Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32129
Chitosan/Casein Microparticles: Preparation, Characterization and Drug Release Studies

Authors: Selvakumar Dhanasingh, Shunmuga Kumar Nallaperumal


Microparticles carrier systems made from naturally occurring polymers based on chitosan/casein system appears to be a promising carrier for the sustained release of orally and parenteral administered drugs. In the current study we followed a microencapsulation technique based aqueous coacervation method to prepare chitosan/casein microparticles of compositions 1:1, 1:2 and 1:5 incorporated with chloramphenicol. Glutaraldehyde was used as a chemical cross-linking agent. The microparticles were prepared by aerosol method and studied by optical microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, thermo gravimetric analysis, swelling studies and drug release studies at various pH. The percentage swelling of the polymers are found to be in the order pH 4 > pH 10 > pH 7 and the increase in casein composition decrease the swelling percentage. The drug release studies also follow the above order.

Keywords: Chitosan/casein micro particles, chloramphenicol, drug release, microencapsulation.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3038


[1] Morimoto Y and Fujimoto, S. "Albumin microspheres as drug carrier" CRC Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1985, pp. 19-63.
[2] Gupta P and, Hung C. "Targeted delivery of low dose doxorubicin hydrochloride administered via magnetic albumin microspheres in rats" J. Microencap. Vol. 7, No. 1, 1990, pp 85-94.
[3] Chen Y, Willmott N, Anderson J and Florence A. "Comparison of albumin and casein microspheres as a carrier for doxorubicin" J. Pharm. Phamocol. Vol. 39, 1987, pp 978-985.
[4] Willmott N, Magee G, Cummings J, Helbert G and Smyth J. "Doxorubicin-loaded casein microspheres: protein nature of drug incorporation" J. Pharm. Phamocol. Vol. 44, No.12, 1992, pp 472-475.
[5] Knepp W, Jayakrishnan A, Quigg J, Sitren H, Bagnall J and Goldbergm E. "Synthesis, properties, and intratumoral evaluation of mitoxantroneloaded casein microspheres in Lewis lung carcinoma" J. Pharm. Phamocol. 1993, Vol. 45, No. 10, 887-889.
[6] Latha M and Jayakrishnan A. "Albumin microspheres and microcapsules: methodology of manufacturing techniques" J. Pharm. Phamocol. Vol. 46, 1994, pp 858-862.
[7] Muzarelli R. "Chitin," Pergmon Press, Oxford, 1997, pp 259.
[8] Feder Jr H M, Osier C and Maderazo E G. "Chloramphenicol: a review of its use in clinical practice" Rev. Infect. Dis. Vol. 3, No 3, 1981, pp 479-491.
[9] Austen P, Sennet S, Muzzarelli R, Jeuniaux C and Gooday G W. (Ed). Chitin in Nature and Technology, Plenum, New York, 1986, pp 279- 286.
[10] L. Illum. "Chitosan and its use as a pharmaceutical excipient" Pharm. Res, Vol. 15, 1998, pp 1326-1331.
[11] C. Jones, M.A. Burton and B.N. Gray. "Albumin microspheres as vehicles for the sustained and controlled release of doxorubicin" J. Pharm. Pharmacol. Vol. 41, 1989, pp. 813-816.
[12] Mitrevej A, Sinchaipanid N, Rungvejhavuttivittaya Y and Kostitchaiyong V. "Multiunit controlled-Release Diclofenac Sodium Capsules using Complex of Chitosan with Sodium Alginate or Pectin" Pharm. Dev. Technol. 2001,Vol. 6, pp 385-392.
[13] Rinaudo M, Pavlov G and Desberiers J. "Influence of acetic acid concentration on the solubilization of Chitosan" Polymer. Vol. 40, 1999, pp 7029-7032.
[14] Gomori G. "Preparation of buffers for use in enzyme studies". Methods in enzymology. Vol. 1, 1955, pp 138-146.
[15] Ahroni S M. "Synthesis characterization and theory of polymeric networks and gels" Plenum Press, New York, 1992.
[16] Ju H. K, Kim S Y and Lee Y. M. "pH/temperature-responsive behaviours of semi-IPN and comb-type graft hydrogels composed of alginate and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)" Polymer. Vol, 42, 2001, pp 6851-6857.
[17] Murali Mohan Babu G V, Prasad D. S, Narayan P. S and Raman Murthy K. V. "New system for microencapsulation of Diclofenac Sodium by using Gum Karaya and Chitosan" Saudi Pharm. J. Vol. 9, 2001, pp 169- 178.
[18] Bodmeir R and Paraatakul O. J. "Spherical agglomerates of waterinsoluble drugs" J. Pharm. Sci. Vol. 78, 1989, pp 964-967.
[19] Bayomi M, Al-Suwayeh S A, El-Helw A. M and Mesned, A. F. "Preparation of casein-chitosan microspheres containing diltiazem hydrochloride by an aqueous coacervation Technique" Pharm. Acta. Helv. Vol. 73, 1998, pp 187-192.
[20] Lee Y.M, Nam S.Y and Woo D.J. "Pervaporation of ionically surface cross-linked composite membranes for water-alcohol mixtures" J. Memb. Sci. Vol 133, 1997, pp 103-110.
[21] Silverstein R. Spectrophotometric Identification of Organic Compounds, 6th Ed., Wiley, 1998.
[22] Qu X, Wirsen A and Albertson A. C. "Effect of lactic/glycolic acid side chains on the thermal degradation kinetics of Chitosan derivatives" Polymer. Vol. 41, 2000, pp 4841-4847.
[23] Seong-Hoon K, Byoung-Ki L, Fangfang S, Kwangnak K, Su-Chat R, Hong-Sung K and Jaebeom L. "Preparation of high flexible Composite Film of Hydroxyapatite and Chitosan" Polymer Bulletin. Vol 62, No 1, 2009, pp 111-118.
[24] Gander B, Beltrami V, Gurny R and Doelker E. "Effects of the method of drug incorporation and the size of the monolith on drug release from cross- linked polymers" Int. J. Pharm. Vol. 58, 1990, pp 63-71.
[25] Bayomi M and El- Sayed. "Casein microbeads as a controlled parenteral drug delivery system" Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm. Vol. 20, 1994, pp 2607- 2617.