Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 887

Search results for: lot release policy

887 Effective Scheduling of Semiconductor Manufacturing using Simulation

Authors: Ingy A. El-Khouly, Khaled S. El-Kilany, Aziz E. El-Sayed

Abstract:

The process of wafer fabrication is arguably the most technologically complex and capital intensive stage in semiconductor manufacturing. This large-scale discrete-event process is highly reentrant, and involves hundreds of machines, restrictions, and processing steps. Therefore, production control of wafer fabrication facilities (fab), specifically scheduling, is one of the most challenging problems that this industry faces. Dispatching rules have been extensively applied to the scheduling problems in semiconductor manufacturing. Moreover, lot release policies are commonly used in this manufacturing setting to further improve the performance of such systems and reduce its inherent variability. In this work, simulation is used in the scheduling of re-entrant flow shop manufacturing systems with an application in semiconductor wafer fabrication; where, a simulation model has been developed for the Intel Five-Machine Six Step Mini-Fab using the ExtendTM simulation environment. The Mini-Fab has been selected as it captures the challenges involved in scheduling the highly re-entrant semiconductor manufacturing lines. A number of scenarios have been developed and have been used to evaluate the effect of different dispatching rules and lot release policies on the selected performance measures. Results of simulation showed that the performance of the Mini-Fab can be drastically improved using a combination of dispatching rules and lot release policy.

Keywords: Dispatching rules, lot release policy, re-entrant flowshop, semiconductor manufacturing.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2169
886 Formulation of Extended-Release Gliclazide Tablet Using a Mathematical Model for Estimation of Hypromellose

Authors: Farzad Khajavi, Farzaneh Jalilfar, Faranak Jafari, Leila Shokrani

Abstract:

Formulation of gliclazide in the form of extended-release tablet in 30 and 60 mg dosage forms was performed using hypromellose (HPMC K4M) as a retarding agent. Drug-release profiles were investigated in comparison with references Diamicron MR 30 and 60 mg tablets. The effect of size of powder particles, the amount of hypromellose in formulation, hardness of tablets, and also the effect of halving the tablets were investigated on drug release profile. A mathematical model which describes hypromellose behavior in initial times of drug release was proposed for the estimation of hypromellose content in modified-release gliclazide 60 mg tablet. This model is based on erosion of hypromellose in dissolution media. The model is applicable to describe release profiles of insoluble drugs. Therefore, by using dissolved amount of drug in initial times of dissolution and the model, the amount of hypromellose in formulation can be predictable. The model was used to predict the HPMC K4M content in modified-release gliclazide 30 mg and extended-release quetiapine 200 mg tablets.

Keywords: Hypromellose, gliclazide, drug release, modified-release tablet, mathematical model.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1346
885 Formulation and in vitro Evaluation of Sustained Release Matrix Tablets of Levetiracetam for Better Epileptic Treatment

Authors: Nagasamy Venkatesh Dhandapani

Abstract:

The objective of the present study was to develop sustained release oral matrix tablets of anti epileptic drug levetiracetam. The sustained release matrix tablets of levetiracetam were prepared using hydrophilic matrix hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) as a release retarding polymer by wet granulation method. Prior to compression, FTIR studies were performed to understand the compatibility between the drug and excipients. The study revealed that there was no chemical interaction between drug and excipients used in the study. The tablets were characterized by physical and chemical parameters and results were found in acceptable limits. In vitro release study was carried out for the tablets using 0.1 N HCl for 2 hours and in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 for remaining time up to 12 hours. The effect of polymer concentration was studied. Different dissolution models were applied to drug release data in order to evaluate release mechanisms and kinetics. The drug release data fit well to zero order kinetics. Drug release mechanism was found as a complex mixture of diffusion, swelling and erosion.

Keywords: Levetiracetam, sustained-release, hydrophilic matrix tablet, HPMC grade K 100 MCR, wet granulation, zero order release kinetics.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1019
884 Periodic Storage Control Problem

Authors: Ru-Shuo Sheu, Han-Hsin Chou, Te-Shyang Tan

Abstract:

Considering a reservoir with periodic states and different cost functions with penalty, its release rules can be modeled as a periodic Markov decision process (PMDP). First, we prove that policy- iteration algorithm also works for the PMDP. Then, with policy- iteration algorithm, we obtain the optimal policies for a special aperiodic reservoir model with two cost functions under large penalty and give a discussion when the penalty is small.

Keywords: periodic Markov decision process, periodic state, policy-iteration algorithm.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 996
883 Release Behavior of Biodegradable and Nonbiodegradable Polymeric Microparticles Loaded with Nimesulide

Authors: Shujaat A. Khan, Ghulam Murtaza

Abstract:

This presentation narrates the comparative analysis of the dissolution data nimesulide microparticles prepared with ethylcellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, chitosan and Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) as polymers. The analysis of release profiles showed that the variations noted in the release behavior of nimesulide from various microparticulate formulations are due to the nature of used polymer. In addition, maximum retardation in the nimesulide release was observed with HPMC (floating particles). Thus HPMC miacroparticles may be preferably employed for sustained release dosage form development.

Keywords: Nimesulide, microparticles, ethylcellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, chitosan and Poly(D, L-lactide-coglycolide).

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1467
882 Pharmaceutical Microencapsulation Technology for Development of Controlled Release Drug Delivery systems

Authors: Mahmood Ahmad, Asadullah Madni, Muhammad Usman, Abubakar Munir, Naveed Akhtar, Haji M. Shoaib Khan

Abstract:

This article demonstrated development of controlled release system of an NSAID drug, Diclofenac sodium employing different ratios of Ethyl cellulose. Diclofenac sodium and ethyl cellulose in different proportions were processed by microencapsulation based on phase separation technique to formulate microcapsules. The prepared microcapsules were then compressed into tablets to obtain controlled release oral formulations. In-vitro evaluation was performed by dissolution test of each preparation was conducted in 900 ml of phosphate buffer solution of pH 7.2 maintained at 37 ± 0.5 °C and stirred at 50 rpm. At predetermined time intervals (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20 and 24 hrs). The drug concentration in the collected samples was determined by UV spectrophotometer at 276 nm. The physical characteristics of diclofenac sodium microcapsules were according to accepted range. These were off-white, free flowing and spherical in shape. The release profile of diclofenac sodium from microcapsules was found to be directly proportional to the proportion of ethylcellulose and coat thickness. The in-vitro release pattern showed that with ratio of 1:1 and 1:2 (drug: polymer), the percentage release of drug at first hour was 16.91 and 11.52 %, respectively as compared to 1:3 which is only 6.87 % with in this time. The release mechanism followed higuchi model for its release pattern. Tablet Formulation (F2) of present study was found comparable in release profile the marketed brand Phlogin-SR, microcapsules showed an extended release beyond 24 h. Further, a good correlation was found between drug release and proportion of ethylcellulose in the microcapsules. Microencapsulation based on coacervation found as good technique to control release of diclofenac sodium for making the controlled release formulations.

Keywords: Diclofenac sodium, Microencapsulationtechnology, Ethylcellulose, In-Vitro Release Profile

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2921
881 Performance Evaluation of Extruded-Type Heat Sinks Used in Inverter for Solar Power Generation

Authors: Jeong Hyun Kim, Gyo Woo Lee

Abstract:

In this study, heat release performances of the three extruded-type heat sinks can be used in inverter for solar power generation were evaluated. Numbers of fins in the heat sinks (namely E-38, E-47 and E-76) were 38, 47 and 76, respectively. Heat transfer areas of them were 1.8, 1.9 and 2.8m2. The heat release performances of E-38, E-47 and E-76 heat sinks were measured as 79.6, 81.6 and 83.2%, respectively. The results of heat release performance show that the larger amount of heat transfer area the higher heat release rate. While on the other, in this experiment, variations of mass flow rates caused by different cross sectional areas of the three heat sinks may not be the major parameter of the heat release. Despite the 47.4% increment of heat transfer area of E-76 heat sink than that of E-47 one, its heat release rate was higher by only 2.0%; this suggests that its heat transfer area need to be optimized.

Keywords: Solar Inverter, Heat Sink, Forced Convection, Heat Transfer, Performance Evaluation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2342
880 Release Management with Continuous Delivery: A Case Study

Authors: A. Maruf Aytekin

Abstract:

We present our approach on using continuous delivery pattern for release management. One of the key practices of agile and lean teams is the continuous delivery of new features to stakeholders. The main benefits of this approach lie in the ability to release new applications rapidly which has real strategic impact on the competitive advantage of an organization. Organizations that successfully implement Continuous Delivery have the ability to evolve rapidly to support innovation, provide stable and reliable software in more efficient ways, decrease the amount of resources need for maintenance, and lower the software delivery time and costs. One of the objectives of this paper is to elaborate a case study where IT division of Central Securities Depository Institution (MKK) of Turkey apply Continuous Delivery pattern to improve release management process.

Keywords: Automation, continuous delivery, deployment, release management.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5022
879 Controlled Release of Glucosamine from Pluronic-Based Hydrogels for the Treatment of Osteoarthritis

Authors: Papon Thamvasupong, Kwanchanok Viravaidya-Pasuwat

Abstract:

Osteoarthritis affects a lot of people worldwide. Local injection of glucosamine is one of the alternative treatment methods to replenish the natural lubrication of cartilage. However, multiple injections can potentially lead to possible bacterial infection. Therefore, a drug delivery system is desired to reduce the frequencies of injections. A hydrogel is one of the delivery systems that can control the release of drugs. Thermo-reversible hydrogels can be beneficial to the drug delivery system especially in the local injection route because this formulation can change from liquid to gel after getting into human body. Once the gel is in the body, it will slowly release the drug in a controlled manner. In this study, various formulations of Pluronic-based hydrogels were synthesized for the controlled release of glucosamine. One of the challenges of the Pluronic controlled release system is its fast dissolution rate. To overcome this problem, alginate and calcium sulfate (CaSO4) were added to the polymer solution. The characteristics of the hydrogels were investigated including the gelation temperature, gelation time, hydrogel dissolution and glucosamine release mechanism. Finally, a mathematical model of glucosamine release from Pluronic-alginate-hyaluronic acid hydrogel was developed. Our results have shown that crosslinking Pluronic gel with alginate did not significantly extend the dissolution rate of the gel. Moreover, the gel dissolution profiles and the glucosamine release mechanisms were best described using the zeroth-order kinetic model, indicating that the release of glucosamine was primarily governed by the gel dissolution.

Keywords: Controlled release, drug delivery system, glucosamine, Pluronic® F-127, thermoreversible hydrogel.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1312
878 Chitosan/Casein Microparticles: Preparation, Characterization and Drug Release Studies

Authors: Selvakumar Dhanasingh, Shunmuga Kumar Nallaperumal

Abstract:

Microparticles carrier systems made from naturally occurring polymers based on chitosan/casein system appears to be a promising carrier for the sustained release of orally and parenteral administered drugs. In the current study we followed a microencapsulation technique based aqueous coacervation method to prepare chitosan/casein microparticles of compositions 1:1, 1:2 and 1:5 incorporated with chloramphenicol. Glutaraldehyde was used as a chemical cross-linking agent. The microparticles were prepared by aerosol method and studied by optical microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, thermo gravimetric analysis, swelling studies and drug release studies at various pH. The percentage swelling of the polymers are found to be in the order pH 4 > pH 10 > pH 7 and the increase in casein composition decrease the swelling percentage. The drug release studies also follow the above order.

Keywords: Chitosan/casein micro particles, chloramphenicol, drug release, microencapsulation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2851
877 A Combined Cipher Text Policy Attribute-Based Encryption and Timed-Release Encryption Method for Securing Medical Data in Cloud

Authors: G. Shruthi, Purohit Shrinivasacharya

Abstract:

The biggest problem in cloud is securing an outsourcing data. A cloud environment cannot be considered to be trusted. It becomes more challenging when outsourced data sources are managed by multiple outsourcers with different access rights. Several methods have been proposed to protect data confidentiality against the cloud service provider to support fine-grained data access control. We propose a method with combined Cipher Text Policy Attribute-based Encryption (CP-ABE) and Timed-release encryption (TRE) secure method to control medical data storage in public cloud.

Keywords: Attribute, encryption, security, trapdoor.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 384
876 Opening up Government Datasets for Big Data Analysis to Support Policy Decisions

Authors: K. Hardy, A. Maurushat

Abstract:

Policy makers are increasingly looking to make evidence-based decisions. Evidence-based decisions have historically used rigorous methodologies of empirical studies by research institutes, as well as less reliable immediate survey/polls often with limited sample sizes. As we move into the era of Big Data analytics, policy makers are looking to different methodologies to deliver reliable empirics in real-time. The question is not why did these people do this for the last 10 years, but why are these people doing this now, and if the this is undesirable, and how can we have an impact to promote change immediately. Big data analytics rely heavily on government data that has been released in to the public domain. The open data movement promises greater productivity and more efficient delivery of services; however, Australian government agencies remain reluctant to release their data to the general public. This paper considers the barriers to releasing government data as open data, and how these barriers might be overcome.

Keywords: Big data, open data, productivity, transparency.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1348
875 Strategic Priority of Green ICT Policy in Korea: Applying Analytic Hierarchy Process

Authors: Yong Ho Shim, Ki Youn Kim, Ji Yeon Cho, Jin Kyung Park, Bong Gyou Lee

Abstract:

This study considers priorities of primary goals to increase policy efficiency of Green ICT. Recently several studies have been published that address how IT is linked to climate change. However, most of the previous studies are limited to Green ICT industrial statute and policy directions. This paper present Green ICT policy making processes systematically. As a result of the analysis of Korean Green ICT policy, the following emerged as important to accomplish for Green ICT policy: eco-friendliness, technology evolution, economic efficiency, energy efficiency, and stable supply of energy. This is an initial study analyzing Green ICT policy, which provides an academic framework that can be used a guideline to establish Green ICT policy.

Keywords: AHP(Analytic Hierarchy Process), Case Study, Green ICT, Policy Priority

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1946
874 Formulation and Evaluation of Niosomes Containing an Antihypertensive Drug

Authors: Sunil Kamboj, Suman Bala, Vipin Saini

Abstract:

Niosomes were formulated with an aim of enhancing the oral bioavailability of losartan potassium and formulated in different molar ratios of surfactant, cholesterol and dicetyl phosphate. The formulated niosomes were found in range of 54.98 µm to 107.85 µm in size. Formulations with 1:1 ratio of surfactant and cholesterol have shown maximum entrapment efficiencies. Niosomes with sorbitan monostearate showed maximum drug release and zero order release kinetics, at the end of 24 hours. The in vivo study has shown the significant enhancement in oral bioavailability of losartan potassium in rats, after a dose of 10 mg/kg. The average relative bioavailability in relation with pure drug solution was found 2.56, indicates more than two fold increase in oral bioavailability. A significant increment in MRT reflects the release retarding ability of the vesicles. In conclusion, niosomes could be a promising delivery of losartan potassium with improved oral bioavailability and prolonged release profiles.

Keywords: Non-ionic surfactant vesicles, losartan potassium, oral bioavailability, controlled release.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1570
873 Effect of Flow Holes on Heat Release Performance of Extruded-type Heat Sink

Authors: Jung Hyun Kim, Gyo Woo Lee

Abstract:

In this study, the enhancement of the heat release performance of an extruded-type heat sink to prepare the large-capacity solar inverter thru the flow holes in the base plate near the heat sources was investigated. Optimal location and number of the holes in the baseplate were determined by using a commercial computation program. The heat release performance of the shape-modified heat sink was measured experimentally and compared with that of the simulation. The heat sink with 12 flow holes in the 18-mm-thick base plate has a 8.1% wider heat transfer area, a 2.5% more mass flow of air, and a 2.7% higher heat release rate than those of the original heat sink. Also, the surface temperature of the base plate was lowered 1.5oC by the holes.

Keywords: Heat Sink, Forced Convection, Heat Transfer, Performance Evaluation, Flow Holes.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1504
872 Numerical Investigation of Thermally Triggered Release Kinetics of Double Emulsion for Drug Delivery Using Phase Change Material

Authors: Yong Ren, Yaping Zhang

Abstract:

A numerical model has been developed to investigate the thermally triggered release kinetics for drug delivery using phase change material as shell of microcapsules. Biocompatible material n-Eicosane is used as demonstration. PCM shell of microcapsule will remain in solid form after the drug is taken, so the drug will be encapsulated by the shell, and will not be released until the target body part of lesion is exposed to external heat source, which will thermally trigger the release kinetics, leading to solid-to-liquid phase change. The findings can lead to better understanding on the key effects influencing the phase change process for drug delivery applications. The facile approach to release drug from core/shell structure of microcapsule can be well integrated with organic solvent free fabrication of microcapsules, using double emulsion as template in microfluidic aqueous two phase system.

Keywords: Phase change material, drug release kinetics, double emulsion, microfluidics.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2108
871 Novel Solid Lipid Nanoparticles for Oral Delivery of Oxyresveratrol: Effect of the Formulation Parameters on the Physicochemical Properties and in vitro Release

Authors: Y. Sangsen, K. Likhitwitayawuid, B. Sritularak, K. Wiwattanawongsa, R. Wiwattanapatapee

Abstract:

Novel solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were developed to improve oral bioavailability of oxyresveratrol (OXY). The SLNs were prepared by a high speed homogenization technique, at an effective speed and time, using Compritol® 888 ATO (5% w/w) as the solid lipid. The appropriate weight proportions (0.3% w/w) of OXY affected the physicochemical properties of blank SLNs. The effects of surfactant types on the properties of the formulations such as particle size and entrapment efficacy were also investigated. Conclusively, Tween 80 combined with soy lecithin was the most appropriate surfactant to stabilize OXY-loaded SLNs. The mean particle size of the optimized formulation was 134.40 ± 0.57 nm. In vitro drug release study, the selected S2 formulation showed a retarded release profile for OXY with no initial burst release compared to OXY suspension in the simulated gastrointestinal fluids. Therefore, these SLNs could provide a suitable system to develop for the oral OXY delivery.

Keywords: Solid lipid nanoparticles, Physicochemical properties, in vitro drug release, Oxyresveratrol.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2855
870 Child Care Policy in Kazakhstan: A New Model

Authors: Dina Maratovna Aikenova

Abstract:

Child care policy must be a priority area of public authorities in any country. This study investigates child care policy in Kazakhstan in accordance with the current position of children and laws. The results show that Kazakhstan policy in this sphere needs more systematic model including state economic and social measures, parental involvement and role of non-government organizations.

Keywords: Children, Kazakhstan, policy, vulnerability.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2791
869 Extended Release System of Hypoglycemic Agent Containing Solid Dispersions: Strategies and Mechanisms

Authors: Amit Kumar, Ramendeep Grawal, Peeyush Sharma, Dinesh Puri, Anil Bhandari

Abstract:

The main perspective of the present study aims at overcoming solubility problems by using the technique of solid dispersion. Repaglinide is a BCS Class II drug, having low aqueous solubility and therefore, low bioavailability. Solid dispersions of repaglinide with different carriers Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP) and Ethyl Cellulose (EC) in different ratios were prepared by suspending method and Dissolving methods. In vitro release studies revealed that the F7 formulation showed extended drug release. So, the dissolution profile of solid dispersion containing EC and PVP K30 (1: 3) was selected as the best formulation because of its extended drug release among all formulations. In conclusion, solid dispersions of Repaglinide in PVP have shown to be a promising approach to improve the bioavailability of Repaglinide.

Keywords: Ethyl Cellulose, Glibenclamide, Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone, Repaglinide, Solid Dispersion.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2424
868 Fuzzy Multi-Criteria Framework for Supporting Biofuels Policy Making

Authors: Jadwiga R. Ziolkowska

Abstract:

In this paper, a fuzzy algorithm and a fuzzy multicriteria decision framework are developed and used for a practical question of optimizing biofuels policy making. The methodological framework shows how to incorporate fuzzy set theory in a decision process of finding a sustainable biofuels policy among several policy options. Fuzzy set theory is used here as a tool to deal with uncertainties of decision environment, vagueness and ambiguities of policy objectives, subjectivities of human assessments and imprecise and incomplete information about the evaluated policy instruments.

Keywords: Fuzzy set theory, multi-criteria decision-makingsupport, uncertainties, policy making, biofuels

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1734
867 The Regional Concept, Public Policy and Policy Spaces: The ARC and TVA

Authors: Jay D. Gatrell, Robert Q. Hanham, Jeff Worsham, Maureen McDorman

Abstract:

This paper examines two policy spaces–the ARC and TVA–and their spatialized politics. The research observes that the regional concept informs public policy and can contribute to the formation of stable policy initiatives. Using the subsystem framework to understand the political viability of policy regimes, the authors conclude policy geographies that appeal to traditional definitions of regions are more stable over time. In contrast, geographies that fail to reflect pre-existing representations of space are engaged in more competitive subsystem politics. The paper demonstrates that the spatial practices of policy regions and their directional politics influence the political viability of programs. The paper concludes that policy spaces should institutionalize pre-existing geographies–not manufacture new ones.

Keywords: Agenda setting, politics, region.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1170
866 Oil Prices Impact on Energy Policy of Kazakhstan

Authors: K. Gabdullin, Y. Bek Ali, N. Aldabek

Abstract:

This paper explores oil prices changes impact on energy policy of Kazakhstan in 2001-2009. It involves the role of oil income to the economic development, process of diversification of internal and external energy policy of Kazakhstan, and the changes in oil law towards subsoil users.

Keywords: diversification, internal energy policy, external energy policy, high oil prices, modernization

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2280
865 Policy Management Framework for Managing Enterprise Policies

Authors: Dahir A. Ga'al, Wardah Zainal Abidin

Abstract:

Policy management in organizations became rising issue in the last decade. It’s because of today’s regulatory requirements in the organizations. To manage policies in large organizations is an imperative work. However, major challenges facing organizations in the last decade is managing all the policies in the organization and making them an active documents rather than simple (inactive) documents stored in computer hard drive or on a shelf. Because of this challenge, organizations need policy management program. This policy management program can be either manual or automated. This paper presents suggestions towards managing policies in organizations. As well as possible policy management solution or program to be utilized, manual or automated. The research first examines the models and frameworks used for managing policies from various perspectives in the literature of the research area/domain. At the end of this paper, a policy management framework is proposed for managing enterprise policies effectively and in a simplified manner.

Keywords: Policy, policy management, policy management program, policy repository.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2348
864 The Fiscal-Monetary Policy and Economic Growth in Algeria: VECM Approach

Authors: K. Bokreta, D. Benanaya

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to examine the relative effectiveness of monetary and fiscal policy in Algeria using the econometric modelling techniques of cointegration and vector error correction modelling to analyse and draw policy inferences. The chosen variables of fiscal policy are government expenditure and net taxes on products, while the effect of monetary policy is presented by the inflation rate and the official exchange rate. From the results, we find that in the long-run, the impact of government expenditures is positive, while the effect of taxes is negative on growth. Additionally, we find that the inflation rate is found to have little effect on GDP per capita but the impact of the exchange rate is insignificant. We conclude that fiscal policy is more powerful then monetary policy in promoting economic growth in Algeria.

Keywords: Economic growth, fiscal policy, monetary policy, VECM.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1973
863 The Basic Problems for the Realization of the Concept of Economic Policy

Authors: R. Gvelesiani, I. Gogorishvili

Abstract:

The concept of economic policy and the practical economic policy diverge from each other at a certain stage of development. This is related to the concept of realization of the underlying problems. It comes with all the problems emerged in the market oriented economic order due to the political processes based on social welfare policy. The realization of the concept of economic policy is impeded by economic and political obstacles. If you want to fill the appeared between the concept and reality, it is necessary to identify and avoid these obstacles. It requires the following: increase of the level of the knowledge of prevention technology in understanding of economic relations, as well as political aspects of the formation of ideas; perfection of economic policy toolkit, and political methods. It is necessary to realize what is the main precondition of implementation and further development of the concept of economic policy, as well as the formation of opinions about economic and public safety. This is a broad consensus on the basic values of the content and the scale of action, which the general public wants to be realized.

Keywords: Economic Policy, Basic Problems, Social Welfare Policy.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 934
862 Effect of Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone and Ethyl Cellulose Concentration on Release Profile and Kinetics of Glibenclamide Extended Release Dosage Form System

Authors: Amit Kumar, Peeyush Sharma, Anil Bhandari

Abstract:

The aim of present work was to optimize the effect of Ethyl Cellulose (EC) and Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP) concentration in extended release solid dispersion of Glibenclamide using combination of hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers such as Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone and Ethyl cellulose. The advantage of solid dispersion technique provides a unique approach to particle size reduction and increased rates of dissolution. The compatibility studies of the drug and polymers were studied by TLC and results suggested no interaction between drug and polymers. Solid dispersions of Glibenclamide were prepared by common solvent evaporation method using Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone and Ethyl cellulose. The results indicated that homogeneous or heterogeneous conditions during the preparation methods employed governed the internal structures of the polymer matrices while retaining the drug in an amorphous form. F2 formulation prepared by solid dispersion method, displayed extended drug release followed by Higuchi matrix model indicating diffusion release of GLB from polymer matrices.

Keywords: Ethyl Cellulose, Glibenclamide, Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone, Solid Dispersion.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2243
861 Novel Process Formulation of Multiple Unit Tablet of Pantoprazole

Authors: Vipin Saini, Sunil Kamboj, Suman Bala, A. Pandurangan

Abstract:

The present invention relates to multiple-unit tablet dosage forms, which is composed of several subunits (multiparticulates/pellets). Each small multiparticulate further composed of many layers. Some layer contains drug substance; others are rate controlling polymer. The resulting multiple-unit tablet dosage forms of pantoprazole were satisfactory fabricated. Pelletization technique has some advantages over coated tablet formulation. In coated tablet the coating may be damaged and a pinhole possibly formed that would result in increased release of drug in stomach and may be deactivated in stomach juices. If the coat of some pellets may be damaged that would not affect the release properties of the multiple-unit tablet. Hence they are beneficial in this aspect. The results confirmed the successful preparation of stable and bioequivalent once daily controlled release multiple-unit tablets of pantoprazole.

Keywords: Controlled release, multiple unit tablets, pantoprazole, pelletization.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2826
860 Synthesis and Analysis of Swelling and Controlled Release Behaviour of Anionic sIPN Acrylamide based Hydrogels

Authors: Atefeh Hekmat, Abolfazl Barati, Ebrahim Vasheghani Frahani, Ali Afraz

Abstract:

In modern agriculture, polymeric hydrogels are known as a component able to hold an amount of water due to their 3-dimensional network structure and their tendency to absorb water in humid environments. In addition, these hydrogels are able to controllably release the fertilisers and pesticides loaded in them. Therefore, they deliver these materials to the plants' roots and help them with growing. These hydrogels also reduce the pollution of underground water sources by preventing the active components from leaching. In this study, sIPN acrylamide based hydrogels are synthesised by using acrylamide free radical, potassium acrylate, and linear polyvinyl alcohol. Ammonium nitrate is loaded in the hydrogel as the fertiliser. The effect of various amounts of monomers and linear polymer, measured in molar ratio, on the swelling rate, equilibrium swelling, and release of ammonium nitrate is studied.

Keywords: Hydrogel, controlled release, ammonium nitrate fertiliser, sIPN.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1887
859 Static Modeling of the Delamination of a Composite Material Laminate in Mode II

Authors: Y. Madani, H. Achache, B. Boutabout

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to analyze numerically by the three-dimensional finite element method, using ABAQUS calculation code, the mechanical behavior of a unidirectional and multidirectional delaminated stratified composite under mechanical loading in Mode II. This study consists of the determination of the energy release rate G in mode II as well as the distribution of equivalent von Mises stresses along the damaged zone by varying several parameters such as the applied load and the delamination length. It allowed us to deduce that the high energy release rate favors delamination at the free edges of a stratified plate subjected to bending.

Keywords: Delamination, energy release rate, finite element method, stratified composite.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 464
858 In vitro Studies of Mucoadhesiveness and Release of Nicotinamide Oral Gels Prepared from Bioadhesive Polymers

Authors: Sarunyoo Songkro, Naranut Rajatasereekul, Nipapat Cheewasrirungrueng

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the mucoadhesion and the release of nicotinamide gel formulations using in vitro methods. An agar plate technique was used to investigate the adhesiveness of the gels whereas a diffusion apparatus was employed to determine the release of nicotinamide from the gels. In this respect, 10% w/w nicotinamide gels containing bioadhesive polymers: Carbopol 934P (0.5-2% w/w), hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) (4-10% w/w), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC) (4-6% w/w) and methylcellulose 4000 (MC) (3-5% w/w) were prepared. The gel formulations had pH values in the range of 7.14 - 8.17, which were considered appropriate to oral mucosa application. In general, the rank order of pH values appeared to be SCMC > MC4000 > HPMC > Carbopol 934P. Types and concentrations of polymers used somewhat affected the adhesiveness. It was found that anionic polymers (Carbopol 934 and SCMC) adhered more firmly to the agar plate than the neutral polymers (HPMC and MC 4000). The formulation containing 0.5% Carbopol 934P (F1) showed the highest release rate. With the exception of the formulation F1, the neutral polymers tended to give higher relate rates than the anionic polymers. For oral tissue treatment, the optimum has to be balanced between the residence time (adhesiveness) of the formulations and the release rate of the drug. The formulations containing the anionic polymers: Carbopol 934P or SCMC possessed suitable physical properties (appearance, pH and viscosity). In addition, for anionic polymer formulations, justifiable mucoadhesive properties and reasonable release rates of nicotinamide were achieved. Accordingly, these gel formulations may be applied for the treatment of oral mucosal lesions.

Keywords: Nicotinamide, bioadhesive polymer, mucoadhesiveness, release rate, gel.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2285