Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 226

Search results for: GIS zones

226 Establishment of Air Quality Zones in Italy

Authors: M. G. Dirodi, G. Gugliotta, C. Leonardi

Abstract:

Member States shall establish zones and agglomerations throughout their territory to assess and manage air quality in order to comply with European directives. In Italy decree 155/2010, transposing Directive 2008/50/EC on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe, merged into a single act the previous provisions on ambient air quality assessment and management, including those resulting from the implementation of Directive 2004/107/EC relating to arsenic, cadmium, nickel, mercury and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air. Decree 155/2010 introduced stricter rules for identifying zones on the basis of the characteristics of the territory in spite of considering pollution levels, as it was in the past. The implementation of such new criteria has reduced the great variability of the previous zoning, leading to a significant reduction of the total number of zones and to a complete and uniform ambient air quality assessment and management throughout the Country. The present document is related to the new zones definition in Italy according to Decree 155/2010. In particular the paper contains the description and the analysis of the outcome of zoning and classification.

Keywords: Zones, agglomerations, air quality assessment, classification.

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225 3D Dynamic Modeling of Transition Zones

Authors: Edina Koch, Péter Hudacsek

Abstract:

In railways transition zone is present at the boundaries of zones with different stiffness. When a train rides from an embankment onto a stiff structure, such as a bridge, tunnel or culvert, an abrupt change in the support stiffness occurs possibly inducing differential settlements. This in long term can yield to the degradation of the tracks and foundations in the transition zones. A number of techniques have been proposed or implemented to provide gradual stiffness transition at the problem zones, such as methods to ensure gradually changing pad stiffness, application of long sleepers or installation of auxiliary rails in the transition zone. Aim of the research presented in this paper is to analyze the 3D and the dynamic effects induced by the passing train over an area where significant difference in the support stiffness exists. The effects were analyzed for different arrangements associated with certain differential settlement mitigation strategies of the transition zones.

Keywords: Culvert, dynamic load, HS small model, railway transition zone.

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224 A Centralized Architecture for Cooperative Air-Sea Vehicles Using UAV-USV

Authors: Salima Bella, Assia Belbachir, Ghalem Belalem

Abstract:

This paper deals with the problem of monitoring and cleaning dirty zones of oceans using unmanned vehicles. We present a centralized cooperative architecture for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to monitor ocean regions and clean dirty zones with the help of unmanned surface vehicles (USVs). Due to the rapid deployment of these unmanned vehicles, it is convenient to use them in oceanic regions where the water pollution zones are generally unknown. In order to optimize this process, our solution aims to detect and reduce the pollution level of the ocean zones while taking into account the problem of fault tolerance related to these vehicles.

Keywords: Centralized architecture, fault tolerance, UAV, USV.

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223 Geophysical Investigation of Abnormal Seepages in Goronyo Dam Sokoto, North Western Nigeria Using Self-Potential Method

Authors: A. I. Augie, M. Saleh, A. A. Gado

Abstract:

In this research, Self-Potential (SP) method was employed to locate anomalous electrical conductivity located in Goronyo area and also to determine the condition of the embankment of the dam. SP data were plotted against distance along with the profile and spacing of electrode using surfer software (version 12). High and low zones of SP values were identified along the right and left abutments of the dam reservoir. The regions with high SP values were described to be high tendency of fluid flow associate with wet sandy soil. These zones have the SP values ranging from 200 mV and above. High SP values were due to the high moisture content that may lead to the seepage of water leaking through this zone. The zones with high SP values occupied Profiles S1, S2, S3, S4 and S5 indicating the presence of potential seepage paths within the subsurface of the embankment. These regions of seepage were identified as weak zones and potential pathways through which water could be lost from the dam reservoir. The SP values for the regions range from 250 m to 400 m (S1), 306 m to 400 m (S2), 192 m to 400 m (S3), 48 m to 200 m (S4) and 7 m to 170 m (S5) with their corresponding maximum depths of 30 m, 28 m, 28 m, 30 m and 26 m respectively. However, zones of low SP values in the overburden were observed which shows the presence of intact regions, which may be due to the compactness and dryness around the dam. The weak zones were considered as geological features (such as fractures, joints, and faults) that have undermined the integrity of the dam structure, which has led to the abnormal seepage.

Keywords: Self-potential, subsurface, seepage, condition and dam.

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222 Effect of Inclusions on the Shape and Size of Crack Tip Plastic Zones by Element Free Galerkin Method

Authors: A. Jameel, G. A. Harmain, Y. Anand, J. H. Masoodi, F. A. Najar

Abstract:

The present study investigates the effect of inclusions on the shape and size of crack tip plastic zones in engineering materials subjected to static loads by employing the element free Galerkin method (EFGM). The modeling of the discontinuities produced by cracks and inclusions becomes independent of the grid chosen for analysis. The standard displacement approximation is modified by adding additional enrichment functions, which introduce the effects of different discontinuities into the formulation. The level set method has been used to represent different discontinuities present in the domain. The effect of inclusions on the extent of crack tip plastic zones is investigated by solving some numerical problems by the EFGM.

Keywords: EFGM, stress intensity factors, crack tip plastic zones, inclusions.

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221 Comparative Analysis of Farm Enterprises Performance in Two Agro-Ecological Feuding Zone of Nigeria

Authors: Bolarinwa K.K., Oyeyinka R.A

Abstract:

The two agro-ecological zones became the focus of the study because of violent nature of the incessant conflict in the zones. The available register of farmers association was the sampling frame work where ten percent (61) farmers per state were randomly sampled. Data were collected and analysed using z-test. The research findings revealed tree crops and grains production enterprises ranked higher in Osun (rain fed zones) and Taraba states (savannah zones) respectively. Osun state entrepreneur felt the effect of the conflict on their enterprises more than Tarba state. The reasons adduced for severity of the conflict on enterprises are majority (77.0%) migrated and (75.5%) of them were not allowed to enter their farms during and when conflict deescalated unlike situation in Taraba state. The different in enterprises production level between the two agroecological zone was statistically significant at p<0.05. The conflict had severe impact on farm enterprises.

Keywords: Conflict, severity, entrepreneurs, farm enterprises and production level.

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220 Grading Fourteen Zones of Isfahan in Terms of the Impact of Globalization on the Urban Fabric of the City, Using the TOPSIS Model

Authors: A. Zahedi Yeganeh, A. Khademolhosseini, R. Mokhtari Malekabadi

Abstract:

Undoubtedly one of the most far-reaching and controversial topics considered in the past few decades, has been globalization. Globalization lies in the essence of the modern culture. It is a complex and rapidly expanding network of links and mutual interdependence that is an aspect of modern life; though some argue that this link existed since the beginning of human history. If we consider globalization as a dynamic social process in which the geographical constraints governing the political, economic, social and cultural relationships have been undermined, it might not be possible to simply describe its impact on the urban fabric. But since in this phenomenon the increase in communications of societies (while preserving the main cultural - regional characteristics) with one another and the increase in the possibility of influencing other societies are discussed, the need for more studies will be felt. The main objective of this study is to grade based on some globalization factors on urban fabric applying the TOPSIS model. The research method is descriptive - analytical and survey. For data analysis, the TOPSIS model and SPSS software were used and the results of GIS software with fourteen cities are shown on the map. The results show that the process of being influenced by the globalization of the urban fabric of fourteen zones of Isfahan was not similar and there have been large differences in this respect between city zones; the most affected areas are zones 5, 6 and 9 of the municipality and the least impact has been on the zones 4 and 3 and 2.

Keywords: Grading, Globalization, Urban fabric, 14 zones of Isfahan, TOPSIS model.

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219 Vulnerability Analysis for Risk Zones Boundary Definition to Support a Decision Making Process at CBRNE Operations

Authors: Aliaksei Patsekha, Michael Hohenberger, Harald Raupenstrauch

Abstract:

An effective emergency response to accidents with chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, or explosive materials (CBRNE) that represent highly dynamic situations needs immediate actions within limited time, information and resources. The aim of the study is to provide the foundation for division of unsafe area into risk zones according to the impact of hazardous parameters (heat radiation, thermal dose, overpressure, chemical concentrations). A decision on the boundary values for three risk zones is based on the vulnerability analysis that covered a variety of accident scenarios containing the release of a toxic or flammable substance which either evaporates, ignites and/or explodes. Critical values are selected for the boundary definition of the Red, Orange and Yellow risk zones upon the examination of harmful effects that are likely to cause injuries of varying severity to people and different levels of damage to structures. The obtained results provide the basis for creating a comprehensive real-time risk map for a decision support at CBRNE operations.

Keywords: Boundary values, CBRNE threats, decision making process, hazardous effects, vulnerability analysis, risk zones.

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218 Predicting Residence Time of Pollutants in Transient Storage Zones of Rivers by Genetic Programming

Authors: Rajeev R. Sahay

Abstract:

Rivers have transient storage or dead zones where injected pollutants or solutes are entrapped for considerable period of time, known as residence time, before being released into the main flowing zones of rivers. In this study, a new empirical expression for residence time, implementing genetic programming on published dispersion data, has been derived. The proposed expression uses few hydraulic and geometric characteristics of rivers which are normally known to the authorities. When compared with some reported expressions, based on various statistical indices, it can be concluded that the proposed expression predicts the residence time of pollutants in natural rivers more accurately.

Keywords: Parameter estimation, pollutant transport, residence time, rivers, transient storage.

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217 Influence of Proteolysis and Soluble Calcium Levels on Textural Changes in the Interior and Exterior of Iranian UF White Cheese during Ripening

Authors: I. Fathollahi, J. Hesari, S. Azadmard, S. Oustan

Abstract:

The relationships between Proteolysis and soluble calcium levels with hardness of cheese texture were investigated in Iranian UF white cheese during 90 d ripening. Cheeses were sampled in interior and exterior. Results showed that levels of proteolysis, soluble calcium and hardness of cheese texture changed significantly (p< 0.05) over ripening. Levels of proteolysis and hardness were significantly (p< 0.05) different in interior and exterior zones of cheeses. External zones of cheeses became softer and had higher levels of proteolysis compared to internal zones during ripening. The highest correlation coefficient (r2= 0.979; p<0.01) was observed between hardness and levels of pH 4.6-soluble nitrogen in exterior zones of cheese. These result showed that proteolysis can contribute to textural softening during ripening of Iranian UF white cheese.

Keywords: Calcium, Proteolysis, Softening, Ultrafiltration, White cheese.

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216 Interaction of Electroosmotic Flow on Isotachophoretic Transport of Ions

Authors: S. Bhattacharyya, Partha P. Gopmandal

Abstract:

A numerical study on the influence of electroosmotic flow on analyte preconcentration by isotachophoresis ( ITP) is made. We consider that the double layer induced electroosmotic flow ( EOF) counterbalance the electrophoretic velocity and a stationary ITP stacked zones results. We solve the Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the Nernst-Planck equations to determine the local convective velocity and the preconcentration dynamics of ions. Our numerical algorithm is based on a finite volume method along with a secondorder upwind scheme. The present numerical algorithm can capture the the sharp boundaries of step-changes ( plateau mode) or zones of steep gradients ( peak mode) accurately. The convection of ions due to EOF reduces the resolution of the ITP transition zones and produces a dispersion in analyte zones. The role of the electrokinetic parameters which induces dispersion is analyzed. A one-dimensional model for the area-averaged concentrations based on the Taylor-Aristype effective diffusivity is found to be in good agreement with the computed solutions.

Keywords: Interfaces, Electroosmotic flow, QUICK Scheme, Dispersion, Effective Diffusivity.

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215 Hydrothermal Alteration Zones Identification Based on Remote Sensing Data in the Mahin Area, West of Qazvin Province, Iran

Authors: R. Nouri, M.R. Jafari, M. Arain., F. Feizi

Abstract:

The Mahin area is a part of Tarom- Hashtjin zone that located in west of Qazvin province in northwest of Iran. Many copper and base metals ore deposits are hosted by this zone. High potential localities identification in this area is very necessary. The objective of this research, is finding hydrothermal alteration zones by remote sensing methods and best processing technique of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data. Different methods such as band ratio, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) and Least Square Fit (LS-Fit) were used for mapping hydrothermal alteration zones.

Keywords: Hydrothermal alteration, Iran, Mahin, Remote sensing

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214 Temperature Distribution in Friction Stir Welding Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Armansyah, I. P. Almanar, M. Saiful Bahari Shaari, M. Shamil Jaffarullah, Nur’amirah Busu, M. Arif Fadzleen Zainal Abidin, M. Amlie A. Kasim

Abstract:

During welding, the amount of heat present in weld zones determines the quality of weldment produced. Thus, the heat distribution characteristics and its magnitude in weld zones with respect to process variables such as tool pin-shoulder rotational and traveling speed during welding is analyzed using thermal finite element analyses method. For this purpose, transient thermal finite element analyses are performed to model the temperatures distribution and its quantities in weld-zones with respect to process variables such as rotational speed and traveling speed during welding. Commercially available software Altair HyperWork is used to model three-dimensional tool pin-shoulder vs. workpieces and to simulate the friction stir process. The results show that increasing tool rotational speed, at a constant traveling speed, will increase the amount of heat generated in weld-zones. In contrary, increasing traveling speed, at constant tool pin-shoulder rotational speeds, will reduce the amount of heat generated in weld zones.

Keywords: Frictions Stir Welding, Temperature Distribution, Finite Element Method, Altair Hyperwork.

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213 Predicting Dispersion Coefficient in Free-Flowing Zones of Rivers by Genetic Programming

Authors: Rajeev Ranjan Sahay

Abstract:

Transient storage zones along the flow paths of rivers have great influence on the dispersion of pollutants that are either accidentally or otherwise led into them. The speed with which these pollution clouds get transported and dispersed downstream is, to a large extent, explained by the longitudinal dispersion coefficients in the free-flowing zones of rivers (Kf). In the present work, a new empirical expression for Kf has been derived employing genetic programming (GP) on published dispersion data. The proposed expression uses few hydraulic and geometric characteristics of a river that are readily available to field engineers. Based on various performance indices, the proposed expression is found superior to other existing expression for Kf.

Keywords: Dispersion, parameter estimation, rivers, transient pollutant.

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212 Aggregate Angularity on the Permanent Deformation Zones of Hot Mix Asphalt

Authors: Lee P. Leon, Raymond Charles

Abstract:

This paper presents a method of evaluating the effect of aggregate angularity on hot mix asphalt (HMA) properties and its relationship to the Permanent Deformation resistance. The research concluded that aggregate particle angularity had a significant effect on the Permanent Deformation performance, and also that with an increase in coarse aggregate angularity there was an increase in the resistance of mixes to Permanent Deformation. A comparison between the measured data and predictive data of permanent deformation predictive models showed the limits of existing prediction models. The numerical analysis described the permanent deformation zones and concluded that angularity has an effect of the onset of these zones. Prediction of permanent deformation help road agencies and by extension economists and engineers determine the best approach for maintenance, rehabilitation, and new construction works of the road infrastructure.

Keywords: Aggregate angularity, asphalt concrete, permanent deformation, rutting prediction.

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211 Mapping of Alteration Zones in Mineral Rich Belt of South-East Rajasthan Using Remote Sensing Techniques

Authors: Mrinmoy Dhara, Vivek K. Sengar, Shovan L. Chattoraj, Soumiya Bhattacharjee

Abstract:

Remote sensing techniques have emerged as an asset for various geological studies. Satellite images obtained by different sensors contain plenty of information related to the terrain. Digital image processing further helps in customized ways for the prospecting of minerals. In this study, an attempt has been made to map the hydrothermally altered zones using multispectral and hyperspectral datasets of South East Rajasthan. Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Hyperion (Level1R) dataset have been processed to generate different Band Ratio Composites (BRCs). For this study, ASTER derived BRCs were generated to delineate the alteration zones, gossans, abundant clays and host rocks. ASTER and Hyperion images were further processed to extract mineral end members and classified mineral maps have been produced using Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) method. Results were validated with the geological map of the area which shows positive agreement with the image processing outputs. Thus, this study concludes that the band ratios and image processing in combination play significant role in demarcation of alteration zones which may provide pathfinders for mineral prospecting studies.

Keywords: Advanced space-borne thermal emission and reflection radiometer, ASTER, Hyperion, Band ratios, Alteration zones, spectral angle mapper.

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210 Microfluidic Paper-Based Electrochemical Biosensor

Authors: Ahmad Manbohi, Seyyed Hamid Ahmadi

Abstract:

A low-cost paper-based microfluidic device (PAD) for the multiplex electrochemical determination of glucose, uric acid, and dopamine in biological fluids was developed. Using wax printing, PAD containing a central zone, six channels, and six detection zones was fabricated, and the electrodes were printed on detection zones using pre-made electrodes template. For each analyte, two detection zones were used. The carbon working electrode was coated with chitosan-BSA (and enzymes for glucose and uric acid). To detect glucose and uric acid, enzymatic reactions were employed. These reactions involve enzyme-catalyzed redox reactions of the analytes and produce free electrons for electrochemical measurement. Calibration curves were linear (R² > 0.980) in the range of 0-80 mM for glucose, 0.09–0.9 mM for dopamine, and 0–50 mM for uric acid, respectively. Blood samples were successfully analyzed by the proposed method.

Keywords: Multiplex, microfluidic paper-based electrochemical biosensors, biomarkers, biological fluids.

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209 Groundwater Potential Zone Identification in Unconsolidated Aquifer Using Geophysical Techniques around Tarbela Ghazi, District Haripur, Pakistan

Authors: Syed Muzyan Shahzad, Liu Jianxin, Asim Shahzad, Muhammad Sharjeel Raza, Sun Ya, Fanidi Meryem

Abstract:

Electrical resistivity investigation was conducted in vicinity of Tarbela Ghazi, in order to study the subsurface layer with a view of determining the depth to the aquifer and thickness of groundwater potential zones. Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) using Schlumberger array was carried out at 16 VES stations. Well logging data at four tube wells have been used to mark the super saturated zones with great discharge rate. The present paper shows a geoelectrical identification of the lithology and an estimate of the relationship between the resistivity and Dar Zarrouk parameters (transverse unit resistance and longitudinal unit conductance). The VES results revealed both homogeneous and heterogeneous nature of the subsurface strata. Aquifer is unconfined to confine in nature, and at few locations though perched aquifer has been identified, groundwater potential zones are developed in unconsolidated deposits layers and more than seven geo-electric layers are observed at some VES locations. Saturated zones thickness ranges from 5 m to 150 m, whereas at few area aquifer is beyond 150 m thick. The average anisotropy, transvers resistance and longitudinal conductance values are 0.86 %, 35750.9821 Ω.m2, 0.729 Siemens, respectively. The transverse unit resistance values fluctuate all over the aquifer system, whereas below at particular depth high values are observed, that significantly associated with the high transmissivity zones. The groundwater quality in all analyzed samples is below permissible limit according to World Health Standard (WHO).

Keywords: Geoelectric layers, Dar Zarrouk parameters, Aquifer, Electro-stratigraphic.

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208 Optimization of Multi-Zone Unconventional (Shale) Gas Reservoir Using Hydraulic Fracturing Technique

Authors: F.C. Amadi, G. C. Enyi, G. G. Nasr

Abstract:

Hydraulic fracturing is one of the most important stimulation techniques available to the petroleum engineer to extract hydrocarbons in tight gas sandstones. It allows more oil and gas production in tight reservoirs as compared to conventional means. The main aim of the study is to optimize the hydraulic fracturing as technique and for this purpose three multi-zones layer formation is considered and fractured contemporaneously. The three zones are named as Zone1 (upper zone), Zone2 (middle zone) and Zone3 (lower zone) respectively and they all occur in shale rock. Simulation was performed with Mfrac integrated software which gives a variety of 3D fracture options. This simulation process yielded an average fracture efficiency of 93.8%for the three respective zones and an increase of the average permeability of the rock system. An average fracture length of 909 ft with net height (propped height) of 210 ft (average) was achieved. Optimum fracturing results was also achieved with maximum fracture width of 0.379 inches at an injection rate of 13.01 bpm with 17995 Mscf of gas production.

Keywords: Hydraulic fracturing, Mfrac, Optimisation, Tight reservoir.

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207 Risk Factors in a Road Construction Site

Authors: V.R Gannapathy, S.K Subramaniam, A.B Mohamad Diah, M.K Suaidi, A.H Hamidon

Abstract:

The picture of a perfect road construction site is the one that utilizes conventional vertical road signs and a flagman to optimize the traffic flow with minimum hazel to the public. Former research has been carried out by Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) and Ministry of Works to further enhance smoothness in traffic operations and particularly in safety issues within work zones. This paper highlights on hazardous zones in a certain road construction or road maintenance site. Most cases show that the flagman falls into high risk of fatal accidents within work zone. Various measures have been taken by both the authorities and contractors to overcome such miseries, yet it-s impossible to eliminate the usage of a flagman since it is considered the best practice. With the implementation of new technologies in automating the traffic flow in road construction site, it is possible to eliminate the usage of a flagman. The intelligent traffic light system is designed to solve problems which contribute hazardous at road construction site and to be inline with the road safety regulation which is taken into granted.

Keywords: Intelligent Traffic Light, Critical Zones, Safety Regulation, Flagman

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206 Should Local Governments Expect Benefits from Special Economic Zones? The Case of Poland

Authors: R. Pastusiak, M. Jasiniak, A. Kaźmierska

Abstract:

The impact of Special Economic Zones (SEZs) has been analyzed for many years by researchers. There are lot of theoretical studies proving the SEZs importance for regional development, however, there is lack of empirical studies (and they are mainly focused on China market) that are based on available data. The theoretical studies indicate the various impacts of enterprises operating within SEZs on the economy. The article proves that, in case of Poland, locating SEZs in municipalities is an important part of increasing municipalities’ income. Therefore SEZs have a positive impact on regional development. Municipality income is understood as taxes paid by taxpayers who depend on SEZ companies’ performance. The analysis includes the Corporate Income Tax (CIT), Personal Income Tax (PIT) and real estate tax. The effects of SEZs on regional development were narrowed to a few variables that are most significant for the financial system. The analysis indicates the significant impact of SEZs on the amount of taxes influencing the municipality budget.

Keywords: Government, local finance, municipal finance, Special Economic Zones.

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205 The Impact of Water Reservoirs on Biodiversity and Food Security and the Creation of Adaptation Mechanisms

Authors: Inom S. Normatov, Abulqosim Muminov, Parviz I. Normatov

Abstract:

Problems of food security and the preservation of reserved zones in the region of Central Asia under the conditions of the climate change induced by the placement and construction of large reservoirs are considered. The criteria for the optimum placement and construction of reservoirs that entail the minimum impact on the environment are established. The need for the accounting of climatic parameters is shown by the calculation of the water quantity required for the irrigation of agricultural lands.

Keywords: Reservoir, Central Asia, food, reserved zones, adaptation, agriculture.

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204 Relocation of the Air Quality Monitoring Stations Network for Aburrá Valley Based on Local Climatic Zones

Authors: Carmen E. Zapata, José F. Jiménez, Mauricio Ramiréz, Natalia A. Cano

Abstract:

The majority of the urban areas in Latin America face the challenges associated with city planning and development problems, attributed to human, technical, and economical factors; therefore, we cannot ignore the issues related to climate change because the city modifies the natural landscape in a significant way transforming the radiation balance and heat content in the urbanized areas. These modifications provoke changes in the temperature distribution known as “the heat island effect”. According to this phenomenon, we have the need to conceive the urban planning based on climatological patterns that will assure its sustainable functioning, including the particularities of the climate variability. In the present study, it is identified the Local Climate Zones (LCZ) in the Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley (Colombia) with the objective of relocate the air quality monitoring stations as a partial solution to the problem of how to measure representative air quality levels in a city for a local scale, but with instruments that measure in the microscale.

Keywords: Air quality, monitoring, local climatic zones, valley, monitoring stations.

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203 Sustainability in Space Composition of Traditional Architecture of Hot Arid Zones of Iran

Authors: Farshad Kheiri

Abstract:

Iran Central Plateau encompasses a large proportion of this country. The weather in these flat plains is warm and arid with very little precipitation. Different attempts in architecture have been done to alleviate the weather severity of this area and create a living place compatible with humans’ comfort criteria. Investigations have showed that some of the most successful approaches in traditional architecture of the area has been forgotten or are not being used widely. As sustainability is defined as an appropriate solution for environmental, economical, and social disorders, this research is a try to demonstrate the sustainability in aforementioned architecture and based on these studies, propounds solutions for today architecture in hot arid zones.

Keywords: Hot arid climatic zone, Iranian Architecture, Sustainability, Vernacular architecture.

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202 Establishment of Kinetic Zone Diagrams via Simulated Linear Sweep Voltammograms for Soluble-Insoluble Systems

Authors: Imene Atek, Abed M. Affoune, Hubert Girault, Pekka Peljo

Abstract:

Due to the need for a rigorous mathematical model that can help to estimate kinetic properties for soluble-insoluble systems, through voltammetric experiments, a Nicholson Semi Analytical Approach was used in this work for modeling and prediction of theoretical linear sweep voltammetry responses for reversible, quasi reversible or irreversible electron transfer reactions. The redox system of interest is a one-step metal electrodeposition process. A rigorous analysis of simulated linear scan voltammetric responses following variation of dimensionless factors, the rate constant and charge transfer coefficients in a broad range was studied and presented in the form of the so called kinetic zones diagrams. These kinetic diagrams were divided into three kinetics zones. Interpreting these zones leads to empirical mathematical models which can allow the experimenter to determine electrodeposition reactions kinetics whatever the degree of reversibility. The validity of the obtained results was tested and an excellent experiment–theory agreement has been showed.

Keywords: Electrodeposition, kinetics diagrams, modeling, voltammetry.

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201 Capacity Building for Hazmat Transport Emergency Preparedness: 'Hotspot Impact Zone' Mapping from Flammable and Toxic Releases

Authors: U K Chakrabarti, Jigisha Parikh

Abstract:

Hazardous Material transportation by road is coupled with inherent risk of accidents causing loss of lives, grievous injuries, property losses and environmental damages. The most common type of hazmat road accident happens to be the releases (78%) of hazardous substances, followed by fires (28%), explosions (14%) and vapour/ gas clouds (6 %.). The paper is discussing initially the probable 'Impact Zones' likely to be caused by one flammable (LPG) and one toxic (ethylene oxide) chemicals being transported through a sizable segment of a State Highway connecting three notified Industrial zones in Surat district in Western India housing 26 MAH industrial units. Three 'hotspots' were identified along the highway segment depending on the particular chemical traffic and the population distribution within 500 meters on either sides. The thermal radiation and explosion overpressure have been calculated for LPG / Ethylene Oxide BLEVE scenarios along with toxic release scenario for ethylene oxide. Besides, the dispersion calculations for ethylene oxide toxic release have been made for each 'hotspot' location and the impact zones have been mapped for the LOC concentrations. Subsequently, the maximum Initial Isolation and the protective zones were calculated based on ERPG-3 and ERPG-2 values of ethylene oxide respectively which are estimated taking the worst case scenario under worst weather conditions. The data analysis will be helpful to the local administration in capacity building with respect to rescue / evacuation and medical preparedness and quantitative inputs to augment the District Offsite Emergency Plan document.

Keywords: Hotspot, Ethylene Oxide, LPG, MAH (MajorAccident Hazard).

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200 Numerical Simulation of Natural Gas Dispersion from Low Pressure Pipelines

Authors: Omid Adibi, Nategheh Najafpour, Bijan Farhanieh, Hossein Afshin

Abstract:

Gas release from the pipelines is one of the main factors in the gas industry accidents. Released gas ejects from the pipeline as a free jet and in the growth process, the fuel gets mixed with the ambient air. Accordingly, an accidental spark will release the chemical energy of the mixture with an explosion. Gas explosion damages the equipment and endangers the life of staffs. So due to importance of safety in gas industries, prevision of accident can reduce the number of the casualties. In this paper, natural gas leakages from the low pressure pipelines are studied in two steps: 1) the simulation of mixing process and identification of flammable zones and 2) the simulation of wind effects on the mixing process. The numerical simulations were performed by using the finite volume method and the pressure-based algorithm. Also, for the grid generation the structured method was used. The results show that, in just 6.4 s after accident, released natural gas could penetrate to 40 m in vertical and 20 m in horizontal direction. Moreover, the results show that the wind speed is a key factor in dispersion process. In fact, the wind transports the flammable zones into the downstream. Hence, to improve the safety of the people and human property, it is preferable to construct gas facilities and buildings in the opposite side of prevailing wind direction.

Keywords: Flammable zones, gas pipelines, numerical simulation, wind effects.

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199 Quantitative Analysis of Construction Waste in the City of Novi Sad, Serbia

Authors: Nikola Karanovic, Aleksandar Djuric

Abstract:

This paper introduces a method of calculating the quantities of construction materials and construction waste on site in city of Novi Sad. In buildings is about 40% of the total weight of materials that are in circulation in the world economic space. The best solution for this waste is to be stored at source, at the point of generation. There are several treatment options for this type of waste, reduction at source, reuse, recycling. Beside its negative effects on the environment, construction waste can be and resource. Novi Sad is divided in 16 single family resident zones and 10 multi family resident zones. For every zone of the city, quantities of used construction materials and construction waste were obtained. Rational use of natural resources is an essential factor in applying the principles of development with savings.

Keywords: Construction materials, Construction waste, Novi Sad, Recycling

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198 Experimental Study of Tunable Layout Printed Fresnel Lens Structure Based on Dye Doped Liquid Crystal

Authors: M. Javadzadeh, H. Khoshsima

Abstract:

In this article, we present a layout printing way for producing Fresnel zone on 1294-1b doped liquid crystal with Methyl-Red azo dye. We made a Fresnel zone mask with 25 zones and radius of 5 mm using lithography technique. With layout printing way, we recorded mask’s pattern on cell with λ=532 nm solid-state diode pump laser. By recording Fresnel zone pattern on cell and making Fresnel pattern on the surface of cell, odd and even zones, will form. The printed pattern, because of Azo dye’s photoisomerization, was permanent. Experimentally, we saw focal length tunability from 32 cm to 43 cm.

Keywords: Liquid crystal, lens, Fresnel zone, diffraction, Fresnel lens.

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197 Power Transformer Noise, Noise Tests, and Example Test Results

Authors: E. Doğan, B. Kekezoğlu

Abstract:

Voltage level must be raised in order to deliver the produced energy to the consumption zones with less loss and less cost. Power transformers used to raise or lower voltage are important parts of the energy transmission system. Power transformers used in switchgear and power generation plants stay in human's intensive habitat zones as a result of expanding cities. Accordingly, noise levels produced by power transformers have begun more and more important and they have established itself as one of the research field. In this research, the noise cause on transformers has been investigated, it's causes has been examined and noise measurement techniques have been introduced. Examples of transformer noise test results are submitted and precautions to be taken were discussed for the purpose of decreasing of the noise which will occurred by transformers.

Keywords: Power transformer, noise measurement, core noise, load noise, fan-pump noise.

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