Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 95

Search results for: Solubility

95 Using Phase Equilibrium Theory to Calculate Solubility of γ-Oryzanol in Supercritical CO2

Authors: Boy Arief Fachri

Abstract:

Even its content is rich in antioxidants ϒ-oryzanol, rice bran is not used properly as functional food. This research aims to (1) extract ϒ-oryzanol; (2) determine the solubility of ϒ-oryzanol in supercritical CO2 based on phase equilibrium theory; and (3) study the effect of process variables on solubility. Extraction experiments were carried out for rice bran (5 g) at various extraction pressures, temperatures and reaction times. The flowrate of supercritical fluid through the extraction vessel was 25 g/min. The extracts were collected and analysed with high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The conclusion based on the experiments are as: (1) The highest experimental solubility was 0.303 mcg/mL RBO at T= 60°C, P= 90 atm, t= 30 min; (2) Solubility of ϒ-oryzanol was influenced by pressure and temperature. As the pressure and temperature increase, the solubility increases; (3) The solubility data of supercritical extraction can be successfully determined using phase equilibrium theory. Meanwhile, tocopherol was found and slightly investigated in this work.

Keywords: Rice bran, solubility, supercritical CO2, ϒ-orizanol.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1895
94 Investigation of Dimethyl Ether Solubility in Liquid Hexadecane by UNIFAC Method

Authors: F. Raouf, M. Taghizadeh

Abstract:

It is shown that a modified UNIFAC model can be applied to predict solubility of hydrocarbon gases and vapors in hydrocarbon solvents. Very good agreement with experimental data has been achieved. In this work we try to find best way for predicting dimethyl ether solubility in liquid paraffin by using group contribution theory.

Keywords: UNIFAC, Henry's law, Group contribution theory, Solubility.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2074
93 Solubility of CO2 in Aqueous Solutions of 2- Amino-2-Methyl-1-Propanol at High Pressure

Authors: Azmi Mohd Shariff, Ghulam Murshid, K.K. Lau, Mohammad Azmi Bustam, Faizan Ahamd

Abstract:

Carbon dioxide is one of the major green house gases. It is removed from different streams using amine absorption process. Sterically hindered amines are suggested as good CO2 absorbers. Solubility of carbon dioxide (CO2) was measured in aqueous solutions of 2-Amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) at temperatures 30 oC, 40 oC and 60 oC. The effect of pressure and temperature was studied over various concentrations of AMP. It has been found that pressure has positive effect on CO2 solubility where as solubility decreased with increasing temperature. Absorption performance of AMP increased with increasing pressure. Solubility of aqueous AMP was compared with mo-ethanolamine (MEA) and the absorption capacity of aqueous solutions of AMP was found to be better.

Keywords: Global warming, Carbon dioxide, Amine, Solubility

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2373
92 Water Soluble Chitosan Derivatives via the Freeze Concentration Technique

Authors: Senem Avaz, Alpay Taralp

Abstract:

Chitosan has been an attractive biopolymer for decades, but its processability is lowered by its poor solubility, especially in physiological pH values. Freeze concentrated reactions of chitosan with several organic acids including acrylic, citraconic, itaconic, and maleic acid revealed improved solubility and morphological properties. Solubility traits were assessed with a modified ninhydrin test. Chitosan derivatives were characterized by ATR-FTIR and morphological characteristics were determined by SEM. This study is a unique approach to chemically modify chitosan to enhance water solubility.

Keywords: Chitosan, Freeze Concentration, Frozen Reactions, Ninhydrin Test, Water Soluble Chitosan.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2064
91 Thermo-Physical Properties and Solubility of CO2 in Piperazine Activated Aqueous Solutions of β-Alanine

Authors: Ghulam Murshid

Abstract:

Carbon dioxide is one of the major greenhouse gas (GHG) contributors. It is an obligation of the industry to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide emission to the acceptable limits. Tremendous research and studies are reported in the past and still the quest to find the suitable and economical solution of this problem needed to be explored in order to develop the most plausible absorber for carbon dioxide removal. Amino acids can be potential alternate solvents for carbon dioxide capture from gaseous streams. This is due to its ability to resist oxidative degradation, low volatility and its ionic structure. In addition, the introduction of promoter-like piperazine to amino acid helps to further enhance the solubility. In this work, the effect of piperazine on thermo physical properties and solubility of β-Alanine aqueous solutions were studied for various concentrations. The measured physicochemical properties data was correlated as a function of temperature using least-squares method and the correlation parameters are reported together with it respective standard deviations. The effect of activator piperazine on the CO2 loading performance of selected amino acid under high-pressure conditions (1bar to 10bar) at temperature range of (30 to 60)oC was also studied. Solubility of CO2 decreases with increasing temperature and increases with increasing pressure. Quadratic representation of solubility using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) shows that the most important parameter to optimize solubility is system pressure. The addition of promoter increases the solubility effect of the solvent.

Keywords: Amino acids, CO2, Global warming, Solubility.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3361
90 Solubility of Water in CO2 Mixtures at Pipeline Operation Conditions

Authors: Mohammad Ahmad, Sander Gersen, Erwin Wilbers

Abstract:

Carbon capture, transport and underground storage have become a major solution to reduce CO2 emissions from power plants and other large CO2 sources. A big part of this captured CO2 stream is transported at high pressure dense phase conditions and stored in offshore underground depleted oil and gas fields. CO2 is also transported in offshore pipelines to be used for enhanced oil and gas recovery. The captured CO2 stream with impurities may contain water that causes severe corrosion problems, flow assurance failure and might damage valves and instrumentations. Thus, free water formation should be strictly prevented. The purpose of this work is to study the solubility of water in pure CO2 and in CO2 mixtures under real pipeline pressure (90-150 bar) and temperature operation conditions (5-35°C). A set up was constructed to generate experimental data. The results show the solubility of water in CO2 mixtures increasing with the increase of the temperature or/and with the increase in pressure. A drop in water solubility in CO2 is observed in the presence of impurities. The data generated were then used to assess the capabilities of two mixture models: the GERG-2008 model and the EOS-CG model. By generating the solubility data, this study contributes to determine the maximum allowable water content in CO2 pipelines.

Keywords: Carbon capture and storage, water solubility, equation of states.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2468
89 Increased Solubility, Dissolution and Physicochemical Studies of Curcumin- Polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30 Solid Dispersions

Authors: Nattha Kaewnopparat, Sanae Kaewnopparat, Amaravadee Jangwang, Daungkhae Maneenaun, Thitima Chuchome, Pharkphoom Panichayupakaranant

Abstract:

Solid dispersions (SD) of curcuminpolyvinylpyrrolidone in the ratio of 1:2, 1:4, 1:5, 1:6, and 1:8 were prepared in an attempt to increase the solubility and dissolution. Solubility, dissolution, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of solid dispersions, physical mixtures (PM) and curcumin were evaluated. Both solubility and dissolution of curcumin solid dispersions were significantly greater than those observed for physical mixtures and intact curcumin. The powder X-ray diffractograms indicated that the amorphous curcumin was obtained from all solid dispersions. It was found that the optimum weight ratio for curcumin:PVP K-30 is 1:6. The 1:6 solid dispersion still in the amorphous from after storage at ambient temperature for 2 years and the dissolution profile did not significantly different from freshly prepared.

Keywords: Curcumin, polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30, solid dispersion, dissolution, physicochemical.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3843
88 Modeling of CO2 Removal from Gas Mixtureby 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) Using the Modified Kent Eisenberg Model

Authors: H. Pahlavanzadeh, A.R.Jahangiri, I. Noshadi

Abstract:

In this paper, the solubility of CO2 in AMP solution have been measured at temperature range of ( 293, 303 ,313,323) K.The amine concentration ranges studied are (2.0, 2.8, and 3.4) M. A solubility apparatus was used to measure the solubility of CO2 in AMP solution on samples of flue gases from Thermal and Central Power Plants of Esfahan Steel Company. The modified Kent Eisenberg model was used to correlate and predict the vapor-liquid equilibria of the (CO2 + AMP + H2O) system. The model predicted results are in good agreement with the experimental vapor-liquid equilibrium measurements.

Keywords: AMP, Carbon dioxide; loading, Flue gases, Modified Kent Eisenberg model

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2259
87 Structural Analysis of Lignins from Different Sources

Authors: I. F. Fiţigău, F. Peter, C. G. Boeriu

Abstract:

Five lignin samples were fractionated with Acetone/Water mixtures and the obtained fractions were subjected to extensive structural characterization, including Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Gel permeation Chromatography (GPC) and Phosphorus-31 NMR spectroscopy (31P-NMR). The results showed that for all studied lignins the solubility increases with the increment of the acetone concentration. Wheat straw lignin has the highest solubility in 90/10 (v/v) Acetone/Water mixture, 400 mg lignin being dissolved in 1 mL mixture. The weight average molecular weight of the obtained fractions increased with the increment of acetone concentration and thus with solubility. 31P-NMR analysis based on lignin modification by reactive phospholane into phosphitylated compounds was used to differentiate and quantify the different types of OH groups (aromatic, aliphatic, and carboxylic) found in the fractions obtained with 70/30 (v/v) Acetone/Water mixture.

Keywords: Lignin, fractionation, FT-IR, GPC, 31P-NMR.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4699
86 Solid Dispersions of Cefixime Using β-Cyclodextrin: Characterization and in vitro Evaluation

Authors: Nagasamy Venkatesh Dhandapani, Amged Awad El-Gied

Abstract:

Cefixime, a BCS class II drug, is insoluble in water but freely soluble in acetone and in alcohol. The aqueous solubility of cefixime in water is poor and exhibits exceptionally slow and intrinsic dissolution rate. In the present study, cefixime and β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD) solid dispersions were prepared with a view to study the effect and influence of β-CD on the solubility and dissolution rate of this poorly aqueous soluble drug. Phase solubility profile revealed that the solubility of cefixime was increased in the presence of β-CD and was classified as AL-type. Effect of variable, such as drug:carrier ratio, was studied. Physical characterization of the solid dispersion was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). These studies revealed that a distinct loss of drug crystallinity in the solid molecular dispersions is ostensibly accounting for enhancement of dissolution rate in distilled water. The drug release from the prepared solid dispersion exhibited a first order kinetics. Solid dispersions of cefixime showed a 6.77 times fold increase in dissolution rate over the pure drug.

Keywords: Cefixime, β-Cyclodextrin, solid dispersions, kneading method, dissolution, release kinetics.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1212
85 Simulation Study of Asphaltene Deposition and Solubility of CO2 in the Brine during Cyclic CO2 Injection Process in Unconventional Tight Reservoirs

Authors: Rashid S. Mohammad, Shicheng Zhang, Sun Lu, Syed Jamal-Ud-Din, Xinzhe Zhao

Abstract:

A compositional reservoir simulation model (CMG-GEM) was used for cyclic CO2 injection process in unconventional tight reservoir. Cyclic CO2 injection is an enhanced oil recovery process consisting of injection, shut-in, and production. The study of cyclic CO2 injection and hydrocarbon recovery in ultra-low permeability reservoirs is mainly a function of rock, fluid, and operational parameters. CMG-GEM was used to study several design parameters of cyclic CO2 injection process to distinguish the parameters with maximum effect on the oil recovery and to comprehend the behavior of cyclic CO2 injection in tight reservoir. On the other hand, permeability reduction induced by asphaltene precipitation is one of the major issues in the oil industry due to its plugging onto the porous media which reduces the oil productivity. In addition to asphaltene deposition, solubility of CO2 in the aquifer is one of the safest and permanent trapping techniques when considering CO2 storage mechanisms in geological formations. However, the effects of the above uncertain parameters on the process of CO2 enhanced oil recovery have not been understood systematically. Hence, it is absolutely necessary to study the most significant parameters which dominate the process. The main objective of this study is to improve techniques for designing cyclic CO2 injection process while considering the effects of asphaltene deposition and solubility of CO2 in the brine in order to prevent asphaltene precipitation, minimize CO2 emission, optimize cyclic CO2 injection, and maximize oil production.

Keywords: Tight reservoirs, cyclic O2 injection, asphaltene, solubility, reservoir simulation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1207
84 Thermo-Sensitive Hydrogel: Control of Hydrophilic-Hydrophobic Transition

Authors: Wanwipa Siriwatwechakul, Nutte Teraphongphom, Vatcharani Ngaotheppitak, Sureeporn Kunataned

Abstract:

The study investigated the hydrophilic to hydrophobic transition of modified polyacrylamide hydrogel with the inclusion of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIAM). The modification was done by mimicking micellar polymerization, which resulted in better arrangement of NIAM chains in the polyacrylamide network. The degree of NIAM arrangement is described by NH number. The hydrophilic to hydrophobic transition was measured through the partition coefficient, K, of Orange II and Methylene Blue in hydrogel and in water. These dyes were chosen as a model for solutes with different degree of hydrophobicity. The study showed that the hydrogel with higher NH values resulted in better solubility of both dyes. Moreover, in temperature above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIAM)also caused the collapse of NIPAM chains which results in a more hydrophobic environment that increases the solubility of Methylene Blue and decreases the solubility of Orange II in the hydrogels with NIPAM present.

Keywords: Thermo-sensitive hydrogel, partition coefficient, the lower critical solution temperature (LCST), micellar polymerization.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2644
83 Barrier Properties of Starch - Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Nanocomposites

Authors: Farid Amidi-Fazli, Neda Amidi-Fazli

Abstract:

Replacement of plastics used in the food industry seems to be a serious issue to overcome mainly the environmental problems in recent years. This study investigates the hydrophilicity and permeability properties of starch biopolymer which ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH) (0-10%) and nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) (1-15%) were used to enhance its properties. Starch -EVOH nanocomposites were prepared by casting method in different formulations. NCC production by acid hydrolysis was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Solubility, water vapor permeability, water vapor transmission rate and moisture absorbance were measured on each of the nanocomposites. The results were analyzed by SAS software. The lowest moisture absorbance was measured in pure starch nanocomposite containing 8% NCC. The lowest permeability to water vapor belongs to starch nanocomposite containing 8% NCC and the sample containing 7.8% EVOH and 13% NCC. Also the lowest solubility was observed in the composite contains the highest amount of EVOH. Applied Process resulted in production of bio films which have good resistance to water vapor permeability and solubility in water. The use of NCC and EVOH leads to reduced moisture absorbance property of the biofilms.

Keywords: Starch, EVOH, nanocrystalline cellulose, Hydrophilicity.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2531
82 Studies on the Applicability of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) in Prediction of Thermodynamic Behavior of Sodium Chloride Aqueous System Containing a Non-Electrolytes

Authors: Dariush Jafari, S. Mostafa Nowee

Abstract:

In this study a ternary system containing sodium chloride as solute, water as primary solvent and ethanol as the antisolvent was considered to investigate the application of artificial neural network (ANN) in prediction of sodium solubility in the mixture of water as the solvent and ethanol as the antisolvent. The system was previously studied using by Extended UNIQUAC model by the authors of this study. The comparison between the results of the two models shows an excellent agreement between them (R2=0.99), and also approves the capability of ANN to predict the thermodynamic behavior of ternary electrolyte systems which are difficult to model.

Keywords: Thermodynamic modeling, ANN, solubility, ternary electrolyte system.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1624
81 Investigation of Solvent Effect on Viscosity of Lubricant in Disposable Medical Devices

Authors: Hamed Bagheri, Seyd Javid Shariati

Abstract:

The effects of type and amount of solvent on lubricant which is used in disposable medical devices are investigated in this article. Two kinds of common solvent, n-Hexane and n-Heptane, are used. The mechanical behavior of syringe has shown that n-Heptane has better mixing ratio and also more effective spray process in the barrel of syringe than n-Hexane because of similar solubility parameter to silicon oil. The results revealed that movement of plunger in the barrel increases when pure silicone is used because non-uniform film is created on the surface of barrel, and also, it seems that the form of silicon is converted from oil to gel due to sterilization process. The results showed that the convenient mixing ratio of solvent/lubricant oil is 80/20.

Keywords: Disposable medical devices, lubricant oil, solvent effect, solubility parameter.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 895
80 Extended Release System of Hypoglycemic Agent Containing Solid Dispersions: Strategies and Mechanisms

Authors: Amit Kumar, Ramendeep Grawal, Peeyush Sharma, Dinesh Puri, Anil Bhandari

Abstract:

The main perspective of the present study aims at overcoming solubility problems by using the technique of solid dispersion. Repaglinide is a BCS Class II drug, having low aqueous solubility and therefore, low bioavailability. Solid dispersions of repaglinide with different carriers Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP) and Ethyl Cellulose (EC) in different ratios were prepared by suspending method and Dissolving methods. In vitro release studies revealed that the F7 formulation showed extended drug release. So, the dissolution profile of solid dispersion containing EC and PVP K30 (1: 3) was selected as the best formulation because of its extended drug release among all formulations. In conclusion, solid dispersions of Repaglinide in PVP have shown to be a promising approach to improve the bioavailability of Repaglinide.

Keywords: Ethyl Cellulose, Glibenclamide, Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone, Repaglinide, Solid Dispersion.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2435
79 Influence of Natural Gum on Curcumin Supersaturation in Gastrointestinal Fluids

Authors: Patcharawalai Jaisamut, Kamonthip Wiwattanawongsa, Ruedeekorn Wiwattanapatapee

Abstract:

Supersaturation of drugs in the gastrointestinal tract is one approach to increase the absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs. The stabilization of a supersaturated state was achieved by adding precipitation inhibitors that may act through a variety of mechanisms. In this study, the effect of the natural gums, acacia, gelatin, pectin and tragacanth on curcumin supersaturation in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) (pH 1.2), fasted state simulated gastric fluid (FaSSGF) (pH 1.6), and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) (pH 6.8) was investigated. The results indicated that all natural gums significantly increased the curcumin solubility (about 1.2-6-fold) when compared to the absence of gum, and assisted in maintaining the supersaturated drug solution. Among the tested gums, pectin at 3% w/w was the best precipitation inhibitor with a significant increase in the degree of supersaturation about 3-fold in SGF, 2.4-fold in FaSSGF and 2-fold in SIF.

Keywords: Curcumin, Solubility, Supersaturation, Precipitation inhibitor.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2067
78 Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Phenolics and Tocopherols Enriched Oil from Wheat Bran

Authors: Kyung-Tae Kwon, Md. Salim Uddin, Go-Woon Jung, Jeong-Eun Sim, Byung-Soo Chun

Abstract:

Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) was used as a solvent to extract oil from wheat bran. Extractions were carried out in a semi-batch process at temperatures ranging from 40 to 60ºC and pressures ranging from 10 to 30 MPa, with a carbon dioxide (CO2) flow rate of 26.81 g/min. The oil obtained from wheat bran at different extraction conditions was quantitatively measured to investigate the solubility of oil in SC-CO2. The solubility of wheat bran oil was found to be enhanced in high temperature and pressure. The composition of fatty acids in wheat bran oil was measured by gas chromatography (GC). Linoleic, palmitic, oleic and γ-linolenic acid were the major fatty acids of wheat bran oil. Tocopherol contents in oil were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The highest amount of phenolics and tocopherols (α and β) were found at temperature of 60ºC and pressure of 30 MPa.

Keywords: Supercritical carbon dioxide, Tocopherols, Totalphenolic content, Wheat bran oil

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2261
77 On the use of Ionic Liquids for CO2 Capturing

Authors: Emad Ali, Inas Alnashef, Abdelhamid Ajbar, Mohamed HadjKali, Sarwono Mulyono

Abstract:

In this work, ionic liquids (ILs) for CO2 capturing in typical absorption/stripper process are considered. The use of ionic liquids is considered to be cost-effective because it requires less energy for solvent recovery compared to other conventional processes. A mathematical model is developed for the process based on Peng-Robinson (PR) equation of state (EoS) which is validated with experimental data for various solutions involving CO2. The model is utilized to study the sorbent and energy demand for three types of ILs at specific CO2 capturing rates. The energy demand is manifested by the vapor-liquid equilibrium temperature necessary to remove the captured CO2 from the used solvent in the regeneration step. It is found that higher recovery temperature is required for solvents with higher solubility coefficient. For all ILs, the temperature requirement is less than that required by the typical monoethanolamine (MEA) solvent. The effect of the CO2 loading in the sorbent stream on the process performance is also examined.

Keywords: Ionic liquid, CO2 capturing, CO2 solubility, Vaporliquid equilibrium.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2479
76 Intermolecular Dynamics between Alcohols and Fatty Acid Ester Solvents

Authors: Jacques J. Scheepers, Edison Muzenda

Abstract:

This work focused on the interactions which occur between ester solvents and alcohol solutes. The alcohols selected ranged from the simplest alcohol (methanol) to C10-alcohols, and solubility predictions in the form of infinite dilution activity coefficients were made using the Modified UNIFAC Dortmund group contribution model. The model computation was set up on a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet specifically designed for this purpose. It was found that alcohol/ ester interactions yielded an increase in activity coefficients (i.e. became less soluble) with an increase in the size of the ester solvent molecule. Furthermore, activity coefficients decreased with an increase in the size of the alcohol solute. The activity coefficients also decreased with an increase in the degree of unsaturation of the ester hydrocarbon tail. Tertiary alcohols yielded lower activity coefficients than primary alcohols. Finally, cyclic alcohols yielded higher activity coefficients than straight-chain alcohols until a point is reached where the trend is reversed, referred to as the ‘crossover’ point.

Keywords: Activity coefficients, alcohols, esters, solubility, van der Waals, UNIFAC.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1809
75 Applications of High Intensity Ultrasound to Modify Millet Protein Concentrate Functionality

Authors: B. Nazari, M. A. Mohammadifar, S. Shojaee-Aliabadi, L. Mirmoghtadaie

Abstract:

Millets as a new source of plant protein were not used in food applications due to its poor functional properties. In this study, the effect of high intensity ultrasound (frequency: 20 kHz, with contentious flow) (US) in 100% amplitude for varying times (5, 12.5, and 20 min) on solubility, emulsifying activity index (EAI), emulsion stability (ES), foaming capacity (FC), and foaming stability (FS) of millet protein concentrate (MPC) were evaluated. In addition, the structural properties of best treatments such as molecular weight and surface charge were compared with the control sample to prove the US effect. The US treatments significantly (P<0.05) increased the solubility of the native MPC (65.8±0.6%) at all sonicated times with the maximum solubility that is recorded at 12.5 min treatment (96.9±0.82 %). The FC of MPC was also significantly affected by the US treatment. Increase in sonicated time up to 12.5 min significantly increased the FC of native MPC (271.03±4.51 ml), but higher increase reduced it significantly. Minimal improvements were observed in the FS of all sonicated MPC compared to the native MPC. Sonicated time for 12.5 min affected the EAI and ES of the native MPC more markedly than 5 and 20 min that may be attributed to higher increase in proteins tendency to adsorption at the oil and water interfaces after the US treatment at this time. SDS-PAGE analysis showed changes in the molecular weight of MPC that attributed to shearing forces created by cavitation phenomenon. Also, this phenomenon caused an increase in the exposure of more amino acids with negative charge in the surface of US treated MPC, that was demonstrated by Zetasizer data. High intensity ultrasound, as a green technology, can significantly increase the functional properties of MPC and can make this usable for food applications.

Keywords: Millet protein concentrate, Functional properties, Structural properties, High intensity ultrasound.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1198
74 Effect of Environmental Parameters on the Water Solubility of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Derivatives Using Taguchi Experimental Design Methodology

Authors: P. Pimsee, C. Sablayrolles, P. de Caro, J. Guyomarch, N. Lesage, M. Montréjaud-Vignoles

Abstract:

The MIGR’HYCAR research project was initiated to provide decisional tools for risks connected to oil spill drifts in continental waters. These tools aim to serve in the decision-making process once oil spill pollution occurs and/or as reference tools to study scenarios of potential impacts of pollutions on a given site. This paper focuses on the study of the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and derivatives from oil spill in water as function of environmental parameters. Eight petroleum oils covering a representative range of commercially available products were tested. 41 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and derivates, among them 16 EPA priority pollutants were studied by dynamic tests at laboratory scale. The chemical profile of the water soluble fraction was different from the parent oil profile due to the various water solubility of oil components. Semi-volatile compounds (naphtalenes) constitute the major part of the water soluble fraction. A large variation in composition of the water soluble fraction was highlighted depending on oil type. Moreover, four environmental parameters (temperature, suspended solid quantity, salinity and oil: water surface ratio) were investigated with the Taguchi experimental design methodology. The results showed that oils are divided into three groups: the solubility of Domestic fuel and Jet A1 presented a high sensitivity to parameters studied, meaning they must be taken into account. For Gasoline (SP95-E10) and Diesel fuel, a medium sensitivity to parameters was observed. In fact, the four others oils have shown low sensitivity to parameters studied. Finally, three parameters were found to be significant towards the water soluble fraction.

Keywords: Monitoring, PAHs, SBSE, water soluble fraction, Taguchi experimental design.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1732
73 Effect of Transglutaminase Cross Linking on the Functional Properties as a Function of NaCl Concentration of Legumes Protein Isolate

Authors: Nahid A. Ali, Salma H. Ahmed, ElShazali A. Mohamed, Isam A. Mohamed Ahmed, Elfadil E.Babiker

Abstract:

The effect of cross linking of the protein isolates of three legumes with the microbial enzyme transglutaminase (EC 2.3.2.13) on the functional properties at different NaCl concentration was studied. The reduction in the total free amino groups (OD340) of the polymerized protein showed that TGase treatment cross-linking the protein subunit of each legume. The solubility of the protein polymer of each legume was greatly improved at high concentration of NaCl. At 1.2 M NaCl the solubility of the native legumes protein was significantly decreased but after polymerization slightly improved. Cross linked proteins were less turbid on heating to higher temperature as compared to native proteins and the temperature at which the protein turns turbid also increased in the polymerized proteins. The emulsifying and foaming properties of the protein polymer were greatly improved at all concentrations of NaCl for all legumes.

Keywords: Functional properties, Legumes, Protein isolate, NaCl, Transglutaminase.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2202
72 Model based Soft-Sensor for Industrial Crystallization: On-line Mass of Crystals and Solubility Measurement

Authors: Cédric Damour, Michel Benne, Brigitte Grondin-Perez, Jean-Pierre Chabriat

Abstract:

Monitoring and control of cane sugar crystallization processes depend on the stability of the supersaturation (σ ) state. The most widely used information to represent σ is the electrical conductivity κ of the solutions. Nevertheless, previous studies point out the shortcomings of this approach: κ may be regarded as inappropriate to guarantee an accurate estimation of σ in impure solutions. To improve the process control efficiency, additional information is necessary. The mass of crystals in the solution ( c m ) and the solubility (mass ratio of sugar to water / s w m m ) are relevant to complete information. Indeed, c m inherently contains information about the mass balance and / s w m m contains information about the supersaturation state of the solution. The main problem is that c m and / s w m m are not available on-line. In this paper, a model based soft-sensor is presented for a final crystallization stage (C sugar). Simulation results obtained on industrial data show the reliability of this approach, c m and the crystal content ( cc ) being estimated with a sufficient accuracy for achieving on-line monitoring in industry

Keywords: Soft-sensor, on-line monitoring, cane sugarcrystallization.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1808
71 Prediction of the Solubility of Benzoic Acid in Supercritical CO2 Using the PC-SAFT EoS

Authors: Hamidreza Bagheri, Alireza Shariati

Abstract:

There are many difficulties in the purification of raw components and products. However, researchers are seeking better ways for purification. One of the recent methods is extraction using supercritical fluids. In this study, the phase equilibria of benzoic acid -supercritical carbon dioxide system were investigated. Regarding the phase equilibria of this system, the modeling of solid-supercritical fluid behavior was performed using the Perturbed-Chain Statistical Association Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT) and Peng-Robinson equations of state (PR EoS). For this purpose, five PC-SAFT EoS parameters for pure benzoic acid were obtained using its experimental vapor pressure. Benzoic acid has association sites and the behavior of the benzoic acid-supercritical fluid system was well predicted using both equations of state, while the binary interaction parameter values for PR EoS were negative. Genetic algorithm, which is one of the most accurate global optimization algorithms, was also used to optimize the pure benzoic acid parameters and the binary interaction parameters. The AAD% value for the PC-SAFT EoS, were 0.22 for the carbon dioxide-benzoic acid system.

Keywords: Supercritical fluids, Solubility, Solid, PC-SAFT EoS, Genetic algorithm.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2409
70 Studying the Effect of Ethanol and Operating Temperature on Purification of Lactulose Syrup Containing Lactose

Authors: N. Zanganeh, M. Zabet

Abstract:

Lactulose is a synthetic disaccharide which has remarkable applications in food and pharmaceutical fields. Lactulose is not found in nature and it is produced by isomerization reaction of lactose in an alkaline environment. It should be noted that this reaction has a very low yield since significant amount of lactose stays un-reacted in the system. Basically, purification of lactulose is difficult and costly. Previous studies have revealed that solubility of lactose and lactulose are significantly different in ethanol. Considering the fact that solubility is also affected by temperature itself, we investigated the effect of ethanol and temperature on separation process of lactose from the syrup containing lactose and lactulose. For this purpose, a saturated solution containing lactulose and lactose was made at three different temperatures; 25⁰C (room temperature), 31⁰C, and 37⁰C first.  Five samples containing 2g saturated solution was taken and then 2g, 3g, 4g, 5g, and 6g ethanol separately was added to the sampling tubes. Sampling tubes were kept at respective temperatures afterward. The concentration of lactose and lactulose after separation process measured and analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that ethanol has such a greater impact than operating temperature on purification process. Also, it was observed that the maximum rate of separation occurred at initial amount of added ethanol.

Keywords: Ethanol, lactose, lactulose syrup, purification.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 886
69 Technologies of Halogenation of Hydroxyanthraquinones

Authors: Dmitriy Yu. Korulkin, Raissa A. Muzychkina

Abstract:

In review the generalized data about different methods of synthesis of biological activity halogenated di-, tri- and tetrahydroxyanthraquinones is presented. The basic regularity of a synthesis is analyzed. Action of temperature, pH, solubility, catalysts and other factors on a reaction product yield is revealed.

Keywords: Electrophilic substitution, halogenation, hydroxyanthraquinones, physiologically active substances.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1978
68 Technologies of Acylation of Hydroxyanthraquinones

Authors: Dmitry Yu. Korulkin, Raissa A. Muzychkina

Abstract:

In review the generalized data about different methods of synthesis of biological activity acylatedhydrohyanthraquinones is presented. The basic regularity of a synthesis is analyzed. Action of temperature, pH, solubility, catalysts and other factors on a reaction product yield is revealed.

Keywords: Aminoacidic acylation, hydroxyanthraquinones, nucleophilic exchange, physiologically active substances.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1622
67 Technologies of Amination of Hydroxyanthraquinones

Authors: Dmitry Yu. Korulkin, Raissa A. Muzychkina

Abstract:

In review the generalized data about different methods of synthesis of biological activity aminated hydroxyanthraquinones is presented. The basic regularity of a synthesis is analyzed. Action of temperature, pH, solubility, catalysts and other factors on a reaction product yield is revealed.

Keywords: Amination, hydroxyanthraquinones, nucleophilic exchange, physiologically active substances.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2359
66 Solubility of Organics in Water and Silicon Oil: A Comparative Study

Authors: Edison Muzenda

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to compare the solubility of selected volatile organic compounds in water and silicon oil using the simple static headspace method. The experimental design allowed equilibrium achievement within 30 – 60 minutes. Infinite dilution activity coefficients and Henry-s law constants for various organics representing esters, ketones, alkanes, aromatics, cycloalkanes and amines were measured at 303K. The measurements were reproducible with a relative standard deviation and coefficient of variation of 1.3x10-3 and 1.3 respectively. The static determined activity coefficients using shaker flasks were reasonably comparable to those obtained using the gas liquid - chromatographic technique and those predicted using the group contribution methods mainly the UNIFAC. Silicon oil chemically known as polydimethysiloxane was found to be better absorbent for VOCs than water which quickly becomes saturated. For example the infinite dilution mole fraction based activity coefficients of hexane is 0.503 and 277 000 in silicon oil and water respectively. Thus silicon oil gives a superior factor of 550 696. Henry-s law constants and activity coefficients at infinite dilution play a significant role in the design of scrubbers for abatement of volatile organic compounds from contaminated air streams. This paper presents the phase equilibrium of volatile organic compounds in very dilute aqueous and polymeric solutions indicating the movement and fate of chemical in air and solvent. The successful comparison of the results obtained here and those obtained using other methods by the same authors and in literature, means that the results obtained here are reliable.

Keywords: Abatement, absorbent, activity coefficients, equilibrium, Henry's law constant.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2404