodology to passive and active suspensions is applied.

Keywords: Bond graph, steady state, active suspension.

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51 The Tort Liability of the State in the Portuguese Administrative Courts

Authors: Jorge Barros Mendes

Abstract:

The Portuguese Constitution, in article 22, instituted the general principle of tort liability of the State and other public law entities. Consequently, ordinary legislation established the tort liability of the State into the Portuguese Legal Order, by means of Decree-Law 48051, of 1967. This decree, which was criticised extensively, was amended by virtue of Law 67/2007, of 31st December, establishing the regime for tort liability arising from losses caused by third parties, due to the acts of public management in relation to all the functions of the State, i.e. i) administrative, ii) legislative, and iii) jurisdictional.

Keywords: Portuguese courts, tort liability of the state.

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50 Adsorption of Paracetamol Using Activated Carbon of Dende and Babassu Coconut Mesocarp

Authors: R. C. Ferreira, H. H. C. De Lima, A. A. Cândido, O. M. Couto Junior, P. A. Arroyo, K. Q De Carvalho, G. F. Gauze, M. A. S. D. Barros

Abstract:

Removal of the widespread used drug paracetamol from water was investigated using activated carbon originated from dende coconut mesocarp and babassu coconut mesocarp. Kinetic and equilibrium data were obtained at different values of pH. Both activated carbons showed high efficiency when pH ≤ pHPZC as the carbonil group of paracetamol molecule are adsorbed due to positively charged carbon surface. Microporosity also played an important role in such process. Pseudo-second order model was better adjusted to the kinetic results. Equilibrium data may be represented by Langmuir equation.

Keywords: Adsorption, activated carbon, babassu, dende.

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49 Approaches to Developing Semantic Web Services

Authors: Jorge Cardoso

Abstract:

It has been recognized that due to the autonomy and heterogeneity, of Web services and the Web itself, new approaches should be developed to describe and advertise Web services. The most notable approaches rely on the description of Web services using semantics. This new breed of Web services, termed semantic Web services, will enable the automatic annotation, advertisement, discovery, selection, composition, and execution of interorganization business logic, making the Internet become a common global platform where organizations and individuals communicate with each other to carry out various commercial activities and to provide value-added services. This paper deals with two of the hottest R&D and technology areas currently associated with the Web – Web services and the semantic Web. It describes how semantic Web services extend Web services as the semantic Web improves the current Web, and presents three different conceptual approaches to deploying semantic Web services, namely, WSDL-S, OWL-S, and WSMO.

Keywords: Semantic Web, Web service, Web process, WWW

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48 Solutions for Comfort and Safety on Vibrations Resulting from the Action of the Wind on the Building in the Form of Portico with Four Floors

Authors: G. B. M. Carvalho, V. A. C. Vale, E. T. L. Cöuras Ford

Abstract:

With the aim of increasing the levels of comfort and security structures, the study of dynamic loads on buildings has been one of the focuses in the area of control engineering, civil engineering and architecture. Thus, this work presents a study based on simulation of the dynamics of buildings in the form of portico subjected to wind action, besides presenting an action of passive control, using for this the dynamics of the structure, consequently representing a system appropriated on environmental issues. These control systems are named the dynamic vibration absorbers.

Keywords: Dynamic vibration absorber, structure, comfort, safety, wind behavior, structure.

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47 A Temporal Synchronization Model for Heterogeneous Data in Distributed Systems

Authors: Jorge Estudillo Ramirez, Saul E. Pomares Hernandez

Abstract:

Multimedia distributed systems deal with heterogeneous data, such as texts, images, graphics, video and audio. The specification of temporal relations among different data types and distributed sources is an open research area. This paper proposes a fully distributed synchronization model to be used in multimedia systems. One original aspect of the model is that it avoids the use of a common reference (e.g. wall clock and shared memory). To achieve this, all possible multimedia temporal relations are specified according to their causal dependencies.

Keywords: Multimedia, Distributed Systems, Partial Ordering, Temporal Synchronization

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46 Symmetry Breaking and the Emergence of Branching Structures in Morphogenesis: Minimal Conditions and Mechanical Interactions between Cells

Authors: M. Margarida Costa, Jorge Simão

Abstract:

The minimal condition for symmetry breaking in morphogenesis of cellular population was investigated using cellular automata based on reaction-diffusion dynamics. In particular, the study looked for the possibility of the emergence of branching structures due to mechanical interactions. The model used two types of cells an external gradient. The results showed that the external gradient influenced movement of cell type-I, also revealed that clusters formed by cells type-II worked as barrier to movement of cells type-I.

Keywords: Morphogenesis, branching structures, symmetrybreaking.

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45 Analysis of Supply Chain Risk Management Strategies: Case Study of Supply Chain Disruptions

Authors: Marcelo Dias Carvalho, Leticia Ishikawa

Abstract:

Supply Chain Risk Management refers to a set of strategies used by companies to avoid supply chain disruption caused by damage at production facilities, natural disasters, capacity issues, inventory problems, incorrect forecasts, and delays. Many companies use the techniques of the Toyota Production System, which in a way goes against a better management of supply chain risks. This paper studies key events in some multinationals to analyze the trade-off between the best supply chain risk management techniques and management policies designed to create lean enterprises. The result of a good balance of these actions is the reduction of losses, increased customer trust in the company and better preparedness to face the general risks of a supply chain.

Keywords: Supply chain disruptions, supply chain management, supply chain resilience, just-in-time production, lean manufacturing.

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44 Analysis of Program PRIME at Brazil

Authors: Iracema Machado de Aragão Gomes, Íkaro Daniel Carvalho Barreto, Suzana Leitão Russo

Abstract:

Policies that support entrepreneurship are keys to the generation of new business. In Brazil, seed capital, installation of technology parks, programs and zero interest financing, economic subsidy as Program First Innovative Company (PRIME) are examples of incentive policies. For the implementation of PRIME, in particular the Brazilian Innovation Agency (FINEP) decentralized operationalization so that business incubators could select innovative projects. This paper analyzes the program PRIME Business Incubator Center of the State of Sergipe (CISE) after calculating the mean and standard deviation of the grades obtained by companies in the factors of innovation, market potential, financial return economic, market strategy and staff and application of the Mann-Whitney test.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, innovation, technology parks, business incubators.

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43 Control-flow Complexity Measurement of Processes and Weyuker's Properties

Authors: Jorge Cardoso

Abstract:

Process measurement is the task of empirically and objectively assigning numbers to the properties of business processes in such a way as to describe them. Desirable attributes to study and measure include complexity, cost, maintainability, and reliability. In our work we will focus on investigating process complexity. We define process complexity as the degree to which a business process is difficult to analyze, understand or explain. One way to analyze a process- complexity is to use a process control-flow complexity measure. In this paper, an attempt has been made to evaluate the control-flow complexity measure in terms of Weyuker-s properties. Weyuker-s properties must be satisfied by any complexity measure to qualify as a good and comprehensive one.

Keywords: Business process measurement, workflow, complexity.

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42 Predictions of Values in a Causticizing Process

Authors: R. Andreola, O. A. A. Santos, L. M. M, Jorge

Abstract:

An industrial system for the production of white liquor of a paper industry, Klabin Paraná Papéis, formed by ten reactors was modeled, simulated, and analyzed. The developed model considered possible water losses by evaporation and reaction, in addition to variations in volumetric flow of lime mud across the reactors due to composition variations. The model predictions agreed well with the process measurements at the plant and the results showed that the slaking reaction is nearly complete at the third causticizing reactor, while causticizing ends by the seventh reactor. Water loss due to slaking reaction and evaporation occurs more pronouncedly in the slaking reaction than in the final causticizing reactors; nevertheless, the lime mud flow remains nearly constant across the reactors.

Keywords: Causticizing, lime, prediction, process.

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41 Adaptive Algorithm to Predict the QoS of Web Processes and Workflows

Authors: Jorge Cardoso

Abstract:

Workflow Management Systems (WfMS) alloworganizations to streamline and automate business processes and reengineer their structure. One important requirement for this type of system is the management and computation of the Quality of Service(QoS) of processes and workflows. Currently, a range of Web processes and workflow languages exist. Each language can be characterized by the set of patterns they support. Developing andimplementing a suitable and generic algorithm to compute the QoSof processes that have been designed using different languages is a difficult task. This is because some patterns are specific to particular process languages and new patterns may be introduced in future versions of a language. In this paper, we describe an adaptive algorithm implemented to cope with these two problems. The algorithm is called adaptive since it can be dynamically changed as the patterns of a process language also change.

Keywords: quality of service, web processes, workflows, web services

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40 Production of Biodiesel from Roasted Chicken Fat and Methanol: Free Catalyst

Authors: Jorge Ramírez-Ortiz, Merced Martínez Rosales, Horacio Flores Zúñiga

Abstract:

Transesterification reactions free of catalyst between roasted chicken fat with methanol were carried out in a batch reactor in order to produce biodiesel to temperatures from 120°C to 140°C. Parameters related to the transesterification reactions, including temperature, time and the molar ratio of chicken fat to methanol also investigated. The maximum yield of the reaction was of 98% under conditions of 140°C, 4 h of reaction time and a molar ratio of chicken fat to methanol of 1:31. The biodiesel thus obtained exhibited a viscosity of 6.3 mm2/s and a density of 895.9 kg/m3. The results showed this process can be right choice to produce biodiesel since this process does not use any catalyst. Therefore, the steps of neutralization and washing are avoided, indispensables in the case of the alkaline catalysis.

Keywords: Biodiesel, non-catalyst, roasted chicken fat, transesterification.

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39 New Findings on the User’s Preferences about Data Visualization of Online Reviews

Authors: Elizabeth Simão Carvalho, Marcirio Silveira Chaves

Abstract:

The information visualization is still a knowledge field that lacks from a solid theory to support it and there is a myriad of existing methodologies and taxonomies that can be combined and adopted as guidelines. In this context, it is necessary to pre-evaluate as much as possible all the assumptions that are considered for its design and development. We present an exploratory study (n = 123) to detect the graphical preferences of travelers using accommodation portals of Web 2.0 (e.g. tripadvisor.com). We took into account some of the most relevant ground rules applied in the field to map visually data and design end-user interaction. Moreover, the evaluation process was completely data visualization oriented. We found out that people tend to refuse more advanced types of visualization and that a hybrid combination between radial graphs and stacked bars should be explored. In sum, this paper introduces new findings about the visual model and the cognitive response of users of accommodation booking websites.

Keywords: Information visualization, Data visualization, Visualization evaluation, Online reviews, Booking portal, Hotel booking.

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38 Characterization and Development of Anthropomorphic Phantoms Liver for Use in Nuclear Medicine

Authors: Ferreira F. C. L., Souza D. N., Rodrigues T. M. A., Cunha C. J., Dullius M. A., Andrade J. E., Sousa A. H., Vieira J. P. C., Carvalho Júnior A. B., Santos L. P. B., Passos R. O.

Abstract:

The objective this study was to characterize and develop anthropomorphic liver phantoms in tomography hepatic procedures for quality control and improvement professionals in nuclear medicine. For the conformation of the anthropomorphic phantom was used in plaster and acrylic. We constructed three phantoms representing processes with liver cirrhosis. The phantoms were filled with 99mTc diluted with water to obtain the scintigraphic images. Tomography images were analyzed anterior and posterior phantom representing a body with a greater degree cirrhotic. It was noted that the phantoms allow the acquisition of images similar to real liver with cirrhosis. Simulations of hemangiomas may contribute to continued professional education of nuclear medicine, on the question of image acquisition, allowing of the study parameters such of the matrix, energy window and count statistics.

Keywords: Nuclear medicine, liver phantom, control quality

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37 Fatigue Life Prediction on Steel Beam Bridges under Variable Amplitude Loading

Authors: M. F. V. Montezuma, E. P. Deus, M. C. Carvalho

Abstract:

Steel bridges are normally subjected to random loads with different traffic frequencies. They are structures with dynamic behavior and are subject to fatigue failure process, where the nucleation of a crack, growth and failure can occur. After locating and determining the size of an existing fault, it is important to predict the crack propagation and the convenient time for repair. Therefore, fracture mechanics and fatigue concepts are essential to the right approach to the problem. To study the fatigue crack growth, a computational code was developed by using the root mean square (RMS) and the cycle-by-cycle models. One observes the variable amplitude loading influence on the life structural prediction. Different loads histories and initial crack length were considered as input variables. Thus, it was evaluated the dispersion of results of the expected structural life choosing different initial parameters.

Keywords: Fatigue crack propagation, life prediction, variable loadings, steel bridges.

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36 Coupling Concept of two Parallel Research Codes for Two and Three Dimensional Fluid Structure Interaction Analysis

Authors: Luciano Garelli, Marco Schauer, Jorge D’Elia, Mario A. Storti, Sabine C. Langer

Abstract:

This paper discuss a coupling strategy of two different software packages to provide fluid structure interaction (FSI) analysis. The basic idea is to combine the advantages of the two codes to create a powerful FSI solver for two and three dimensional analysis. The fluid part is computed by a program called PETSc-FEM a software developed at Centro de Investigaci´on de M´etodos Computacionales –CIMEC. The structural part of the coupled process is computed by the research code elementary Parallel Solver – (ELPASO) of the Technische Universit¨at Braunschweig, Institut f¨ur Konstruktionstechnik (IK).

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI), Finite Element Method (FEM).

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35 Learning Object Interface Adapted to the Learner's Learning Style

Authors: Zenaide Carvalho da Silva, Leandro Rodrigues Ferreira, Andrey Ricardo Pimentel

Abstract:

Learning styles (LS) refer to the ways and forms that the student prefers to learn in the teaching and learning process. Each student has their own way of receiving and processing information throughout the learning process. Therefore, knowing their LS is important to better understand their individual learning preferences, and also, understand why the use of some teaching methods and techniques give better results with some students, while others it does not. We believe that knowledge of these styles enables the possibility of making propositions for teaching; thus, reorganizing teaching methods and techniques in order to allow learning that is adapted to the individual needs of the student. Adapting learning would be possible through the creation of online educational resources adapted to the style of the student. In this context, this article presents the structure of a learning object interface adaptation based on the LS. The structure created should enable the creation of the adapted learning object according to the student's LS and contributes to the increase of student’s motivation in the use of a learning object as an educational resource.

Keywords: Adaptation, interface, learning object, learning style.

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34 Touch Interaction through Tagging Context

Authors: Gabriel Chavira, Jorge Orozco, Salvador Nava, Eduardo Álvarez, Julio Rolón, Roberto Pichardo

Abstract:

Ambient Intelligence promotes a shift in computing which involves fitting-out the environments with devices to support context-aware applications. One of main objectives is the reduction to a minimum of the user’s interactive effort, the diversity and quantity of devices with which people are surrounded with, in existing environments; increase the level of difficulty to achieve this goal. The mobile phones and their amazing global penetration, makes it an excellent device for delivering new services to the user, without requiring a learning effort. The environment will have to be able to perceive all of the interaction techniques. In this paper, we present the PICTAC model (Perceiving touch Interaction through TAgging Context), which similarly delivers service to members of a research group.

Keywords: Ambient Intelligence, Tagging Context, Touch Interaction, Touching Services.

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33 Fatigue Failure Analysis in AISI 304 Stainless Wind Turbine Shafts

Authors: M. F. V. Montezuma, E. P. Deus, M. C. Carvalho

Abstract:

Wind turbines are equipment of great importance for generating clean energy in countries and regions with abundant winds. However, complex loadings fluctuations to which they are subject can cause premature failure of these equipment due to the material fatigue process. This work evaluates fatigue failures in small AISI 304 stainless steel turbine shafts. Fractographic analysis techniques, chemical analyzes using energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), and hardness tests were used to verify the origin of the failures, characterize the properties of the components and the material. The nucleation of cracks on the shafts' surface was observed due to a combined effect of variable stresses, geometric stress concentrating details, and surface wear, leading to the crack's propagation until the catastrophic failure. Beach marks were identified in the macrographic examination, characterizing the probable failure due to fatigue. The sensitization phenomenon was also observed.

Keywords: Fatigue, sensitization phenomenon, stainless steel shafts, wind turbine failure.

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