Search results for: Architecture artifacts
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 945

Search results for: Architecture artifacts

945 Different Views and Evaluations of IT Artifacts

Authors: Sameh Al-Natour, Izak Benbasat

Abstract:

The introduction of a multitude of new and interactive e-commerce information technology (IT) artifacts has impacted adoption research. Rather than solely functioning as productivity tools, new IT artifacts assume the roles of interaction mediators and social actors. This paper describes the varying roles assumed by IT artifacts, and proposes and distinguishes between four distinct foci of how the artifacts are evaluated. It further proposes a theoretical model that maps the different views of IT artifacts to four distinct types of evaluations.

Keywords: IT adoption, IT artifacts, similarity, social actor.

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944 Heterogeneous Artifacts Construction for Software Evolution Control

Authors: Mounir Zekkaoui, Abdelhadi Fennan

Abstract:

The software evolution control requires a deep understanding of the changes and their impact on different system heterogeneous artifacts. And an understanding of descriptive knowledge of the developed software artifacts is a prerequisite condition for the success of the evolutionary process. The implementation of an evolutionary process is to make changes more or less important to many heterogeneous software artifacts such as source code, analysis and design models, unit testing, XML deployment descriptors, user guides, and others. These changes can be a source of degradation in functional, qualitative or behavioral terms of modified software. Hence the need for a unified approach for extraction and representation of different heterogeneous artifacts in order to ensure a unified and detailed description of heterogeneous software artifacts, exploitable by several software tools and allowing to responsible for the evolution of carry out the reasoning change concerned.

Keywords: Heterogeneous software artifacts, Software evolution control, Unified approach, Meta Model, Software Architecture.

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943 Software Architecture Recovery

Authors: Ghulam Rasool, Nadim Asif

Abstract:

The advent of modern technology shadows its impetus repercussions on successful Legacy systems making them obsolete with time. These systems have evolved the large organizations in major problems in terms of new business requirements, response time, financial depreciation and maintenance. Major difficulty is due to constant system evolution and incomplete, inconsistent and obsolete documents which a legacy system tends to have. The myriad dimensions of these systems can only be explored by incorporating reverse engineering, in this context, is the best method to extract useful artifacts and by exploring these artifacts for reengineering existing legacy systems to meet new requirements of organizations. A case study is conducted on six different type of software systems having source code in different programming languages using the architectural recovery framework.

Keywords: Reverse Engineering, Architecture recovery, Architecture artifacts, Reengineering.

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942 Grid Artifacts Suppression in Computed Radiographic Images

Authors: Igor Belykh

Abstract:

Anti-scatter grids used in radiographic imaging for the contrast enhancement leave specific artifacts. Those artifacts may be visible or may cause Moiré effect when digital image is resized on a diagnostic monitor. In this paper we propose an automated grid artifactsdetection and suppression algorithm which is still an actual problem. Grid artifacts detection is based on statistical approach in spatial domain. Grid artifacts suppression is based on Kaiser bandstop filter transfer function design and application avoiding ringing artifacts. Experimental results are discussed and concluded with description of advantages over existing approaches.

Keywords: Computed radiography, grid artifacts, image filtering.

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941 Artifacts in Spiral X-ray CT Scanners: Problems and Solutions

Authors: Mehran Yazdi, Luc Beaulieu

Abstract:

Artifact is one of the most important factors in degrading the CT image quality and plays an important role in diagnostic accuracy. In this paper, some artifacts typically appear in Spiral CT are introduced. The different factors such as patient, equipment and interpolation algorithm which cause the artifacts are discussed and new developments and image processing algorithms to prevent or reduce them are presented.

Keywords: CT artifacts, Spiral CT, Artifact removal.

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940 Recovering Artifacts from Legacy Systems Using Pattern Matching

Authors: Ghulam Rasool, Ilka Philippow

Abstract:

Modernizing legacy applications is the key issue facing IT managers today because there's enormous pressure on organizations to change the way they run their business to meet the new requirements. The importance of software maintenance and reengineering is forever increasing. Understanding the architecture of existing legacy applications is the most critical issue for maintenance and reengineering. The artifacts recovery can be facilitated with different recovery approaches, methods and tools. The existing methods provide static and dynamic set of techniques for extracting architectural information, but are not suitable for all users in different domains. This paper presents a simple and lightweight pattern extraction technique to extract different artifacts from legacy systems using regular expression pattern specifications with multiple language support. We used our custom-built tool DRT to recover artifacts from existing system at different levels of abstractions. In order to evaluate our approach a case study is conducted.

Keywords: Artifacts recovery, Pattern matching, Reverseengineering, Program understanding, Regular expressions, Sourcecode analysis.

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939 IT Perspective of Service-Oriented eGovernment Enterprise

Authors: Anu Paul, Varghese Paul

Abstract:

The focal aspire of e-Government (eGovt) is to offer citizen-centered service delivery. Accordingly, the citizenry consumes services from multiple government agencies through national portal. Thus, eGovt is an enterprise with the primary business motive of transparent, efficient and effective public services to its citizenry and its logical structure is the eGovernment Enterprise Architecture (eGEA). Since eGovt is IT oriented multifaceted service-centric system, EA doesn’t do much on an automated enterprise other than the business artifacts. Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) manifestation led some governments to pertain this in their eGovts, but it limits the source of business artifacts. The concurrent use of EA and SOA in eGovt executes interoperability and integration and leads to Service-Oriented e-Government Enterprise (SOeGE). Consequently, agile eGovt system becomes a reality. As an IT perspective eGovt comprises of centralized public service artifacts with the existing application logics belong to various departments at central, state and local level. The eGovt is renovating to SOeGE by apply the Service-Orientation (SO) principles in the entire system. This paper explores IT perspective of SOeGE in India which encompasses the public service models and illustrated with a case study the Passport service of India.

Keywords: Enterprise Architecture, Service-Oriented e-Government Enterprise, Service Interface Layer, Service Model.

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938 Removing Ocular Artifacts from EEG Signals using Adaptive Filtering and ARMAX Modeling

Authors: Parisa Shooshtari, Gelareh Mohamadi, Behnam Molaee Ardekani, Mohammad Bagher Shamsollahi

Abstract:

EEG signal is one of the oldest measures of brain activity that has been used vastly for clinical diagnoses and biomedical researches. However, EEG signals are highly contaminated with various artifacts, both from the subject and from equipment interferences. Among these various kinds of artifacts, ocular noise is the most important one. Since many applications such as BCI require online and real-time processing of EEG signal, it is ideal if the removal of artifacts is performed in an online fashion. Recently, some methods for online ocular artifact removing have been proposed. One of these methods is ARMAX modeling of EEG signal. This method assumes that the recorded EEG signal is a combination of EOG artifacts and the background EEG. Then the background EEG is estimated via estimation of ARMAX parameters. The other recently proposed method is based on adaptive filtering. This method uses EOG signal as the reference input and subtracts EOG artifacts from recorded EEG signals. In this paper we investigate the efficiency of each method for removing of EOG artifacts. A comparison is made between these two methods. Our undertaken conclusion from this comparison is that adaptive filtering method has better results compared with the results achieved by ARMAX modeling.

Keywords: Ocular Artifacts, EEG, Adaptive Filtering, ARMAX

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937 Cultural Aspects Analyses in Sustainable Architecture

Authors: Yaser Rezapour, Armin Jabbarieh, Fatemeh Behfar, Ahadollah Azami, Aidin Shamsalghorayi

Abstract:

Social ideology, cultural values and principles shaping environment are inferred by environment and structural characteristics of construction site. In other words, this inference manifestation also indicates ideology and culture of its foundation and also applies its principles and values and somehow plays an important role in Cultural Revolution. All human behaviors and artifacts are affected and being influenced by culture. Culture is not abstract concept, it is a spiritual domain that an individual and society grow and develop in it. Social behaviors are affected by environmental comprehension, so the architecture work influences on its audience and it is the environment that fosters social behaviors. Indeed, sustainable architecture should be considered as background of culture for establishing optimal sustainable culture. Since unidentified architecture roots in cultural non identity and abnormalities, so the society possesses identity characteristics and life and as a consequence, the society and architecture are changed by transformation of life style. This article aims to investigate the interaction of architecture, society, environment and sustainable architecture formation in its cultural basis and analyzes the results approaching behavior and sustainable culture in recent era.

Keywords: Culture, Sustainable Architecture, Environment, Development

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936 Application of Mutual Information based Least dependent Component Analysis (MILCA) for Removal of Ocular Artifacts from Electroencephalogram

Authors: V Krishnaveni, S Jayaraman, K Ramadoss

Abstract:

The electrical potentials generated during eye movements and blinks are one of the main sources of artifacts in Electroencephalogram (EEG) recording and can propagate much across the scalp, masking and distorting brain signals. In recent times, signal separation algorithms are used widely for removing artifacts from the observed EEG data. In this paper, a recently introduced signal separation algorithm Mutual Information based Least dependent Component Analysis (MILCA) is employed to separate ocular artifacts from EEG. The aim of MILCA is to minimize the Mutual Information (MI) between the independent components (estimated sources) under a pure rotation. Performance of this algorithm is compared with eleven popular algorithms (Infomax, Extended Infomax, Fast ICA, SOBI, TDSEP, JADE, OGWE, MS-ICA, SHIBBS, Kernel-ICA, and RADICAL) for the actual independence and uniqueness of the estimated source components obtained for different sets of EEG data with ocular artifacts by using a reliable MI Estimator. Results show that MILCA is best in separating the ocular artifacts and EEG and is recommended for further analysis.

Keywords: Electroencephalogram, Ocular Artifacts (OA), Independent Component Analysis (ICA), Mutual Information (MI), Mutual Information based Least dependent Component Analysis(MILCA)

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935 Distinction between Manifestations of Diabetic Retinopathy and Dust Artifacts Using Three-Dimensional HSV Color Space

Authors: Naoto Suzuki

Abstract:

Many ophthalmologists find it difficult to distinguish between small retinal hemorrhages and dust artifacts when using fundus photography for the diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy. Six patients with diabetic retinopathy underwent fundus photography, which revealed dust artifacts in the photographs of some patients. We constructed an experimental device similar to the optical system of the fundus camera and colored the fundi of the artificial eyes with khaki, sunset, rose and sunflower colors. Using the experimental device, we photographed dust artifacts using each artificial eyes. We used Scilab 5.4.0 and SIVP 0.5.3 softwares to convert the red, green, and blue (RGB) color space to the hue, saturation, and value (HSV) color space. We calculated the differences between the areas of manifestations and perimanifestations and the areas of dust artifacts and periartifacts using average HSVs. The V values in HSV for the manifestations were as follows: hemorrhages, 0.06 ± 0.03; hard exudates, −0.12 ± 0.06; and photocoagulation marks, 0.07 ± 0.02. For dust artifacts, visualized in the human and artificial eyes, the V values were as follows: human eye, 0.19 ± 0.03; khaki, 0.41 ± 0.02; sunset, 0.43 ± 0.04; rose, 0.47 ± 0.11; and sunflower, 0.59 ± 0.07. For the human and artificial eyes, we calculated two sensitivity values of dust artifacts compared to manifestation areas. V values of the HSV color space enabled the differentiation of small hemorrhages, hard exudates, and photocoagulation marks from dust artifacts.

Keywords: Diabetic retinopathy, HSV color space, small hemorrhages, hard exudates, photocoagulation marks.

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934 Blur and Ringing Artifact Measurement in Image Compression using Wavelet Transform

Authors: Madhuri Khambete, Madhuri Joshi

Abstract:

Quality evaluation of an image is an important task in image processing applications. In case of image compression, quality of decompressed image is also the criterion for evaluation of given coding scheme. In the process of compression -decompression various artifacts such as blocking artifacts, blur artifact, ringing or edge artifact are observed. However quantification of these artifacts is a difficult task. We propose here novel method to quantify blur and ringing artifact in an image.

Keywords: Blur, Compression, Objective Quality assessment, Ringing artifact.

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933 Wavelet Enhanced CCA for Minimization of Ocular and Muscle Artifacts in EEG

Authors: B. S. Raghavendra, D. Narayana Dutt

Abstract:

Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings are often contaminated with ocular and muscle artifacts. In this paper, the canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is used as blind source separation (BSS) technique (BSS-CCA) to decompose the artifact contaminated EEG into component signals. We combine the BSSCCA technique with wavelet filtering approach for minimizing both ocular and muscle artifacts simultaneously, and refer the proposed method as wavelet enhanced BSS-CCA. In this approach, after careful visual inspection, the muscle artifact components are discarded and ocular artifact components are subjected to wavelet filtering to retain high frequency cerebral information, and then clean EEG is reconstructed. The performance of the proposed wavelet enhanced BSS-CCA method is tested on real EEG recordings contaminated with ocular and muscle artifacts, for which power spectral density is used as a quantitative measure. Our results suggest that the proposed hybrid approach minimizes ocular and muscle artifacts effectively, minimally affecting underlying cerebral activity in EEG recordings.

Keywords: Blind source separation, Canonical correlationanalysis, Electroencephalogram, Muscle artifact, Ocular artifact, Power spectrum, Wavelet threshold.

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932 The Influence of Ancient Artifacts on Contemporary Culture (exemplified by the Painting and Sculpture of Kazakhstan)

Authors: Yerbol B. Kairanov, Arnur Zh. Karymsakov

Abstract:

Petroglyphs, stone sculptures, burial mounds, and other memorial religious structures are ancient artifacts which find reflection in contemporary world culture, including the culture of Kazakhstan. In this article, the problem of the influence of ancient artifacts on contemporary culture is researched, using as an example Kazakhstan-s sculpture and painting. The practice of creating petroglyphs, stone sculptures, and memorial religious structures was closely connected to all fields of human existence, which fostered the formation of and became an inseparable part of a traditional worldview. The ancient roots of Saka-Sythian and Turkic nomadic culture have been studied, and integrated into the foundations of the contemporary art of Kazakhstan. The study of the ancient cultural heritage of Kazakhstan by contemporary artists, sculptors and architects, as well as the influence of European art and cultures on the art of Kazakhstan are furthering the development of a new national art.

Keywords: ancient artifacts, Golden Man, nomadic culture, sculpture, painting

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931 Impact Analysis Based on Change Requirement Traceability in Object Oriented Software Systems

Authors: Sunil Tumkur Dakshinamurthy, Mamootil Zachariah Kurian

Abstract:

Change requirement traceability in object oriented software systems is one of the challenging areas in research. We know that the traces between links of different artifacts are to be automated or semi-automated in the software development life cycle (SDLC). The aim of this paper is discussing and implementing aspects of dynamically linking the artifacts such as requirements, high level design, code and test cases through the Extensible Markup Language (XML) or by dynamically generating Object Oriented (OO) metrics. Also, non-functional requirements (NFR) aspects such as stability, completeness, clarity, validity, feasibility and precision are discussed. We discuss this as a Fifth Taxonomy, which is a system vulnerability concern.

Keywords: Artifacts, NFRs, OO metrics, SDLC, XML.

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930 A Four Method Framework for Fighting Software Architecture Erosion

Authors: Sundus Ayyaz, Saad Rehman, Usman Qamar

Abstract:

Software Architecture is the basic structure of software that states the development and advancement of a software system. Software architecture is also considered as a significant tool for the construction of high quality software systems. A clean design leads to the control, value and beauty of software resulting in its longer life while a bad design is the cause of architectural erosion where a software evolution completely fails. This paper discusses the occurrence of software architecture erosion and presents a set of methods for the detection, declaration and prevention of architecture erosion. The causes and symptoms of architecture erosion are observed with the examples of prescriptive and descriptive architectures and the practices used to stop this erosion are also discussed by considering different types of software erosion and their affects. Consequently finding and devising the most suitable approach for fighting software architecture erosion and in some way reducing its affect is evaluated and tested on different scenarios.

Keywords: Software Architecture, Architecture Erosion, Prescriptive Architecture, Descriptive Architecture.

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929 Considering the Relationship between Architecture and Philosophy: Toyo Ito’s Conceptual Architecture

Authors: Serap Durmus

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to exemplify the relation of architecture and philosophy over the Japanese architect Toyo Ito’s conceptual architecture. The study is practiced in ‘Architecture and Philosophy Readings’ elective course with 22 sophomore architecture students in Karadeniz Technical University Department of Architecture. It is planned as a workshop, which discusses the design philosophy of Toyo Ito’s buildings and the reflections of concept in his intellectual architecture. So, the paper contains Toyo Ito’s philosophy, his discourses and buildings and also thinking similarities with philosopher Gilles Deleuze. Thus, the workshop of course is about architecture and philosophy relationship. With this aspect, a holistic graphic representation is aimed for Toyo Ito who thinks that everything composes a whole. As a result, it can be said that architect and philosopher interaction in architecture and philosophy relation supports creative thinking. Conceptual architecture of Toyo Ito has philosophical roots and his philosophy can be read over his buildings and can be represent totally via a holistic pattern.

Keywords: Architecture, philosophy, Toyo Ito, conceptual architecture, Gilles Deleuze.

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928 Islamic Architecture and Its Challenges

Authors: Mohammad Torabiyan, Kazem Mosawi Nejad

Abstract:

Today architecture has become as a powerful media for introducing cultures to the world, which in turn brings about a change in the global insight, power gaining, investment, and development. Islamic architecture is based on the language of Koran and shows the depth and richness of Islam through the spiritual soul. This is in a way that belief in monotheism and faith in Islamic teachings are manifested as Islam's aesthetic thought in Islamic architecture. Unfortunately, Islamic architecture has been damaged a lot due to the lack of the necessary information, and also successive wars that have overtaken the Moslems as well as the dominance of colonizing counties. Islamic architecture is rooted in the history, culture and civilization of Moslems, but its deficiencies and shortcomings should be removed through systematizing the Islamic architecture researchers. Islamic countries should act in a way that the art of Islamic architecture shows its true place in different architecture eras and makes everybody aware that Islamic architecture has a historical root and is connected eternally to the genuineness, religious art, and Moslems' culture and civilization.

Keywords: Art, culture and civilization, Islamic architecture, Moslems.

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927 Architecture Exception Governance

Authors: Ondruska Marek

Abstract:

The article presents the whole model of IS/IT architecture exception governance. As first, the assumptions of presented model are set. As next, there is defined a generic governance model that serves as a basis for the architecture exception governance. The architecture exception definition and its attributes follow. The model respects well known approaches to the area that are described in the text, but it adopts higher granularity in description and expands the process view with all the next necessary governance components as roles, principles and policies, tools to enable the implementation of the model into organizations. The architecture exception process is decomposed into a set of processes related to the architecture exception lifecycle consisting of set of phases and architecture exception states. Finally, there is information about my future research related to this area.

Keywords: Architecture, dispensation, exception, governance, model

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926 An Exploratory Study of Reliability of Ranking vs. Rating in Peer Assessment

Authors: Yang Song, Yifan Guo, Edward F. Gehringer

Abstract:

Fifty years of research has found great potential for peer assessment as a pedagogical approach. With peer assessment, not only do students receive more copious assessments; they also learn to become assessors. In recent decades, more educational peer assessments have been facilitated by online systems. Those online systems are designed differently to suit different class settings and student groups, but they basically fall into two categories: rating-based and ranking-based. The rating-based systems ask assessors to rate the artifacts one by one following some review rubrics. The ranking-based systems allow assessors to review a set of artifacts and give a rank for each of them. Though there are different systems and a large number of users of each category, there is no comprehensive comparison on which design leads to higher reliability. In this paper, we designed algorithms to evaluate assessors' reliabilities based on their rating/ranking against the global ranks of the artifacts they have reviewed. These algorithms are suitable for data from both rating-based and ranking-based peer assessment systems. The experiments were done based on more than 15,000 peer assessments from multiple peer assessment systems. We found that the assessors in ranking-based peer assessments are at least 10% more reliable than the assessors in rating-based peer assessments. Further analysis also demonstrated that the assessors in ranking-based assessments tend to assess the more differentiable artifacts correctly, but there is no such pattern for rating-based assessors.

Keywords: Peer assessment, peer rating, peer ranking, reliability.

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925 Automation of Fishhooks Objective Measures

Authors: S. Chabrier, G. Molle, E. Conte, C. Carlier

Abstract:

Fishing has always been an essential component of the Polynesians- life. Fishhooks, mostly in pearl shell, found during archaeological excavations are the artifacts related to this activity the most numerous. Thanks to them, we try to reconstruct the ancient techniques of resources exploitation, inside the lagoons and offshore. They can also be used as chronological and cultural indicators. The shapes and dimensions of these artifacts allow comparisons and classifications used in both functional approach and chrono-cultural perspective. Hence it is very important for the ethno-archaeologists to dispose of reliable methods and standardized measurement of these artifacts. Such a reliable objective and standardized method have been previously proposed. But this method cannot be envisaged manually because of the very important time required to measure each fishhook manually and the quantity of fishhooks to measure (many hundreds). We propose in this paper a detailed acquisition protocol of fishhooks and an automation of every step of this method. We also provide some experimental results obtained on the fishhooks coming from three archaeological excavations sites.

Keywords: Automated measures, extraction, fishhook, segmentation.

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924 Toward An Agreement on Semantic Web Architecture

Authors: Haytham Al-Feel, M.A.Koutb, Hoda Suoror

Abstract:

There are many problems associated with the World Wide Web: getting lost in the hyperspace; the web content is still accessible only to humans and difficulties of web administration. The solution to these problems is the Semantic Web which is considered to be the extension for the current web presents information in both human readable and machine processable form. The aim of this study is to reach new generic foundation architecture for the Semantic Web because there is no clear architecture for it, there are four versions, but still up to now there is no agreement for one of these versions nor is there a clear picture for the relation between different layers and technologies inside this architecture. This can be done depending on the idea of previous versions as well as Gerber-s evaluation method as a step toward an agreement for one Semantic Web architecture.

Keywords: Semantic Web Architecture, XML, RDF and Ontology.

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923 Identifying Chaotic Architecture: Origins of Nonlinear Design Theory

Authors: Mohammadsadegh Zanganehfar

Abstract:

Through the emergence of modern architecture, an aggressive desire for new design theories appeared through the works of architects and critics. The discourse of complexity and volumetric composition happened to be an important and controversial issue in the discipline of architecture which was discussed through a general point of view in Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown's book “Complexity and contradiction in architecture” in 1966, this paper attempts to identify chaos theory as a scientific model of complexity and its relation to architecture design theory by conducting a qualitative analysis and multidisciplinary critical approach through architecture and basic sciences resources. Accordingly, we identify chaotic architecture as the correlation between chaos theory and the discipline of architecture, and as an independent nonlinear design theory with specific characteristics and properties.

Keywords: Architecture complexity, chaos theory, fractals, nonlinear dynamic systems, nonlinear ontology.

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922 Sustainability in Space Composition of Traditional Architecture of Hot Arid Zones of Iran

Authors: Farshad Kheiri

Abstract:

Iran Central Plateau encompasses a large proportion of this country. The weather in these flat plains is warm and arid with very little precipitation. Different attempts in architecture have been done to alleviate the weather severity of this area and create a living place compatible with humans’ comfort criteria. Investigations have showed that some of the most successful approaches in traditional architecture of the area has been forgotten or are not being used widely. As sustainability is defined as an appropriate solution for environmental, economical, and social disorders, this research is a try to demonstrate the sustainability in aforementioned architecture and based on these studies, propounds solutions for today architecture in hot arid zones.

Keywords: Hot arid climatic zone, Iranian Architecture, Sustainability, Vernacular architecture.

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921 An Analysis of Uncoupled Designs in Chicken Egg

Authors: Pratap Sriram Sundar, Chandan Chowdhury, Sagar Kamarthi

Abstract:

Nature has perfected her designs over 3.5 billion years of evolution. Research fields such as biomimicry, biomimetics, bionics, bio-inspired computing, and nature-inspired designs have explored nature-made artifacts and systems to understand nature’s mechanisms and intelligence. Learning from nature, the researchers have generated sustainable designs and innovation in a variety of fields such as energy, architecture, agriculture, transportation, communication, and medicine. Axiomatic design offers a method to judge if a design is good. This paper analyzes design aspects of one of the nature’s amazing object: chicken egg. The functional requirements (FRs) of components of the object are tabulated and mapped on to nature-chosen design parameters (DPs). The ‘independence axiom’ of the axiomatic design methodology is applied to analyze couplings and to evaluate if eggs’ design is good (i.e., uncoupled design) or bad (i.e., coupled design). The analysis revealed that eggs design is a good design, i.e., uncoupled design. This approach can be applied to any nature’s artifacts to judge whether their design is a good or a bad. This methodology is valuable for biomimicry studies. This approach can also be a very useful teaching design consideration of biology and bio-inspired innovation.

Keywords: Uncoupled design, axiomatic design, nature design, design evaluation.

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920 Sustainable Traditional Architecture and Urban Planning in Hot-Humid Climate of Iran

Authors: Farnaz Nazem

Abstract:

This paper concentrates on the sustainable traditional architecture and urban planning in hot-humid regions of Iran. In a vast country such as Iran with different climatic zones traditional builders have presented series of logical solutions for human comfort. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate traditional architecture in hothumid climate of Iran as a sample of sustainable architecture. Iranian traditional architecture has been able to response to environmental problems for a long period of time. Its features are based on climatic factors, local construction materials of hot-humid regions and culture. This paper concludes that Iranian traditional architecture can be addressed as a sustainable architecture.

Keywords: Hot-humid climate, Iran, Sustainable Traditional architecture, Urban planning.

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919 Grid Learning; Computer Grid Joins to e- Learning

Authors: A. Nassiry, A. Kardan

Abstract:

According to development of communications and web-based technologies in recent years, e-Learning has became very important for everyone and is seen as one of most dynamic teaching methods. Grid computing is a pattern for increasing of computing power and storage capacity of a system and is based on hardware and software resources in a network with common purpose. In this article we study grid architecture and describe its different layers. In this way, we will analyze grid layered architecture. Then we will introduce a new suitable architecture for e-Learning which is based on grid network, and for this reason we call it Grid Learning Architecture. Various sections and layers of suggested architecture will be analyzed; especially grid middleware layer that has key role. This layer is heart of grid learning architecture and, in fact, regardless of this layer, e-Learning based on grid architecture will not be feasible.

Keywords: Distributed learning, Grid Learning, Grid network, SCORM standard.

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918 An Improved Method to Watermark Images Sensitive to Blocking Artifacts

Authors: Afzel Noore

Abstract:

A new digital watermarking technique for images that are sensitive to blocking artifacts is presented. Experimental results show that the proposed MDCT based approach produces highly imperceptible watermarked images and is robust to attacks such as compression, noise, filtering and geometric transformations. The proposed MDCT watermarking technique is applied to fingerprints for ensuring security. The face image and demographic text data of an individual are used as multiple watermarks. An AFIS system was used to quantitatively evaluate the matching performance of the MDCT-based watermarked fingerprint. The high fingerprint matching scores show that the MDCT approach is resilient to blocking artifacts. The quality of the extracted face and extracted text images was computed using two human visual system metrics and the results show that the image quality was high.

Keywords: Digital watermarking, data hiding, modified discretecosine transformation (MDCT).

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917 Architecture from Teaching to Learning to Practice: Authentic learning Tasks in Developing Professional Competencies

Authors: N. Utaberta, B. Hassanpour, M. Surat, A. I. Che Ani, N.M. Tawil

Abstract:

The concerns of education and practice of architecture do not necessarily overlap. Indeed the gap between them could be seen increasingly and less frequently bridged. We suggest that changing in architecture education and clarifying the relationship between these two can help to find and address the opportunities and unique positions to bridge this gulf.

Keywords: Architecture education, Learning, Practice, Teaching

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916 Constitutive Role of Light in Christian Sacred Architecture

Authors: Sokol Gojnik, Zorana; Gojnik, Igor

Abstract:

Light is the central theme of sacred architecture of all religions and so of Christianity. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the inner sense of light and its constitutive role in Christian sacred architecture. The theme of light in Christian sacred architecture is fundamentally connected to its meaning and symbolism of light in Christian theology and liturgy. This fundamental connection is opening the space to the symbolic and theological comprehending of light which was present throughout the history of Christianity and which is lacking in contemporary sacred architecture.

Keywords: Light, sacred architecture, liturgy, theology, church.

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