Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Search results for: Ghulam Haider Haidaree

31 Solid Waste Management Challenges and Possible Solution in Kabul City

Authors: Ghulam Haider Haidaree, Nsenda Lukumwena

Abstract:

Most developing nations face energy production and supply problems. This is also the case of Afghanistan whose generating capacity does not meet its energy demand. This is due in part to high security and risk caused by war which deters foreign investments and insufficient internal revenue. To address the issue above, this paper would like to suggest an alternative and affordable way to deal with the energy problem. That is by converting Solid Waste to energy. As a result, this approach tackles the municipal solid waste issue (potential cause of several diseases), contributes to the improvement of the quality of life, local economy, and so on. While addressing the solid waste problem in general, this paper samples specifically one municipality which is District-12, one of the 22 districts of Kabul city. Using geographic information system (GIS) technology, District-12 is divided into nine different zones whose municipal solid waste is respectively collected, processed, and converted into electricity and distributed to the closest area. It is important to mention that GIS has been used to estimate the amount of electricity to be distributed and to optimally position the production plant.

Keywords: Energy problem, estimation of electricity, GIS zones, solid waste management system.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1380
30 Comparison of Fundamental Frequency Model and PWM Based Model of UPFC

Authors: S.A. Al-Qallaf, S.A. Al-Mawsawi, A. Haider

Abstract:

Among all FACTS devices, the unified power flow controller (UPFC) is considered to be the most versatile device. This is due to its capability to control all the transmission system parameters (impedance, voltage magnitude, and phase angle). With the growing interest in UPFC, the attention to develop a mathematical model has increased. Several models were introduced for UPFC in literature for different type of studies in power systems. In this paper a novel comparison study between two dynamic models of UPFC with their proposed control strategies.

Keywords: FACTS, UPFC, Dynamic Modeling, PWM, Fundamental Frequency.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1993
29 Release Behavior of Biodegradable and Nonbiodegradable Polymeric Microparticles Loaded with Nimesulide

Authors: Shujaat A. Khan, Ghulam Murtaza

Abstract:

This presentation narrates the comparative analysis of the dissolution data nimesulide microparticles prepared with ethylcellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, chitosan and Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) as polymers. The analysis of release profiles showed that the variations noted in the release behavior of nimesulide from various microparticulate formulations are due to the nature of used polymer. In addition, maximum retardation in the nimesulide release was observed with HPMC (floating particles). Thus HPMC miacroparticles may be preferably employed for sustained release dosage form development.

Keywords: Nimesulide, microparticles, ethylcellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, chitosan and Poly(D, L-lactide-coglycolide).

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1506
28 A New Divide and Conquer Software Process Model

Authors: Hina Gull, Farooque Azam, Wasi Haider Butt, Sardar Zafar Iqbal

Abstract:

The software system goes through a number of stages during its life and a software process model gives a standard format for planning, organizing and running a project. The article presents a new software development process model named as “Divide and Conquer Process Model", based on the idea first it divides the things to make them simple and then gathered them to get the whole work done. The article begins with the backgrounds of different software process models and problems in these models. This is followed by a new divide and conquer process model, explanation of its different stages and at the end edge over other models is shown.

Keywords: Process Model, Waterfall, divide and conquer, Requirements.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1681
27 Salbutamol Sulphate-Ethylcellulose Tabletted Microcapsules: Pharmacokinetic Study using Convolution Approach

Authors: Ghulam Murtaza, Kalsoom Farzana

Abstract:

The aim of this article is to narrate the utility of novel simulation approach i.e. convolution method to predict blood concentration of drug utilizing dissolution data of salbutamol sulphate microparticulate formulations with different release patterns (1:1, 1:2 and 1:3, drug:polymer). Dissolution apparatus II USP 2007 and 900 ml double distilled water stirrd at 50 rpm was employed for dissolution analysis. From dissolution data, blood drug concentration was determined, and in return predicted blood drug concentration data was used to calculate the pharmacokinetic parameters i.e. Cmax, Tmax, and AUC. Convolution is a good biwaiver technique; however its better utility needs it application in the conditions where biorelevant dissolution media are used.

Keywords: Convolution, Dissolution, Pharmacokinetics, Salbutamol sulphate

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2278
26 A Compact Wearable Slot Antenna for LTE and WLAN Applications

Authors: Haider K. Raad

Abstract:

In this paper, a compact wide-band, ultra-thin and flexible slot antenna intended for wearable applications is presented. The presented antenna is designed to provide Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) and Long Term Evolution (LTE) connectivity. The presented design exhibits a relatively wide bandwidth (1600-3500 MHz below -6 dB impedance bandwidth limit). The antenna is positioned on a 33 mm x 30 mm flexible substrate with a thickness of 50 µm. Antenna properties, such as the far-field radiation patterns, scattering parameter S11 are provided. The presented compact, thin and flexible design along with excellent radiation characteristics are deemed suitable for integration into flexible and wearable devices.

Keywords: Wearable Electronics, Slot Antenna, LTE, WLAN.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 927
25 Stochastic Scheduling to Minimize Expected Lateness in Multiple Identical Machines

Authors: Ghulam Zakria, Zailin Guan , Yasser Riaz Awan, Wan Lizhi

Abstract:

There are many real world problems in which parameters like the arrival time of new jobs, failure of resources, and completion time of jobs change continuously. This paper tackles the problem of scheduling jobs with random due dates on multiple identical machines in a stochastic environment. First to assign jobs to different machine centers LPT scheduling methods have been used, after that the particular sequence of jobs to be processed on the machine have been found using simple stochastic techniques. The performance parameter under consideration has been the maximum lateness concerning the stochastic due dates which are independent and exponentially distributed. At the end a relevant problem has been solved using the techniques in the paper..

Keywords: Quantity Production Flow Shop, LPT Scheduling, Stochastic Scheduling, Maximum Lateness, Random Due Dates

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1155
24 Solubility of CO2 in Aqueous Solutions of 2- Amino-2-Methyl-1-Propanol at High Pressure

Authors: Azmi Mohd Shariff, Ghulam Murshid, K.K. Lau, Mohammad Azmi Bustam, Faizan Ahamd

Abstract:

Carbon dioxide is one of the major green house gases. It is removed from different streams using amine absorption process. Sterically hindered amines are suggested as good CO2 absorbers. Solubility of carbon dioxide (CO2) was measured in aqueous solutions of 2-Amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) at temperatures 30 oC, 40 oC and 60 oC. The effect of pressure and temperature was studied over various concentrations of AMP. It has been found that pressure has positive effect on CO2 solubility where as solubility decreased with increasing temperature. Absorption performance of AMP increased with increasing pressure. Solubility of aqueous AMP was compared with mo-ethanolamine (MEA) and the absorption capacity of aqueous solutions of AMP was found to be better.

Keywords: Global warming, Carbon dioxide, Amine, Solubility

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2391
23 Software Architecture Recovery

Authors: Ghulam Rasool, Nadim Asif

Abstract:

The advent of modern technology shadows its impetus repercussions on successful Legacy systems making them obsolete with time. These systems have evolved the large organizations in major problems in terms of new business requirements, response time, financial depreciation and maintenance. Major difficulty is due to constant system evolution and incomplete, inconsistent and obsolete documents which a legacy system tends to have. The myriad dimensions of these systems can only be explored by incorporating reverse engineering, in this context, is the best method to extract useful artifacts and by exploring these artifacts for reengineering existing legacy systems to meet new requirements of organizations. A case study is conducted on six different type of software systems having source code in different programming languages using the architectural recovery framework.

Keywords: Reverse Engineering, Architecture recovery, Architecture artifacts, Reengineering.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2714
22 Comparative Optical Analysis of Offset Reflector Antenna in GRASP

Authors: Ghulam Ahmad

Abstract:

In this paper comparison of Reflector Antenna analyzing techniques based on wave and ray nature of optics is presented for an offset reflector antenna using GRASP (General Reflector antenna Analysis Software Package) software. The results obtained using PO (Physical Optics), PTD (Physical theory of Diffraction), and GTD (Geometrical Theory of Diffraction) are compared. The validity of PO and GTD techniques in regions around the antenna, caustic behavior of GTD in main beam, and deviation of GTD in case of near-in sidelobes of radiation pattern are discussed. The comparison for far-out sidelobes predicted by PO, PO + PTD and GTD is described. The effect of Direct Radiations from feed which results in feed selection for the system is addressed.

Keywords: Geometrical optics & geometrical theory of diffraction, offset reflector antenna, physical optics & physical theory of diffraction, PO & GO comaprison.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1884
21 Corruption in India: Causes and Remedial Measures

Authors: Ghulam Nabi Naz

Abstract:

After independence, the popular belief that Gandhian will not indulge in corruption got a setback, post-independence setup paved the way for heavy corruption. The menace which would have dealt with strong legal provisions has become a way of life of Indian society. Corruption is recognized as the single biggest problem facing the country today. It undermines democracy and rule of law, violates human rights, distorts market and corrodes the moral fibre of people. The paper discusses the causes and possible remedial measures of corruption and response of people in Indian society. It emphasizes the factors which provide fertile ground for growth of corruption like, degradation of moral values, absence of a strong anti-corruption law and its effective enforcement, accountability, consistency and a defective system of fighting elections. The paper also highlights the reforms necessary for fighting corruption in India.

Keywords: Embezzlement, colonial, licence Raj, good governance, misappropriation, Sangh ideologue, Anna movement.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2509
20 Investigation of Different Control Stratgies for UPFC Decoupled Model and the Impact of Location on Control Parameters

Authors: S.A. Alqallaf, S.A. Al-Mawsawi, A. Haider

Abstract:

In order to evaluate the performance of a unified power flow controller (UPFC), mathematical models for steady state and dynamic analysis are to be developed. The steady state model is mainly concerned with the incorporation of the UPFC in load flow studies. Several load flow models for UPFC have been introduced in literature, and one of the most reliable models is the decoupled UPFC model. In spite of UPFC decoupled load flow model simplicity, it is more robust compared to other UPFC load flow models and it contains unique capabilities. Some shortcoming such as additional set of nonlinear equations are to be solved separately after the load flow solution is obtained. The aim of this study is to investigate the different control strategies that can be realized in the decoupled load flow model (individual control and combined control), and the impact of the location of the UPFC in the network on its control parameters.

Keywords: UPFC, Decoupled model, Load flow.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1760
19 Effects of Opening Shape and Location on the Structural Strength of R.C. Deep Beams with Openings

Authors: Haider M. Alsaeq

Abstract:

This research investigates the effects of the opening shape and location on the structural behavior of reinforced concrete deep beam with openings, while keeping the opening size unchanged. The software ANSYS 12.1 is used to handle the nonlinear finite element analysis. The ultimate strength of reinforced concrete deep beam with opening obtained by ANSYS 12.1 shows fair agreement with the experimental results, with a difference of no more than 20%. The present work concludes that the opening location has much more effect on the structural strength than the opening shape. It was concluded that placing the openings near the upper corners of the deep beam may double the strength, and the use of a rectangular narrow opening, with the long sides in the horizontal direction, can save up to 40% of structural strength of the deep beam.

Keywords: Deep Beams, Finite Element, Opening, Reinforced Concrete.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3756
18 Information Extraction from Unstructured and Ungrammatical Data Sources for Semantic Annotation

Authors: Quratulain N. Rajput, Sajjad Haider, Nasir Touheed

Abstract:

The internet has become an attractive avenue for global e-business, e-learning, knowledge sharing, etc. Due to continuous increase in the volume of web content, it is not practically possible for a user to extract information by browsing and integrating data from a huge amount of web sources retrieved by the existing search engines. The semantic web technology enables advancement in information extraction by providing a suite of tools to integrate data from different sources. To take full advantage of semantic web, it is necessary to annotate existing web pages into semantic web pages. This research develops a tool, named OWIE (Ontology-based Web Information Extraction), for semantic web annotation using domain specific ontologies. The tool automatically extracts information from html pages with the help of pre-defined ontologies and gives them semantic representation. Two case studies have been conducted to analyze the accuracy of OWIE.

Keywords: Ontology, Semantic Annotation, Wrapper, Information Extraction.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1895
17 Development of Intelligent Time/Frequency Based Signal Detection Algorithm for Intrusion Detection System

Authors: Waqas Ahmed, S Sajjad Haider Zaidi

Abstract:

For the past couple of decades Weak signal detection is of crucial importance in various engineering and scientific applications. It finds its application in areas like Wireless communication, Radars, Aerospace engineering, Control systems and many of those. Usually weak signal detection requires phase sensitive detector and demodulation module to detect and analyze the signal. This article gives you a preamble to intrusion detection system which can effectively detect a weak signal from a multiplexed signal. By carefully inspecting and analyzing the respective signal, this system can successfully indicate any peripheral intrusion. Intrusion detection system (IDS) is a comprehensive and easy approach towards detecting and analyzing any signal that is weakened and garbled due to low signal to noise ratio (SNR). This approach finds significant importance in applications like peripheral security systems.

Keywords: Data Acquisition, fast frequency transforms, Lab VIEW software, weak signal detection.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2319
16 Recovering Artifacts from Legacy Systems Using Pattern Matching

Authors: Ghulam Rasool, Ilka Philippow

Abstract:

Modernizing legacy applications is the key issue facing IT managers today because there's enormous pressure on organizations to change the way they run their business to meet the new requirements. The importance of software maintenance and reengineering is forever increasing. Understanding the architecture of existing legacy applications is the most critical issue for maintenance and reengineering. The artifacts recovery can be facilitated with different recovery approaches, methods and tools. The existing methods provide static and dynamic set of techniques for extracting architectural information, but are not suitable for all users in different domains. This paper presents a simple and lightweight pattern extraction technique to extract different artifacts from legacy systems using regular expression pattern specifications with multiple language support. We used our custom-built tool DRT to recover artifacts from existing system at different levels of abstractions. In order to evaluate our approach a case study is conducted.

Keywords: Artifacts recovery, Pattern matching, Reverseengineering, Program understanding, Regular expressions, Sourcecode analysis.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1708
15 Effect of Wheat Flour Extraction Rates on Flour Composition, Farinographic Characteristics and Sensory Perception of Sourdough Naans

Authors: Ghulam Mueen-ud-Din, Salim-ur-Rehman, Faqir M. Anjum, Haq Nawaz, Mian A. Murtaza

Abstract:

The effect of wheat flour extraction rates on flour composition, farinographic characteristics and the quality of sourdough naans was investigated. The results indicated that by increasing the extraction rate, the amount of protein, fiber, fat and ash increased, whereas moisture content decreased. Farinographic characteristic like water absorption and dough development time increased with an increase in flour extraction rate but the dough stabilities and tolerance indices were reduced with an increase in flour extraction rates. Titratable acidity for both sourdough and sourdough naans also increased along with flour extraction rate. The study showed that overall quality of sourdough naans were affected by both flour extraction rate and starter culture used. Sensory analysis of sourdough naans revealed that desirable extraction rate for sourdough naan was 76%.

Keywords: Extraction rates, Farinographic characteristics, Flour composition, Sourdough naans, Wheat flour.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4291
14 Effective Keyword and Similarity Thresholds for the Discovery of Themes from the User Web Access Patterns

Authors: Haider A Ramadhan, Khalil Shihab

Abstract:

Clustering techniques have been used by many intelligent software agents to group similar access patterns of the Web users into high level themes which express users intentions and interests. However, such techniques have been mostly focusing on one salient feature of the Web document visited by the user, namely the extracted keywords. The major aim of these techniques is to come up with an optimal threshold for the number of keywords needed to produce more focused themes. In this paper we focus on both keyword and similarity thresholds to generate themes with concentrated themes, and hence build a more sound model of the user behavior. The purpose of this paper is two fold: use distance based clustering methods to recognize overall themes from the Proxy log file, and suggest an efficient cut off levels for the keyword and similarity thresholds which tend to produce more optimal clusters with better focus and efficient size.

Keywords: Data mining, knowledge discovery, clustering, dataanalysis, Web log analysis, theme based searching.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1239
13 Fabrication of Wearable Antennas through Thermal Deposition

Authors: Jeff Letcher, Dennis Tierney, Haider Raad

Abstract:

Antennas are devices for transmitting and/or receiving signals which make them a necessary component of any wireless system. In this paper, a thermal deposition technique is utilized as a method to fabricate antenna structures on substrates. Thin-film deposition is achieved by evaporating a source material (metals in our case) in a vacuum which allows vapor particles to travel directly to the target substrate which is encased with a mask that outlines the desired structure. The material then condenses back to solid state. This method is used in comparison to screen printing, chemical etching, and ink jet printing to indicate advantages and disadvantages to the method. The antenna created undergoes various testing of frequency ranges, conductivity, and a series of flexing to indicate the effectiveness of the thermal deposition technique. A single band antenna that is operated at 2.45 GHz intended for wearable and flexible applications was successfully fabricated through this method and tested. It is concluded that thermal deposition presents a feasible technique of producing such antennas.

Keywords: Thermal deposition, wearable antennas, Bluetooth technology, flexible electronics.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1023
12 Use of Bayesian Network in Information Extraction from Unstructured Data Sources

Authors: Quratulain N. Rajput, Sajjad Haider

Abstract:

This paper applies Bayesian Networks to support information extraction from unstructured, ungrammatical, and incoherent data sources for semantic annotation. A tool has been developed that combines ontologies, machine learning, and information extraction and probabilistic reasoning techniques to support the extraction process. Data acquisition is performed with the aid of knowledge specified in the form of ontology. Due to the variable size of information available on different data sources, it is often the case that the extracted data contains missing values for certain variables of interest. It is desirable in such situations to predict the missing values. The methodology, presented in this paper, first learns a Bayesian network from the training data and then uses it to predict missing data and to resolve conflicts. Experiments have been conducted to analyze the performance of the presented methodology. The results look promising as the methodology achieves high degree of precision and recall for information extraction and reasonably good accuracy for predicting missing values.

Keywords: Information Extraction, Bayesian Network, ontology, Machine Learning

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1979
11 Metoprolol Tartrate-Ethylcellulose Tabletted Microparticles: Development of a Validated Invitro In-vivo Correlation

Authors: Fatima Rasool, Mahmood Ahmad, Ghulam Murtaza, Haji M. S. Khan, Shujaat A. Khan, Sonia Khiljee, Muhammad Qamar-Uz-Zaman

Abstract:

This study describes the methodology for the development of a validated in-vitro in-vivo correlation (IVIVC) for metoprolol tartrate modified release dosage forms with distinctive release rate characteristics. Modified release dosage forms were formulated by microencapsulation of metoprolol tartrate into different amounts of ethylcellulose by non-solvent addition technique. Then in-vitro and in-vivo studies were conducted to develop and validate level A IVIVC for metoprolol tartrate. The values of regression co-efficient (R2-values) for IVIVC of T2 and T3 formulations were not significantly (p<0.05) different from 1 while the values of R2 for IVIVC of T1 and Mepressor® were significantly (p<0.05) different from 1. Internal prediction errors of IVIVC, calculated from observed Area under Curve (AUC) and predicted AUC, were less than 10%. This study successfully presents a valid level A IVIVC for metoprolol tartrate modified dosage forms.

Keywords: Metoprolol tartrate, Dissolution, Bioavailability, Validated in-vitro in-vivo correlation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2344
10 Convective Heat Transfer Enhancement in an Enclosure with Fin Utilizing Nano Fluids

Authors: S. H. Anilkumar, Ghulam Jilani

Abstract:

The objective of the present work is to conduct investigations leading to a more complete explanation of single phase natural convective heat transfer in an enclosure with fin utilizing nano fluids. The nano fluid used, which is composed of Aluminum oxide nano particles in suspension of Ethylene glycol, is provided at various volume fractions. The study is carried out numerically for a range of Rayleigh numbers, fin heights and aspect ratio. The flow and temperature distributions are taken to be two-dimensional. Regions with the same velocity and temperature distributions are identified as symmetry of sections. One half of such a rectangular region is chosen as the computational domain taking into account the symmetry about the fin. Transport equations are modeled by a stream functionvorticity formulation and are solved numerically by finite-difference schemes. Comparisons with previously published works on the basis of special cases are done. Results are presented in the form of streamline, vector and isotherm plots as well as the variation of local Nusselt number along the fin under different conditions.

Keywords: Fin height, Nano fluid, natural convection, Rayleigh number.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1261
9 Effect of Aggregate Gradation on Moisture Susceptibility and Creep in HMA

Authors: Haider H. Aodah, Yassir Nashaat A. Kareem, Satish Chandra

Abstract:

The present study explains the effect of aggregate gradation on moisture damage in bituminous mixes. Three types of aggregate gradation and two types of binder; VG-30 and Polymer modified bitumen (PMB-40) are used. Moisture susceptibility tests like retained stability and tensile strength ratio (TSR) and static creep test are conducted on Marshall specimens. The creep test was also conducted for conditioned and unconditioned specimens to observe the effect of moisture on creep behaviour. The results indicate that Marshall stability value is higher in PMB-40 mix than VG-30 mixes. Moisture susceptibility of PMB-40 mixes is low when compared with mix using VG-30. The reduction in retained stability, and indirect tensile strength and increase in creep are evaluated for finer, coarser and normal gradation of aggregate to observe the effect of gradation on moisture susceptibility of mixes. The retained stability is least affected when compared with other moisture susceptibility parameters

Keywords: Aggregate gradation, Creep ratio, Retained stability, Stripping, Tensile strength ratio.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2780
8 Aerodynamic Stall Control of a Generic Airfoil using Synthetic Jet Actuator

Authors: Basharat Ali Haider, Naveed Durrani, Nadeem Aizud, Salimuddin Zahir

Abstract:

The aerodynamic stall control of a baseline 13-percent thick NASA GA(W)-2 airfoil using a synthetic jet actuator (SJA) is presented in this paper. Unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved on a hybrid grid using a commercial software to simulate the effects of a synthetic jet actuator located at 13% of the chord from the leading edge at a Reynolds number Re = 2.1x106 and incidence angles from 16 to 22 degrees. The experimental data for the pressure distribution at Re = 3x106 and aerodynamic coefficients at Re = 2.1x106 (angle of attack varied from -16 to 22 degrees) without SJA is compared with the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation as a baseline validation. A good agreement of the CFD simulations is obtained for aerodynamic coefficients and pressure distribution. A working SJA has been integrated with the baseline airfoil and initial focus is on the aerodynamic stall control at angles of attack from 16 to 22 degrees. The results show a noticeable improvement in the aerodynamic performance with increase in lift and decrease in drag at these post stall regimes.

Keywords: Active flow control, Aerodynamic stall, Airfoilperformance, Synthetic jet actuator.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2082
7 Comparison of Diagnostic Performance of Soluble Transferrin Receptor and Soluble Transferrin Receptor-Ferritin Index Tests in the Diagnosis of Iron Deficiency Anemia

Authors: Hafiz Muhammad Obaid, Bilal Wajid, Nauman Haider, Muhammad Zafrullah

Abstract:

In this research article, a comprehensive analysis is performed to compare the diagnostic performance of soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and sTfR/log ferritin index tests in the differential diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and anemia of chronic disease (ACD). The analysis is performed for both sTfR and sTfR/log ferritin index using a set of 11 studies. The overall odds ratios for sTfR and sTfR/log ferritin index were 36.79 and 119.32 respectively, using 95% confidence interval. The relative sensitivity, specificity. positive likelihood ratio (LR) and negative LR values for sTfR in relation to sTfR/log ferritin index were 81% vs 85%, 84% vs 93%, 6.31 vs 13.95 and 0.18 vs 0.14 respectively. The summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves are also plotted for both sTfR and sTfR/log ferritin index. The area under SROC curves for sTfR and sTfR/log ferritin index was found to be 0.9296 and 0.9825 respectively. Although both tests are useful, the sTfR/log ferritin index seems to be more effective when compared with sTfR.

Keywords: Anemia, sTfR, iron deficiency, ferritin, odds ratio, sensitivity.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 567
6 Stress versus Strain Behavior of Geopolymer Cement under Triaxial Stress Conditions in Saline and Normal Water

Authors: Haider M. Giasuddin, Jay G. Sanjayan, P. G. Ranjith

Abstract:

Geopolymer cement was evaluated as wellbore sealing material for carbon dioxide geosequestration application. Curing of cement system in saline water and strength testing in triaxial stress state condition under lateral confinement is relevant to primary cementing in CO2 geosequestration wellbore in saline aquifer. Geopolymer cement was cured in saline water (both at ambient conditions for 28 days and heated (60°C) conditions for 12 hours) and tested for triaxial strength at different levels of lateral confinement. Normal water and few other curing techniques were also studied both for geopolymer and API ‘G’ cement. Results reported were compared to evaluate the suitability of saline water for curing of geopolymer cement. Unconfined compression test results showed higher strength for curing in saline water than normal water. Besides, testing strength under lateral confinement demonstrated the material failure behavior from brittle to plastic.

Keywords: Fly ash, Geopolymer, Geosequestration, Saline water, Strength, Traiaxial test.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2185
5 Validation and Application of a New Optimized RP-HPLC-Fluorescent Detection Method for Norfloxacin

Authors: Mahmood Ahmad, Ghulam Murtaza, Sonia Khiljee, Muhammad Asadullah Madni

Abstract:

A new reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method with fluorescent detector (FLD) was developed and optimized for Norfloxacin determination in human plasma. Mobile phase specifications, extraction method and excitation and emission wavelengths were varied for optimization. HPLC system contained a reverse phase C18 (5 μm, 4.6 mm×150 mm) column with FLD operated at excitation 330 nm and emission 440 nm. The optimized mobile phase consisted of 14% acetonitrile in buffer solution. The aqueous phase was prepared by mixing 2g of citric acid, 2g sodium acetate and 1 ml of triethylamine in 1 L of Milli-Q water was run at a flow rate of 1.2 mL/min. The standard curve was linear for the range tested (0.156–20 μg/mL) and the coefficient of determination was 0.9978. Aceclofenac sodium was used as internal standard. A detection limit of 0.078 μg/mL was achieved. Run time was set at 10 minutes because retention time of norfloxacin was 0.99 min. which shows the rapidness of this method of analysis. The present assay showed good accuracy, precision and sensitivity for Norfloxacin determination in human plasma with a new internal standard and can be applied pharmacokinetic evaluation of Norfloxacin tablets after oral administration in human.

Keywords: Norfloxacin, Aceclofenac sodium, Methodoptimization, RP-HPLC method, Fluorescent detection, Calibrationcurve.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1891
4 Study of Natural Patterns on Digital Image Correlation Using Simulation Method

Authors: Gang Li, Ghulam Mubashar Hassan, Arcady Dyskin, Cara MacNish

Abstract:

Digital image correlation (DIC) is a contactless fullfield displacement and strain reconstruction technique commonly used in the field of experimental mechanics. Comparing with physical measuring devices, such as strain gauges, which only provide very restricted coverage and are expensive to deploy widely, the DIC technique provides the result with full-field coverage and relative high accuracy using an inexpensive and simple experimental setup. It is very important to study the natural patterns effect on the DIC technique because the preparation of the artificial patterns is time consuming and hectic process. The objective of this research is to study the effect of using images having natural pattern on the performance of DIC. A systematical simulation method is used to build simulated deformed images used in DIC. A parameter (subset size) used in DIC can have an effect on the processing and accuracy of DIC and even cause DIC to failure. Regarding to the picture parameters (correlation coefficient), the higher similarity of two subset can lead the DIC process to fail and make the result more inaccurate. The pictures with good and bad quality for DIC methods have been presented and more importantly, it is a systematic way to evaluate the quality of the picture with natural patterns before they install the measurement devices.

Keywords: Digital image correlation (DIC), Deformation simulation, Natural pattern, Subset size.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2412
3 Shock Induced Damage onto Free-Standing Objects in an Earthquake

Authors: Haider AlAbadi, Joe Petrolito, Nelson Lam, Emad Gad

Abstract:

In areas of low to moderate seismicity many building contents and equipment are not positively fixed to the floor or tied to adjacent walls. Under seismic induced horizontal vibration, such contents and equipment can suffer from damage by either overturning or impact associated with rocking. This paper focuses on the estimation of shock on typical contents and equipment due to rocking. A simplified analytical model is outlined that can be used to estimate the maximum acceleration on a rocking object given its basic geometric and mechanical properties. The developed model was validated against experimental results. The experimental results revealed that the maximum shock acceleration can be underestimated if the static stiffness of the materials at the interface between the rocking object and floor is used rather than the dynamic stiffness. Excellent agreement between the model and experimental results was found when the dynamic stiffness for the interface material was used, which was found to be generally much higher than corresponding static stiffness under different investigated boundary conditions of the cushion. The proposed model can be a beneficial tool in performing a rapid assessment of shock sensitive components considered for possible seismic rectification. 

Keywords: Impact, shock, earthquakes, rocking, building contents, overturning.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1595
2 Thermo-Physical Properties and Solubility of CO2 in Piperazine Activated Aqueous Solutions of β-Alanine

Authors: Ghulam Murshid

Abstract:

Carbon dioxide is one of the major greenhouse gas (GHG) contributors. It is an obligation of the industry to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide emission to the acceptable limits. Tremendous research and studies are reported in the past and still the quest to find the suitable and economical solution of this problem needed to be explored in order to develop the most plausible absorber for carbon dioxide removal. Amino acids can be potential alternate solvents for carbon dioxide capture from gaseous streams. This is due to its ability to resist oxidative degradation, low volatility and its ionic structure. In addition, the introduction of promoter-like piperazine to amino acid helps to further enhance the solubility. In this work, the effect of piperazine on thermo physical properties and solubility of β-Alanine aqueous solutions were studied for various concentrations. The measured physicochemical properties data was correlated as a function of temperature using least-squares method and the correlation parameters are reported together with it respective standard deviations. The effect of activator piperazine on the CO2 loading performance of selected amino acid under high-pressure conditions (1bar to 10bar) at temperature range of (30 to 60)oC was also studied. Solubility of CO2 decreases with increasing temperature and increases with increasing pressure. Quadratic representation of solubility using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) shows that the most important parameter to optimize solubility is system pressure. The addition of promoter increases the solubility effect of the solvent.

Keywords: Amino acids, CO2, Global warming, Solubility.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3386