Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 899

Search results for: Digital cinema

899 Robust Digital Cinema Watermarking

Authors: Sadi Vural, Hiromi Tomii, Hironori Yamauchi

Abstract:

With the advent of digital cinema and digital broadcasting, copyright protection of video data has been one of the most important issues. We present a novel method of watermarking for video image data based on the hardware and digital wavelet transform techniques and name it as “traceable watermarking" because the watermarked data is constructed before the transmission process and traced after it has been received by an authorized user. In our method, we embed the watermark to the lowest part of each image frame in decoded video by using a hardware LSI. Digital Cinema is an important application for traceable watermarking since digital cinema system makes use of watermarking technology during content encoding, encryption, transmission, decoding and all the intermediate process to be done in digital cinema systems. The watermark is embedded into the randomly selected movie frames using hash functions. Embedded watermark information can be extracted from the decoded video data. For that, there is no need to access original movie data. Our experimental results show that proposed traceable watermarking method for digital cinema system is much better than the convenient watermarking techniques in terms of robustness, image quality, speed, simplicity and robust structure.

Keywords: Decoder, Digital content, JPEG2000 Frame, System-On-Chip, traceable watermark, Hash Function, CRC-32.

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898 Traceable Watermarking System using SoC for Digital Cinema Delivery

Authors: Sadi Vural, Hiromi Tomii, Hironori Yamauchi

Abstract:

As the development of digital technology is increasing, Digital cinema is getting more spread. However, content copy and attack against the digital cinema becomes a serious problem. To solve the above security problem, we propose “Additional Watermarking" for digital cinema delivery system. With this proposed “Additional watermarking" method, we protect content copyrights at encoder and user side information at decoder. It realizes the traceability of the watermark embedded at encoder. The watermark is embedded into the random-selected frames using Hash function. Using it, the embedding position is distributed by Hash Function so that third parties do not break off the watermarking algorithm. Finally, our experimental results show that proposed method is much better than the convenient watermarking techniques in terms of robustness, image quality and its simple but unbreakable algorithm.

Keywords: Decoder, Digital content, JPEG2000 Frame, System-On-Chip and additional watermark.

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897 Digital Cinema Watermarking State of Art and Comparison

Authors: H. Kelkoul, Y. Zaz

Abstract:

Nowadays, the vigorous popularity of video processing techniques has resulted in an explosive growth of multimedia data illegal use. So, watermarking security has received much more attention. The purpose of this paper is to explore some watermarking techniques in order to observe their specificities and select the finest methods to apply in digital cinema domain against movie piracy by creating an invisible watermark that includes the date, time and the place where the hacking was done. We have studied three principal watermarking techniques in the frequency domain: Spread spectrum, Wavelet transform domain and finally the digital cinema watermarking transform domain. In this paper, a detailed technique is presented where embedding is performed using direct sequence spread spectrum technique in DWT transform domain. Experiment results shows that the algorithm provides high robustness and good imperceptibility.

Keywords: Digital cinema, watermarking, wavelet, spread spectrum, JPEG2000.

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896 DWT Based Robust Watermarking Embed Using CRC-32 Techniques

Authors: Sadi Vural, Hiromi Tomii, Hironori Yamauchi

Abstract:

As far as the latest technological improvements are concerned, digital systems more become popular than the past. Despite this growing demand to the digital systems, content copy and attack against the digital cinema contents becomes a serious problem. To solve the above security problem, we propose “traceable watermarking using Hash functions for digital cinema system. Digital Cinema is a great application for traceable watermarking since it uses watermarking technology during content play as well as content transmission. The watermark is embedded into the randomly selected movie frames using CRC-32 techniques. CRC-32 is a Hash function. Using it, the embedding position is distributed by Hash Function so that any party cannot break off the watermarking or will not be able to change. Finally, our experimental results show that proposed DWT watermarking method using CRC-32 is much better than the convenient watermarking techniques in terms of robustness, image quality and its simple but unbreakable algorithm.

Keywords: Decoder, Digital content, JPEG2000 Frame, System-On-Chip, traceable watermark, Hash Function, CRC-32.

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895 The Cinema in Turkey During 1940s

Authors: Esin Berktaş

Abstract:

The cinema in Turkey during the 1940s was shaped under the Second World War conditions. The amateur film makers from different socioeconomic roots experienced movie production in those years. Having similar socioeconomic characteristics and autobiographies, each of them has a different understanding of cinema. Nevertheless, they joined in making movies which address native culture and audience. They narrated indigenous stories with native music, amateur players and simple settings. Although the martial law, censorship and economical deficiencies, they started to produce films in the Second World War. The cinematographers of the 1940s usually called as thetransition period cinematographers in Turkey, producing in the passage between the period of thetheatre playersand the period of thenational cinema. But, 1940- 1950 period of Turkish cinema should be defined not as a transition but a period of forming the professional conscioussness in cinema.

Keywords: Cinema in Turkey, censorship, propaganda, spectacle, audience.

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894 A Study of Filmmakers Interaction through Social Exchange Theory

Authors: Perumal, V., Hassan, H., Bolong, J., Osman, M. N.

Abstract:

Film, as an art form playing a vital role and is a powerful tool in documenting, influencing and shaping the society. Films are the collective creation of a large number of separate individuals, each contributing with creative input, unique talents, and technical expertise to the project. Recently, the Malaysian Independent (or “Indie") filmmakers have made their presence felt by winning awards at various international film festivals. Working in the digital video (DV) format, a number of independent filmmakers really hit their stride with a range of remarkably strong titles and international recognition has been quick in coming and their works are now regularly in exhibition or in competition, winning many top prizes at prestigious festivals around the world. The interaction factors among crewmembers are emphasized as imperative for group success. An in-depth interview is conducted to analyze the social interactions and exchanges between filmmakers through Social Exchanges Theory (SET). Certainly the new millennium that was marked as the digital technology revolution has changed the face of filmmaking in Malaysia. There is a clear need to study the Malaysian independent cinema especially from the perspective of understanding what causes the independent filmmakers to work so well given all of the difficulties and constraints.

Keywords: Digital filmmaking, technology, interaction, crewmembers, cinema, independent filmmaker.

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893 Two Culture-s Characters in Contemporary Kazakh Cinema

Authors: Baubek B. Nogerbek, Alma M. Aidarova

Abstract:

In this article the authors are researching cultural differences between rural and urban characters in case of contemporary Kazakh cinema.Two motion pictures are analyzed: “Strizh" (2007) by AbaiKulbai and “Seker" (2009) by SabitKurmanbekov.According to the authors- opinion ateenage girl characters in these two films reflect two cultures (urban and rural) of Kazakh society, which displays complicated socio-cultural processes of modern Kazakhstan.

Keywords: Culture (urban and rural), film characters, Kazakh cinema, Kazakh society

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892 Viewers of Advertisements in Television and Cinema in the Shadow of Visuality

Authors: Mete Kazaz

Abstract:

Despite the internet, which is one of the mass media that has become quite common in recent years, the relationship of Advertisement with Television and Cinema, which have always drawn attention of researchers as basic media and where visual use is in the foreground, have also become the subject of various studies. Based on the assumption that the known fundamental effects of advertisements on consumers are closely related to the creative process of advertisements as well as the nature and characteristics of the medium where they are used, these basic mass media (Television and Cinema) and the consumer motivations of the advertisements they broadcast have become a focus of study. Given that the viewers of the mass media in question have shifted from a passive position to a more active one especially in recent years and approach contents of advertisements, as they do all contents, in a more critical and “pitiless" manner, it is possible to say that individuals make more use of advertisements than in the past and combine their individual goals with the goals of the advertisements. This study, which aims at finding out what the goals of these new individual advertisement use are, how they are shaped by the distinct characteristics of Television and Cinema, where visuality takes precedence as basic mass media, and what kind of places they occupy in the minds of consumers, has determined consumers- motivations as: “Entertainment", “Escapism", “Play", “Monitoring/Discovery", “Opposite Sex" and “Aspirations and Role Models". This study intends to reveal the differences or similarities among the needs and hence the gratifications of viewers who consume advertisements on Television or at the Cinema, which are two basic media where visuality is prioritized.

Keywords: Cinema, Television, Viewers of Advertisements.

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891 Auteur 3D Filmmaking: From Hitchcock’s Protrusion Technique to Godard’s Immersion Aesthetic

Authors: Delia Enyedi

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Throughout film history, the regular return of 3D cinema has been discussed in connection to crises caused by the advent of television or the competition of the Internet. In addition, the three waves of stereoscopic 3D (from 1952 up to 1983) and its current digital version have been blamed for adding a challenging technical distraction to the viewing experience. By discussing the films Dial M for Murder (1954) and Goodbye to Language (2014), the paper aims to analyze the response of recognized auteurs to the use of 3D techniques in filmmaking. For Alfred Hitchcock, the solution to attaining perceptual immersion paradoxically resided in restraining the signature effect of 3D, namely protrusion. In Jean-Luc Godard’s vision, 3D techniques allowed him to explore perceptual absorption by means of depth of field, for which he had long advocated as being central to cinema. Thus, both directors contribute to the foundation of an auteur aesthetic in 3D filmmaking.

Keywords: Alfred Hitchcock, authorship, 3D filmmaking, Jean-Luc Godard, perceptual absorption, perceptual immersion.

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890 Proposed Developments of Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm

Authors: Sattar B. Sadkhan, Najlae Falah Hameed

Abstract:

The Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) is the elliptic curve analogue of DSA, where it is a digital signature scheme designed to provide a digital signature based on a secret number known only to the signer and also on the actual message being signed. These digital signatures are considered the digital counterparts to handwritten signatures, and are the basis for validating the authenticity of a connection. The security of these schemes results from the infeasibility to compute the signature without the private key. In this paper we introduce a proposed to development the original ECDSA with more complexity.

Keywords: Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm, DSA.

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889 Re-Presenting the Egyptian Informal Urbanism in Films between 1994 and 2014

Authors: R. Mofeed, N. Elgendy

Abstract:

Cinema constructs mind-spaces that reflect inherent human thoughts and emotions. As a representational art, Cinema would introduce comprehensive images of life phenomena in different ways. The term “represent” suggests verity of meanings; bring into presence, replace or typify. In that sense, Cinema may present a phenomenon through direct embodiment, or introduce a substitute image that replaces the original phenomena, or typify it by relating the produced image to a more general category through a process of abstraction. This research is interested in questioning the type of images that Egyptian Cinema introduces to informal urbanism and how these images were conditioned and reshaped in the last twenty years. The informalities/slums phenomenon first appeared in Egypt and, particularly, Cairo in the early sixties, however, this phenomenon was completely ignored by the state and society until the eighties, and furthermore, its evident representation in Cinema was by the mid-nineties. The Informal City represents the illegal housing developments, and it is a fast growing form of urbanization in Cairo. Yet, this expanding phenomenon is still depicted as the minority, exceptional and marginal through the Cinematic lenses. This paper aims at tracing the forms of representations of the urban informalities in the Egyptian Cinema between 1994 and 2014, and how did that affect the popular mind and its perception of these areas. The paper runs two main lines of inquiry; the first traces the phenomena through a chronological and geographical mapping of the informal urbanism has been portrayed in films. This analysis is based on an academic research work at Cairo University in Fall 2014. The visual tracing through maps and timelines allowed a reading of the phases of ignorance, presence, typifying and repetition in the representation of this huge sector of the city through more than 50 films that has been investigated. The analysis clearly revealed the “portrayed image” of informality by the Cinema through the examined period. However, the second part of the paper explores the “perceived image”. A designed questionnaire is applied to highlight the main features of that image that is perceived by both inhabitants of informalities and other Cairenes based on watching selected films. The questionnaire covers the different images of informalities proposed in the Cinema whether in a comic or a melodramatic background and highlight the descriptive terms used, to see which of them resonate with the mass perceptions and affected their mental images. The two images; “portrayed” and “perceived” are then to be encountered to reflect on issues of repetitions, stereotyping and reality. The formulated stereotype of informal urbanism is finally outlined and justified in relation to both production consumption mechanisms of films and the State official vision of informalities.

Keywords: Cairo, cinema, informal urbanism, representation, stereotype.

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888 Digital Image Forensics: Discovering the History of Digital Images

Authors: Gurinder Singh, Kulbir Singh

Abstract:

Digital multimedia contents such as image, video, and audio can be tampered easily due to the availability of powerful editing softwares. Multimedia forensics is devoted to analyze these contents by using various digital forensic techniques in order to validate their authenticity. Digital image forensics is dedicated to investigate the reliability of digital images by analyzing the integrity of data and by reconstructing the historical information of an image related to its acquisition phase. In this paper, a survey is carried out on the forgery detection by considering the most recent and promising digital image forensic techniques.

Keywords: Computer forensics, multimedia forensics, image ballistics, camera source identification, forgery detection.

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887 The Study of Digital Transformation Skills and Competencies Framework at Umm Alqura University

Authors: Anod H. Alhazmi, Hanaa A. Yamani

Abstract:

The lack of digital transformation professionals could prevent Saudi Arabia’s universities from providing digital services. The task of understanding what digital skills are needed within an organization, measuring the existing skills, and developing or attracting talents is a complex task. This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the digital transformation skills needed in the organizations who seek digital transformation and identifies the skills and competencies framework DigSC built on Skills Framework for the Informational Age (SFIA) framework that is adopted by the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology (MCIT) in Saudi Arabia. The framework adopted identifies the main digital transformation skills clusters, categories and levels of responsibilities for each job description to fill the gap between this requirement and the digital skills supplied by the Umm Alqura University (UQU).

Keywords: Competencies, digital transformation, framework, skills, Umm Alqura University.

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886 Altered States of Consciousness in Narrative Cinema: Subjective Film Sound

Authors: Mladen Milicevic

Abstract:

In this paper subjective film sound will be addressed as it gets represented in narrative cinema. First, “meta-diegetic” sound will be briefly explained followed by transition to “oneiric” sound. The representation of oneiric sound refers to a situation where film characters are experiencing some sort of an altered state of consciousness. Looking at an antlered state of consciousness in terms of human brain processes will point out to the cinematic ways of expression, which “mimic” those processes. Using several examples for different films will illustrate these points.

Keywords: Oneiric, ASC (altered states of consciousness), film, sound.

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885 Transform to Succeed: An Empirical Analysis of Digital Transformation in Firms

Authors: Sarah E. Stief, Anne Theresa Eidhoff, Markus Voeth

Abstract:

Despite all progress firms are facing the increasing need to adapt and assimilate digital technologies to transform their business activities in order to pursue business development. By using new digital technologies, firms can implement major business improvements in order to stay competitive and foster new growth potentials. The corresponding phenomenon of digital transformation has received some attention in previous literature in respect to industries such as media and publishing. Nevertheless, there is a lack of understanding of the concept and its organization within firms. With the help of twenty-three in-depth field interviews with German experts responsible for their company’s digital transformation, we examined what digital transformation encompasses, how it is organized and which opportunities and challenges arise within firms. Our results indicate that digital transformation is an inevitable task for all firms, as it bears the potential to comprehensively optimize and reshape established business activities and can thus be seen as a strategy of business development.

Keywords: Business development, digitalization, digital strategies, digital transformation.

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884 Digital Marketing Maturity Models: Overview and Comparison

Authors: Elina Bakhtieva

Abstract:

The variety of available digital tools, strategies and activities might confuse and disorient even an experienced marketer. This applies in particular to B2B companies, which are usually less flexible in uptaking of digital technology than B2C companies. B2B companies are lacking a framework that corresponds to the specifics of the B2B business, and which helps to evaluate a company’s capabilities and to choose an appropriate path. A B2B digital marketing maturity model helps to fill this gap. However, modern marketing offers no widely approved digital marketing maturity model, and thus, some marketing institutions provide their own tools. The purpose of this paper is building an optimized B2B digital marketing maturity model based on a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis of existing models. The current study provides an analytical review of the existing digital marketing maturity models with open access. The results of the research are twofold. First, the provided SWOT analysis outlines the main advantages and disadvantages of existing models. Secondly, the strengths of existing digital marketing maturity models, helps to identify the main characteristics and the structure of an optimized B2B digital marketing maturity model. The research findings indicate that only one out of three analyzed models could be used as a separate tool. This study is among the first examining the use of maturity models in digital marketing. It helps businesses to choose between the existing digital marketing models, the most effective one. Moreover, it creates a base for future research on digital marketing maturity models. This study contributes to the emerging B2B digital marketing literature by providing a SWOT analysis of the existing digital marketing maturity models and suggesting a structure and main characteristics of an optimized B2B digital marketing maturity model.

Keywords: B2B digital marketing strategy, digital marketing, digital marketing maturity model, SWOT analysis.

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883 Factors Underlying the Digital Divide for Disabled People: Focus on a Korean Case Study

Authors: Soungwan Kim

Abstract:

This study identifies factors underlying the digital divide that is faced by the disabled. The results of its analysis showed that the digital divide in PC use is affected by age, number of years of education, employment status, and household income of more than KRW 3 million. The digital divide in smart device use is affected by sex, age, number of years of education, time when disability struck, and household income of more than KRW 3 million. Based on these results, this study proposes methods for bridging the digital divide faced by the disabled.

Keywords: Digital divide, digital divide for the disabled, information accessibility for pcs and smart devices.

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882 Towards a Proof Acceptance by Overcoming Challenges in Collecting Digital Evidence

Authors: Lilian Noronha Nassif

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Cybercrime investigation demands an appropriated evidence collection mechanism. If the investigator does not acquire digital proofs in a forensic sound, some important information can be lost, and judges can discard case evidence because the acquisition was inadequate. The correct digital forensic seizing involves preparation of professionals from fields of law, police, and computer science. This paper presents important challenges faced during evidence collection in different perspectives of places. The crime scene can be virtual or real, and technical obstacles and privacy concerns must be considered. All pointed challenges here highlight the precautions to be taken in the digital evidence collection and the suggested procedures contribute to the best practices in the digital forensics field.

Keywords: Digital evidence, digital forensic processes and procedures, mobile forensics, cloud forensics.

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881 Evaluation of Manual and Automatic Calibration Methods for Digital Tachographs

Authors: Sarp Erturk, Levent Eyigel, Cihat Celik, Muhammet Sahinoglu, Serdar Ay, Yasin Kaya, Hasan Kaya

Abstract:

This paper presents a quantitative analysis on the need for automotive calibration methods for digital tachographs. Digital tachographs are mandatory for vehicles used in people and goods transport and they are an important aspect for road safety and inspection. Digital tachographs need to be calibrated for workshops in order for the digital tachograph to display and record speed and odometer values correctly. Calibration of digital tachographs can be performed either manual or automatic. It is shown in this paper that manual calibration of digital tachographs is prone to errors and there can be differences between manual and automatic calibration parameters. Therefore automatic calibration methods are imperative for digital tachograph calibration. The presented experimental results and error analysis clearly support the claims of the paper by evaluating and statistically comparing manual and automatic calibration methods.

Keywords: Digital tachograph, road safety, tachograph calibration, tachograph workshops.

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880 The Representation of Female Characters by Women Directors in Surveillance Spaces in Turkish Cinema

Authors: Berceste Gülçin Özdemir

Abstract:

The representation of women characters in cinema has been discussed for centuries. In cinema where dominant narrative codes prevail and scopophilic views exist over women characters, passive stereotypes of women are observed in the representation of women characters. In films shot from a woman’s point of view in Turkish Cinema and even in the films outside the main stream in which the stories of women characters are told, the fact that women characters are discussed on the basis of feminist film theories triggers the question: ‘Are feminist films produced in Turkish Cinema?’ The spaces that are used in the representation of women characters are observed to be used as spaces that convert characters into passive subjects on the basis of the space factor in the narrative. The representation of women characters in the possible surveillance spaces integrates the characters and compresses them in these spaces. In this study, narrative analysis was used to investigate women characters representation in the surveillance spaces. For the study framework, firstly a case study films are selected, and in the second level, women characters representations in surveillance spaces are argued by narrative analysis using feminist film theories. Two questions are argued with feminist film theories: ‘Why do especially women directors represent their female characters to viewers by representing them in surveillance spaces?’ and ‘Can this type of presentation contribute to the feminist film practice and become important with regard to feminist film theories?’ The representation of women characters in a passive and observed way in surveillance spaces of the narrative reveals the questioning of also the discourses of films outside of the main stream. As films that produce alternative discourses and reveal different cinematic languages, those outside the main stream are expected to bring other points of view also to the representation of women characters in spaces. These questionings are selected as the baseline and Turkish films such as Watch Tower and Mustang, directed by women, were examined. This examination paves the way for discussions regarding the women characters in surveillance spaces. Outcomes can be argued from the viewpoint of representation in the genre by feminist film theories. In the context of feminist film theories and feminist film practice, alternatives should be found that can corporally reveal the existence of women in both the representation of women characters in spaces and in the usage of the space factor.

Keywords: Feminist film theory, representation, space, women filmmaker, women characters.

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879 Improved Approximation to the Derivative of a Digital Signal Using Wavelet Transforms for Crosstalk Analysis

Authors: S. P. Kozaitis, R. L. Kriner

Abstract:

The information revealed by derivatives can help to better characterize digital near-end crosstalk signatures with the ultimate goal of identifying the specific aggressor signal. Unfortunately, derivatives tend to be very sensitive to even low levels of noise. In this work we approximated the derivatives of both quiet and noisy digital signals using a wavelet-based technique. The results are presented for Gaussian digital edges, IBIS Model digital edges, and digital edges in oscilloscope data captured from an actual printed circuit board. Tradeoffs between accuracy and noise immunity are presented. The results show that the wavelet technique can produce first derivative approximations that are accurate to within 5% or better, even under noisy conditions. The wavelet technique can be used to calculate the derivative of a digital signal edge when conventional methods fail.

Keywords: digital signals, electronics, IBIS model, printedcircuit board, wavelets

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878 A Method to Enhance the Accuracy of Digital Forensic in the Absence of Sufficient Evidence in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Fahad Alanazi, Andrew Jones

Abstract:

Digital forensics seeks to achieve the successful investigation of digital crimes through obtaining acceptable evidence from digital devices that can be presented in a court of law. Thus, the digital forensics investigation is normally performed through a number of phases in order to achieve the required level of accuracy in the investigation processes. Since 1984 there have been a number of models and frameworks developed to support the digital investigation processes. In this paper, we review a number of the investigation processes that have been produced throughout the years and introduce a proposed digital forensic model which is based on the scope of the Saudi Arabia investigation process. The proposed model has been integrated with existing models for the investigation processes and produced a new phase to deal with a situation where there is initially insufficient evidence.

Keywords: Digital forensics, Process, Metadata, Traceback, Saudi Arabia.

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877 Digital Power Management Hardware Realization Using FPGA

Authors: Kar Foo Chong, Andreas Lee Astuti, Pradeep K. Gopalakrishnan, T. Hui Teo

Abstract:

This paper describes design of a digital feedback loop for a low switching frequency dc-dc switching converters. Low switching frequencies were selected in this design. A look up table for the digital PID (proportional integrator differentiator) compensator was implemented using Altera Stratix II with built-in ADC (analog-to-digital converter) to achieve this hardware realization. Design guidelines are given for the PID compensator, high frequency DPWM (digital pulse width modulator) and moving average filter.

Keywords: dc-dc converter, FPGA, PID, power management, .

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876 The Role of Business Process Management in Driving Digital Transformation: Insurance Company Case Study

Authors: Dalia Suša Vugec, Ana-Marija Stjepić, Darija Ivandić Vidović

Abstract:

Digital transformation is one of the latest trends on the global market. In order to maintain the competitive advantage and sustainability, increasing number of organizations are conducting digital transformation processes. Those organizations are changing their business processes and creating new business models with the help of digital technologies. In that sense, one should also observe the role of business process management (BPM) and its maturity in driving digital transformation. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to investigate the role of BPM in digital transformation process within one organization. Since experiences from practice show that organizations from financial sector could be observed as leaders in digital transformation, an insurance company has been selected to participate in the study. That company has been selected due to the high level of its BPM maturity and the fact that it has previously been through a digital transformation process. In order to fulfill the goals of the paper, several interviews, as well as questionnaires, have been conducted within the selected company. The results are presented in a form of a case study. Results indicate that digital transformation process within the observed company has been successful, with special focus on the development of digital strategy, BPM and change management. The role of BPM in the digital transformation of the observed company is further discussed in the paper.

Keywords: Business process management, case study, Croatia, digital transformation, insurance company.

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875 An Area-Efficient and Low-Power Digital Pulse-Width Modulation Controller for DC-DC Switching Power Converter

Authors: Jingjing Lan, Jun Zhou, Xin Liu

Abstract:

In this paper, a low-power digital controller for DC-DC power conversion was presented. The controller generates the pulse-width modulated (PWM) signal from digital inputs provided by analog-to-digital converter (ADC). An efficient and simple design scheme to develop the control unit was discussed. This method allows minimization of the consumed resources of the chip and it is based on direct digital design approach. In this application, with the proposed scheme, nearly half area and two-third of the power consumption was saved compared to the conventional schemes. This work illustrates the possibility of implementing low-power and area-efficient power management circuit using direct digital design based approach. 

Keywords: Buck converter, DC-DC power conversion, digital control, proportional-integral (PI) controller.

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874 Two-Dimensional Symmetric Half-Plane Recursive Doubly Complementary Digital Lattice Filters

Authors: Ju-Hong Lee, Chong-Jia Ciou, Yuan-Hau Yang

Abstract:

This paper deals with the problem of two-dimensional (2-D) recursive doubly complementary (DC) digital filter design. We present a structure of 2-D recursive DC filters by using 2-D symmetric half-plane (SHP) recursive digital all-pass lattice filters (DALFs). The novelty of using 2-D SHP recursive DALFs to construct a 2-D recursive DC digital lattice filter is that the resulting 2-D SHP recursive DC digital lattice filter provides better performance than the existing 2-D SHP recursive DC digital filter. Moreover, the proposed structure possesses a favorable 2-D DC half-band (DC-HB) property that allows about half of the 2-D SHP recursive DALF’s coefficients to be zero. This leads to considerable savings in computational burden for implementation. To ensure the stability of a designed 2-D SHP recursive DC digital lattice filter, some necessary constraints on the phase of the 2-D SHP recursive DALF during the design process are presented. Design of a 2-D diamond-shape decimation/interpolation filter is presented for illustration and comparison.

Keywords: All-pass digital filter, doubly complementary, lattice structure, symmetric half-plane digital filter, sampling rate conversion.

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873 A Hyper-Domain Image Watermarking Method based on Macro Edge Block and Wavelet Transform for Digital Signal Processor

Authors: Yi-Pin Hsu, Shin-Yu Lin

Abstract:

In order to protect original data, watermarking is first consideration direction for digital information copyright. In addition, to achieve high quality image, the algorithm maybe can not run on embedded system because the computation is very complexity. However, almost nowadays algorithms need to build on consumer production because integrator circuit has a huge progress and cheap price. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm which efficient inserts watermarking on digital image and very easy to implement on digital signal processor. In further, we select a general and cheap digital signal processor which is made by analog device company to fit consumer application. The experimental results show that the image quality by watermarking insertion can achieve 46 dB can be accepted in human vision and can real-time execute on digital signal processor.

Keywords: watermarking, digital signal processor, embedded system

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872 A Semantic Assistant Agent for Digital Libraries

Authors: Mohamed Kholif, Suaad Awad Mohamed

Abstract:

In this paper we present semantic assistant agent (SAA), an open source digital library agent which takes user query for finding information in the digital library and takes resources- metadata and stores it semantically. SAA uses Semantic Web to improve browsing and searching for resources in digital library. All metadata stored in the library are available in RDF format for querying and processing by SemanSreach which is a part of SAA architecture. The architecture includes a generic RDF-based model that represents relationships among objects and their components. Queries against these relationships are supported by an RDF triple store.

Keywords: Digital Library, Dublin Core, Ontology, Semantic web.

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871 Socio-Demographic Effects on Digital Libraries Preference and Use: A Case Study at Higher Learning Institutions

Authors: A. K. Razilan, A. B. Amzari, B. Ap-azli, A. R. Safawi

Abstract:

Explosion in information management and information system technology has brought dramatic changes in learning and library system environments. The use of academic digital libraries does witness the spectacular impact on academic societies’ way of performing their study in Malaysia, a country with a multi-racial people. This paper highlights a research on examining the socio-demographic differences on the preference and use of academic digital libraries as compared to physical libraries at higher learning institutions. Findings indicate that preference towards digital libraries differed between ethnicity, gender and university. However none of the socio-demographic factors is statistically significant in terms of the use of digital libraries.

Keywords: Socio-demographic, academic digital library, preference, use.

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870 Digital Redesign of Interval Systems via Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Chen-Chien Hsu, Chun-Hui Gao

Abstract:

In this paper, a PSO-based approach is proposed to derive a digital controller for redesigned digital systems having an interval plant based on resemblance of the extremal gain/phase margins. By combining the interval plant and a controller as an interval system, extremal GM/PM associated with the loop transfer function can be obtained. The design problem is then formulated as an optimization problem of an aggregated error function revealing the deviation on the extremal GM/PM between the redesigned digital system and its continuous counterpart, and subsequently optimized by a proposed PSO to obtain an optimal set of parameters for the digital controller. Computer simulations have shown that frequency responses of the redesigned digital system having an interval plant bare a better resemblance to its continuous-time counter part by the incorporation of a PSO-derived digital controller in comparison to those obtained using existing open-loop discretization methods.

Keywords: Digital redesign, Extremal systems, Particle swarm optimization, Uncertain interval systems

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