Applying Systematic Literature Review and Delphi Methods to Explore Digital Transformation Key Success Factors
Authors: Ayman El-Garem, Riham Adel
Digital transformation is about identifying the necessary changes of the entire business model, rethinking how to transform the traditional operations into digital ones that can create better value to its customers. Efforts are common across industries, but they often fail due to a lack of understanding of the factors required to focus on and change to be able to embark in digital transformation successfully. Further research is required to bridge the knowledge gap between academia and industry to support companies starting their digital transformation journey. To date there is no consensus on digital transformation key success factors. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to identify the success factors in digital transformation journey, throughout conducting a systematic literature review of 134 peer-reviewed articles to get better insights regarding the research progress in this field. After completing the systematic literature review it will be followed by Delphi study to get experts consensus on the most significant factors affecting digital transformation implementation. The findings indicate that organizations undergoing digital transformation should focus mainly on (1) well managed digital transformation activities; (2) digital business strategy; (3) supportive culture; (4) top management support; (5) organizational change capabilities.
Keywords: Digital transformation, key success factors, literature review, Delphi study.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 374
 M. Tihinen, M. Iivari, H. Ailisto, M. Komi, and Etalee, “An Exploratory Method to Clarify Business Potential in the Context of Industrial Internet – A Case Study,” vol. 1, pp. 469–478, 2016, doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-45390-3.
 V. B. Vukšić, L. Ivančić, D. S. Vugec, and Etal, “A Preliminary Literature Review of Digital Transformation Case Studies,” vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 737–742, 2018.
 R. Morakanyane, A. Grace, P. O’Reilly, and E. Al, “Conceptualizing digital transformation in business organizations: A systematic review of literature,” 30th Bled eConference Digit. Transform. - From Connect. Things to Transform. our Lives, BLED 2017, no. December, pp. 427–444, 2017, doi: 10.18690/978-961-286-043-1.30.
 M. Fitzgerald, N. Kruschwitz, D. Bonnet, and M. Welch, “Embracing Digital Technology: A New Strategic Imperative | Capgemini Consulting Worldwide,” MIT Sloan Manag. Rev., vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 1–13, 2013, (Online). Available: https://www.capgemini-consulting.com/SMR.
 T. Hess, C. Matt, and A. Benlian, “How German Media Companies Defined Their Digital Transformation Strategies,” no. June, 2016.
 U. S. Foerster-metz, K. Marquardt, N. Golowko, A. Kompalla, and C. Hell, “Digital Transformation and its Implications on Organizational Behavior,” vol. 2018, 2018, doi: 10.5171/2018.340873.
 G. C. Kane, D. Palmer, A. N. Phillips, D. Kiron, and N. Buckley, “Aligning the Organization for Its Digital Future,” no. 58180, 2016.
 A. Nadeem, B. Abedin, N. Cerpa, and E. Chew, “Editorial: Digital Transformation & Digital Business Strategy in Electronic Commerce - The Role of Organizational Capabilities,” vol. 13, no. 2, 2018, doi: 10.4067/S0718-18762018000200101.
 G. C. Kane, Doug Palmer, Anh Nguyen Phillips, David Kiron, and Natasha Buckley, “Strategy, not Technology, Drives Digital Transformation Becoming a digitally mature enterprise,” no. 57181, 2015.
 K. Osmundsen and J. Iden, “Digital Transformation: Drivers, Success Factors, and Implications,” no. September, 2018.
 E. H. Kwon and M. J. Park, “Critical Factors on Firm’ s Digital Transformation Capacity: Empirical Evidence from Korea,” vol. 12, no. 22, pp. 12585–12596, 2017.
 I. M. Sebastian, J. W. Ross, C. Beath, Etall, and Geo, “How Big Old Companies Navigate Digital Transformation,” vol. 2017, no. September, pp. 197–213, 2017.
 Amorim and Melao, “Digital Transformation: A Literature Review and Guidelines for Future Research,” no. May, 2018, doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-77703-0.
 G. George, Y. Lin, G. George, and Y. Lin, “Analytics, innovation, and organizational adaptation,” Innovation, vol. 9338, no. December, pp. 1–7, 2016, doi: 10.1080/14479338.2016.1252042.
 E. Baralou and H. Tsoukas, “How is New Organizational Knowledge Created in a Virtual Context? An Ethnographic Study,” pp. 6–8, 2015, doi: 10.1177/0170840614556918.
 Gartner, “Gartner Top 10 Strategic Technology Trends for 2018,” 2018.
 C. Gebayew, I. R. Hardini, G. Henry, A. Panjaitan, and N. B. Kurniawan, “A Systematic Literature Review on Digital Transformation,” no. August 2019, 2018, doi: 10.1109/ICITSI.2018.8695912.
 Lucas, Agarwal, Clemons, ElSawy, and Weber, “Impactful Research on Transformational Information Technology _An Opportunity to Inform New Audiences,” MIS Quart., vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 567–594, 2013.
 V. Arvidsson, “Digital Transformation in Banking: Exploring Value Co-Creation in Online Banking Services in India,” no. February, 2019, doi: 10.1080/1097198X.2019.1567216.
 J. Dregger, J. Niehaus, P. Ittermann, H. Hirsch-Kreinsen, and M. Ten Hompel, “The digitization of manufacturing and its societal challenges: A framework for the future of industrial labor,” 2016 IEEE Int. Symp. Ethics Eng. Sci. Technol. ETHICS 2016, pp. 4–6, 2016, doi: 10.1109/ETHICS.2016.7560045.
 E. Brynjolfsson, “Erik - The Second Machine Age,” J. Chem. Inf. Model., vol. 53, no. 9, pp. 1689–1699, 2013, doi: 10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004.
 V. Arribas, J. A. Alfaro, V. Arribas, and Eta, “3D technology in fashion: from concept to consumer,” 2018, doi: 10.1108/JFMM-10-2017-0114.
 Schwab, The Fourth Industrial Revolution. 2016.
 B. Bygstad, H. Aanby, J. Iden, and Eta, “Leading Digital Transformation: The Scandinavian Way” no. December, 2017, doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-64695-4.
 I. Haffke, B. Kalgovas, and A. Benlian, “The Transformative Role of Bimodal IT in an Era of Digital Business,” pp. 5460–5469, 2017.
 A. Lundberg, “The digital transformation – potential and barriers,” no. 1, 2018.
 M. Sow, “Impact of Leadership on Digital Transformation,” vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 139–148, 2018, doi: 10.5296/ber.v8i3.13368.
 A. Nadeem, “Investigating the Inter-Relationship Between Organizational Capabilities, Digital Transformation & Digital Business Strategy,” no. July, 2018.
 A. Bharadwaj, O. A. El Sawy, P. A. Pavlou, and Et, “DIGITAL Business Strategy: Toward a Next Generation of Insight,” vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 471–482, 2013.
 B. Mueller and U. Renken, “Helping Employees to be Digital Transformers – the Olympus.connect Case,” pp. 0–19, 2017.
 P. H. Coombes and J. D. Nicholson, “Business models and their relationship with marketing: A systematic literature review,” Ind. Mark. Manag., vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 656–664, 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.indmarman.2013.05.005.
 K. Liere-netheler, S. Packmohr, K. Vogelsang, and Etal, “Drivers of Digital Transformation in Manufacturing,” pp. 3926–3935, 2018.
 B. M. E. Shank et al., “An Assessment of Critical Success Factors Critical Success Factor Analysis as a Methodology for MIS Planning,” no. June 1984, 1984.
 A. Kutnjak and I. Pihir, “Challenges, Issues, Barriers and Problems in Digital Transformation – Systematic Literature Review,” pp. 133–141, 2019.
 M. Tate, D. Johnstone, S. Kitsiou, and Etal, “Contextualizing the twin concepts of systematicity and transparency in information systems literature reviews,” no. June, 2016, doi: 10.1057/s41303-016-0020-3.
 C. Okoli and K. Schabram, “Working Papers on Information Systems A Guide to Conducting a Systematic Literature Review of Information Systems Research,” vol. 10, no. 2010, 2010.
 M. J. Kaunda and O. Kennedy, “Factors influencing adoption and use of information and communication technology at the ethics and anti- corruption commission of Kenya,” vol. 2, no. 11, 2014.
 S. Berghaus, A. Back, S. Berghaus, and A. Back, “Disentangling the Fuzzy Front End of Digital Transformation: Activities and Approaches,” pp. 0–17, 2017.
 S. Yuvaraj and R. Nadheya, “A study on the role of technology on employee behaviour and their performance,” Int. J. Mech. Eng. Technol., vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 244–251, 2018.
 B. Arpe, “Managing Digital Transformation How organizations turn digital transformation into business practices,” no. June, 2019.
 G. Paré, A. F. Cameron, P. Poba-Nzaou, and M. Templier, “A systematic assessment of rigor in information systems ranking-type Delphi studies,” Inf. Manag., vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 207–217, 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.im.2013.03.003.
 Roy C. Schmidt, “Managing Delphi Surveys Using Nonparametric Statisical Techniques,” Decis. Sci., vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 736–774, 1997, (Online). Available: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/j.1540-5915.1997.tb01330.x.
 R. Singh, M. Keil, V. Kasi, Etal, and Etal, “Identifying and overcoming the challenges of implementing a project management office,” Eur. J. Inf. Syst., vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 409–427, 2009, doi: 10.1057/ejis.2009.29.
 P. D. G. Sieben, R. W. Gregory, and A. Hanelt, “Transforming Industrial Business: The Impact of Digital Transformation on Automotive Organizations,” pp. 1–20.
 M. Feki and I. Boughzala, “The Shape of Digital Transformation: A Systematic Literature Review,” no. April, 2016.
 E. Hartl and T. Hess, “The Role of Cultural Values for Digital Transformation: Insights from a Delphi the Role of Cultural Values for Digital Transformation: Insights from a Delphi Study Full Paper Abstract,” no. August, 2017.
 Delbecq, A.L., V. de Ven, A.H., Gustafson, and D.H., “Group Techniques for Program Planning: A Guide to Nominal Group and dElphi Processes. by André L. Delbecq, Andrew H. van De Ven, and David H. Gustafson. Glenview, Ill.: Scott, Foresman & Co., 1975. 174 pp. $4.75 paper. And Interpersonal Conflict Resolutio,” Soc. Work (United States), vol. 21, no. 4, p. 338, 1975, doi: 10.1093/sw/21.4.338.
 S. J. Paliwoda, “Predicting the Future Using Delphi,” Manag. Decis., vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 31–38, 1983, doi: 10.1108/eb001309.
 J. Schmidt and I. Schirmer, “Digitalization of the Banking Industry: A Multiple Stakeholder Analysis on Digitalization of the Banking Industry: A Multiple Stakeholder Analysis on Strategic Alignment Full Paper,” no. August, 2017.
 C. Okoli and S. D. Pawlowski, “The Delphi method as a research tool: An example, design considerations and applications,” Inf. Manag., vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 15–29, 2004, doi: 10.1016/j.im.2003.11.002.
 M. Keil, H. K. Lee, T. Deng, Etal, and Etal, “Understanding the most critical skills for managing IT projects: A Delphi study of IT project managers,” Inf. Manag., vol. 50, no. 7, pp. 398–414, 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.im.2013.05.005.
 L. Dong, D. Neufeld, C. Higgins, and Etal, “Top management support of enterprise systems implementations,” no. July 2016, 2009, doi: 10.1057/jit.2008.21.
 J. Enocson and S. Linnéa, “Digital Transformation, a Question of Survival? Exploring the Possibility for a Swedish Car Rental,” Linköping Univ. - Dep. Manag. Eng., pp. 1–119, 2017.