Search results for: Convective melting
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 217

Search results for: Convective melting

217 Heat Transfer at Convective Solid Melting in Fixed Bed

Authors: Stelian Petrescu, Adina Frunzâ, Camelia Petrescu

Abstract:

A method to determine experimentally the melting rate, rm, and the heat transfer coefficients, αv (W/(m3K)), at convective melting in a fixed bed of particles under adiabatic regime is established in this paper. The method lies in the determining of the melting rate by measuring the fixed bed height in time. Experimental values of rm, α and α v were determined using cylindrical particles of ice (d = 6.8 mm, h = 5.5 mm) and, as a melting agent, aqueous NaCl solution with a temperature of 283 K at different values of the liquid flow rate (11.63·10-6, 28.83·10-6, 38.83·10-6 m3/s). Our experimental results were compared with those existing in literature being noticed a good agreement for Re values higher than 50.

Keywords: Convective melting, fixed bed, packed bed, heat transfer, ice melting.

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216 Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Crystalline Structure of Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride)

Authors: Adriana Souza M. Batista, Cláubia Pereira, Luiz O. Faria

Abstract:

The irradiation of polymeric materials has received much attention because it can produce diverse changes in chemical structure and physical properties. Thus, studying the chemical and structural changes of polymers is important in practice to achieve optimal conditions for the modification of polymers. The effect of gamma irradiation on the crystalline structure of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) has been investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction techniques (XRD). Gamma irradiation was carried out in atmosphere air with doses between 100 kGy at 3,000 kGy with a Co-60 source. In the melting thermogram of the samples irradiated can be seen a bimodal melting endotherm is detected with two melting temperature. The lower melting temperature is attributed to melting of crystals originally present and the higher melting peak due to melting of crystals reorganized upon heat treatment. These results are consistent with those obtained by XRD technique showing increasing crystallinity with increasing irradiation dose, although the melting latent heat is decreasing.

Keywords: Differential scanning calorimetry, gamma irradiation, PVDF, X-ray diffraction technique.

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215 Experimental Investigation of Convective Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of Al2O3/Water Nanofluid in Laminar Flow Regime inside a Circular Tube

Authors: H. Almohammadi, Sh. Nasiri Vatan, E. Esmaeilzadeh, A. Motezaker, A. Nokhosteen

Abstract:

In the present study, Convective heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop of Al2O3/water nanofluid in laminar flow regime under constant heat flux conditions inside a circular tube were experimentally investigated. Al2O3/water nanofluid with 0.5% and 1% volume concentrations with 15 nm diameter nanoparticles were used as working fluid. The effect of different volume concentrations on convective heat transfer coefficient and friction factor was studied. The results emphasize that increasing of particle volume concentration leads to enhance convective heat transfer coefficient. Measurements show the average heat transfer coefficient enhanced about 11-20% with 0.5% volume concentration and increased about 16-27% with 1% volume concentration compared to distilled water. In addition, the convective heat transfer coefficient of nanofluid enhances with increase in heat flux. From the results, the average ratio of (fnf/fbf) was about 1.10 for 0.5% volume concentration. Therefore, there is no significant increase in friction factor for nanofluids.

Keywords: Convective heat transfer, Laminar flow regime, Nanofluids, Pressure drop

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214 Numerical Study of Natural Convection Effects in Latent Heat Storage using Aluminum Fins and Spiral Fillers

Authors: Lippong Tan, Yuenting Kwok, Ahbijit Date, Aliakbar Akbarzadeh

Abstract:

A numerical investigation has carried out to understand the melting characteristics of phase change material (PCM) in a fin type latent heat storage with the addition of embedded aluminum spiral fillers. It is known that melting performance of PCM can be significantly improved by increasing the number of embedded metallic fins in the latent heat storage system but to certain values where only lead to small improvement in heat transfer rate. Hence, adding aluminum spiral fillers within the fin gap can be an option to improve heat transfer internally. This paper presents extensive computational visualizations on the PCM melting patterns of the proposed fin-spiral fillers configuration. The aim of this investigation is to understand the PCM-s melting behaviors by observing the natural convection currents movement and melting fronts formation. Fluent 6.3 simulation software was utilized in producing twodimensional visualizations of melting fractions, temperature distributions and flow fields to illustrate the melting process internally. The results show that adding aluminum spiral fillers in Fin type latent heat storage can promoted small but more active natural convection currents and improve melting of PCM.

Keywords: Phase change material, thermal enhancement, aluminum spiral fillers, fins

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213 Influence of Artificial Roughness on Heat Transfer in the Rotating Flow

Authors: T. Magrakvelidze, N. Bantsadze, N. Lekveishvili, Kh. Lomidze

Abstract:

The results of an experimental study of the process of convective and boiling heat transfer in the vessel with stirrer for smooth and rough ring-shaped pipes are presented. It is established that creation of two-dimensional artificial roughness on the heated surface causes the essential (~100%) intensification of convective heat transfer. In case of boiling the influence of roughness appears on the initial stage of boiling and in case of fully developed nucleate boiling there was no intensification of heat transfer. The similitude equation for calculating convective heat transfer coefficient, which generalizes well experimental data both for the smooth and the rough surfaces is proposed.

Keywords: boiling, heat transfer, roughness.

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212 Inverse Heat Transfer Analysis of a Melting Furnace Using Levenberg-Marquardt Method

Authors: Mohamed Hafid, Marcel Lacroix

Abstract:

This study presents a simple inverse heat transfer procedure for predicting the wall erosion and the time-varying thickness of the protective bank that covers the inside surface of the refractory brick wall of a melting furnace. The direct problem is solved by using the Finite-Volume model. The melting/solidification process is modeled using the enthalpy method. The inverse procedure rests on the Levenberg-Marquardt method combined with the Broyden method. The effect of the location of the temperature sensors and of the measurement noise on the inverse predictions is investigated. Recommendations are made concerning the location of the temperature sensor.

Keywords: Melting furnace, inverse heat transfer, enthalpy method, Levenberg–Marquardt Method.

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211 Closely Parametrical Model for an Electrical Arc Furnace

Authors: Labar Hocine, Dgeghader Yacine, Kelaiaia Mounia Samira, Bounaya Kamel

Abstract:

To maximise furnace production it-s necessary to optimise furnace control, with the objectives of achieving maximum power input into the melting process, minimum network distortion and power-off time, without compromise on quality and safety. This can be achieved with on the one hand by an appropriate electrode control and on the other hand by a minimum of AC transformer switching. Electrical arc is a stochastic process; witch is the principal cause of power quality problems, including voltages dips, harmonic distortion, unbalance loads and flicker. So it is difficult to make an appropriate model for an Electrical Arc Furnace (EAF). The factors that effect EAF operation are the melting or refining materials, melting stage, electrode position (arc length), electrode arm control and short circuit power of the feeder. So arc voltages, current and power are defined as a nonlinear function of the arc length. In this article we propose our own empirical function of the EAF and model, for the mean stages of the melting process, thanks to the measurements in the steel factory.

Keywords: Modelling, electrical arc, melting, power, EAF, steel.

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210 The Effect of Laser Surface Melting on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Low Carbon Steel

Authors: Suleiman M. Elhamali, K. M. Etmimi, A. Usha

Abstract:

The paper presents the results of microhardness and microstructure of low carbon steel surface melted using carbon dioxide laser with a wavelength of 10.6μm and a maximum output power of 2000W. The processing parameters such as the laser power, and the scanning rate were investigated in this study. After surface melting two distinct regions formed corresponding to the melted zone MZ, and the heat affected zone HAZ. The laser melted region displayed a cellular fine structures while the HAZ displayed martensite or bainite structure. At different processing parameters, the original microstructure of this steel (Ferrite+Pearlite) has been transformed to new phases of martensitic and bainitic structures. The fine structure and the high microhardness are evidence of the high cooling rates which follow the laser melting. The melting pool and the transformed microstructure in the laser surface melted region of carbon steel showed clear dependence on laser power and scanning rate.

Keywords: Carbon steel, laser surface melting, microstructure, microhardness.

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209 Experimental Investigation on Freeze-Concentration Process Desalting for Highly Saline Brines

Authors: H. Al-Jabli

Abstract:

Using the freeze-melting process for the disposing of high saline brines was the aim of the paper by confirming the performance estimation of the treatment system. A laboratory bench scale freezing technique test unit was designed, constructed, and tested at Doha Research Plant (DRP) in Kuwait. The principal unit operations that have been considered for the laboratory study are: ice crystallization, separation, washing, and melting. The applied process is characterized as “the secondary-refrigerant indirect freezing”, which is utilizing normal freezing concept. The high saline brine was used as definite feed water, i.e. average TDS of 250,000 ppm. Kuwait desalination plants were carried out in the experimental study to measure the performance of the proposed treatment system. Experimental analysis shows that the freeze-melting process is capable of dropping the TDS of the feed water from 249,482 ppm to 56,880 ppm of the freeze-melting process in the two-phase’s course, whereas overall recovery results of the salt passage and salt rejection are 31.11%, 19.05%, and 80.95%, correspondingly. Therefore, the freeze-melting process is encouraging for the proposed application, as it shows on the results, which approves the process capability of reducing a major amount of the dissolved salts of the high saline brine with reasonable sensible recovery. This process might be reasonable with other brine disposal processes.

Keywords: High saline brine, freeze-melting process, ice crystallization, brine disposal process.

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208 Modeling Non-Darcy Natural Convection Flow of a Micropolar Dusty Fluid with Convective Boundary Condition

Authors: F. M. Hady, A. Mahdy, R. A. Mohamed, Omima A. Abo Zaid

Abstract:

A numerical approach of the effectiveness of numerous parameters on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) natural convection heat and mass transfer problem of a dusty micropolar fluid in a non-Darcy porous regime is prepared in the current paper. In addition, a convective boundary condition is scrutinized into the micropolar dusty fluid model. The governing boundary layer equations are converted utilizing similarity transformations to a system of dimensionless equations to be convenient for numerical treatment. The resulting equations for fluid phase and dust phases of momentum, angular momentum, energy, and concentration with the appropriate boundary conditions are solved numerically applying the Runge-Kutta method of fourth-order. In accordance with the numerical study, it is obtained that the magnitude of the velocity of both fluid phase and particle phase reduces with an increasing magnetic parameter, the mass concentration of the dust particles, and Forchheimer number. While rises due to an increment in convective parameter and Darcy number. Also, the results refer that high values of the magnetic parameter, convective parameter, and Forchheimer number support the temperature distributions. However, deterioration occurs as the mass concentration of the dust particles and Darcy number increases. The angular velocity behavior is described by progress when studying the effect of the magnetic parameter and microrotation parameter.

Keywords: Micropolar dusty fluid, convective heating, natural convection, MHD, porous media.

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207 Comparative Study of Experimental and Theoretical Convective, Evaporative for Two Model Distiller

Authors: Khaoula Hidouri, Ali Benhmidene, Bechir Chouachi

Abstract:

The purification of brackish seawater becomes a necessity and not a choice against demographic and industrial growth especially in third world countries. Two models can be used in this work: simple solar still and simple solar still coupled with a heat pump. In this research, the productivity of water by Simple Solar Distiller (SSD) and Simple Solar Distiller Hybrid Heat Pump (SSDHP) was determined by the orientation, the use of heat pump, the simple or double glass cover. The productivity can exceed 1.2 L/m²h for the SSDHP and 0.5 L/m²h for SSD model. The result of the global efficiency is determined for two models SSD and SSDHP give respectively 30%, 50%. The internal efficiency attained 35% for SSD and 60% of the SSDHP models. Convective heat coefficient can be determined by attained 2.5 W/m²°C and 0.5 W/m²°C respectively for SSDHP and SSD models.

Keywords: Productivity, efficiency, convective heat coefficient, SSD model, SSDHP model.

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206 Optimization of the Process of Osmo – Convective Drying of Edible Button Mushrooms using Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

Authors: Behrouz Mosayebi Dehkordi

Abstract:

Simultaneous effects of temperature, immersion time, salt concentration, sucrose concentration, pressure and convective dryer temperature on the combined osmotic dehydration - convective drying of edible button mushrooms were investigated. Experiments were designed according to Central Composite Design with six factors each at five different levels. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimum processing conditions that yield maximum water loss and rehydration ratio and minimum solid gain and shrinkage in osmotic-convective drying of edible button mushrooms. Applying surfaces profiler and contour plots optimum operation conditions were found to be temperature of 39 °C, immersion time of 164 min, salt concentration of 14%, sucrose concentration of 53%, pressure of 600 mbar and drying temperature of 40 °C. At these optimum conditions, water loss, solid gain, rehydration ratio and shrinkage were found to be 63.38 (g/100 g initial sample), 3.17 (g/100 g initial sample), 2.26 and 7.15%, respectively.

Keywords: Dehydration, Mushroom, Optimization, Osmotic, Response Surface Methodology

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205 Optimization the Process of Osmo – Convective Drying of Edible Button Mushrooms using Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

Authors: Behrouz Mosayebi Dehkordi

Abstract:

Simultaneous effects of temperature, immersion time, salt concentration, sucrose concentration, pressure and convective dryer temperature on the combined osmotic dehydration - convective drying of edible button mushrooms were investigated. Experiments were designed according to Central Composite Design with six factors each at five different levels. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimum processing conditions that yield maximum water loss and rehydration ratio and minimum solid gain and shrinkage in osmotic-convective drying of edible button mushrooms. Applying surfaces profiler and contour plots optimum operation conditions were found to be temperature of 39 °C, immersion time of 164 min, salt concentration of 14%, sucrose concentration of 53%, pressure of 600 mbar and drying temperature of 40 °C. At these optimum conditions, water loss, solid gain, rehydration ratio and shrinkage were found to be 63.38 (g/100 g initial sample), 3.17 (g/100 g initial sample), 2.26 and 7.15%, respectively.

Keywords: Dehydration, mushroom, optimization, osmotic, response surface methodology.

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204 Numerical Analysis of the Melting of Nano-Enhanced Phase Change Material in a Rectangular Latent Heat Storage Unit

Authors: Radouane Elbahjaoui, Hamid El Qarnia

Abstract:

Melting of Paraffin Wax (P116) dispersed with Al2O3 nanoparticles in a rectangular latent heat storage unit (LHSU) is numerically investigated. The storage unit consists of a number of vertical and identical plates of nano-enhanced phase change material (NEPCM) separated by rectangular channels in which heat transfer fluid flows (HTF: Water). A two dimensional mathematical model is considered to investigate numerically the heat and flow characteristics of the LHSU. The melting problem was formulated using the enthalpy porosity method. The finite volume approach was used for solving equations. The effects of nanoparticles’ volumetric fraction and the Reynolds number on the thermal performance of the storage unit were investigated.

Keywords: Nano-enhanced phase change material, phase change material, nanoparticles, latent heat storage unit, melting.

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203 Parametric and Analysis Study of the Melting in Slabs Heated by a Laminar Heat Transfer Fluid in Downward and Upward Flows

Authors: Radouane Elbahjaoui, Hamid El Qarnia

Abstract:

The present work aims to investigate numerically the thermal and flow characteristics of a rectangular latent heat storage unit (LHSU) during the melting process of a phase change material (PCM). The LHSU consists of a number of vertical and identical plates of PCM separated by rectangular channels. The melting process is initiated when the LHSU is heated by a heat transfer fluid (HTF: water) flowing in channels in a downward or upward direction. The proposed study is motivated by the need to optimize the thermal performance of the LHSU by accelerating the charging process. A mathematical model is developed and a fixed-grid enthalpy formulation is adopted for modeling the melting process coupling with convection-conduction heat transfer. The finite volume method was used for discretization. The obtained numerical results are compared with experimental, analytical and numerical ones found in the literature and reasonable agreement is obtained. Thereafter, the numerical investigations were carried out to highlight the effects of the HTF flow direction and the aspect ratio of the PCM slabs on the heat transfer characteristics and thermal performance enhancement of the LHSU.

Keywords: Phase change material, thermal energy storage, latent heat storage unit, melting.

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202 Behavior of Ice Melting in Natural Convention

Authors: N. Dizadji, P. Entezar

Abstract:

In this paper, the ice melting in rectangular, cylindrical and conical forms, which are erected vertically against air flow, are experimentally studied in the free convection regime.The results obtained are: Nusslet Number, heat transfer coefficient andGrashof Number, and the variations of the said numbers in relation to the time. The variations of ice slab area and volume are measured, too.

Keywords: Nusselt Number, Heat Transfer, Grashof Number, Heat Transfer Coefficient.

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201 Magnetohydrodynamic Mixed Convective Flow in a Cavity

Authors: R.YadollahiFarsani, B. Ghasemi

Abstract:

A magnetohydrodynamic mixed convective flow in a cavity was studied in this paper. The lower surface of cavity was heated from below whereas other walls of the cavity were thermally isolated. The governing two-dimensional flow equations have been solved by using finite volume code. The effects of magnetic field were studied on flow and temperature field and heat transfer performance at a wide range of parameters, Such as Hartmann (0≤Ha≤100) and Reynolds (1≤Re≤100) numbers. The results showed that as Hartman number increases the Nusselt number, representing heat transfer from the cavity decreases.

Keywords: Cavity, Magnetic Field, Mixed Convection, Magnetohydrodynamic

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200 Free Convective Heat Transfer in an Enclosure Filled with Porous Media with and without Insulated Moving Wall

Authors: Laith Jaafer Habeeb

Abstract:

The present work is concerned with the free convective two dimensional flow and heat transfer, in isotropic fluid filled porous rectangular enclosure with differentially heated walls for steady state incompressible flow have been investigated for non- Darcy flow model. Effects of Darcy number (0.0001 £Da£ 10), Rayleigh number (10 £Ra£ 5000), and aspect ratio (0.25 £AR£ 4), for a range of porosity (0.4 £e£ 0.9) with and without moving lower wall have been studied. The cavity was insulated at the lower and upper surfaces. The right and left heated surfaces allows convective transport through the porous medium, generating a thermal stratification and flow circulations. It was found that the Darcy number, Rayleigh number, aspect ratio, and porosity considerably influenced characteristics of flow and heat transfer mechanisms. The results obtained are discussed in terms of the Nusselt number, vectors, contours, and isotherms.

Keywords: Numerical study, moving-wall cavity flow, saturated porous medium, different Darcy and Rayleigh numbers.

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199 Theoretical Model of a Flat Plate Solar Collector Integrated with Phase Change Material

Authors: Mouna Hamed, Ammar B. Brahim

Abstract:

The objective of this work was to develop a theoretical model to study the dynamic thermal behavior of a flat plate solar collector integrated with a phase change material (PCM). The PCM acted as a heat source for the solar system during low intensity solar radiation and night. The energy balance equations for the various components of the collector as well as for the PCM were formulated and numerically solved using Matlab computational program. The effect of natural convection on heat during the melting process was taken into account by using an effective thermal conductivity. The model was used to investigate the effect of inlet water temperature, water mass flow rate, and PCM thickness on the outlet water temperature and the melt fraction during charging and discharging modes. A comparison with a collector without PCM was made. Results showed that charging and discharging processes of PCM have six stages. The adding of PCM caused a decrease in temperature during charge and an increase during discharge. The rise was most enhanced for higher inlet water temperature, PCM thickness and for lower mass flow rate. Analysis indicated that the complete melting time was shorter than the solidification time due to the high heat transfer coefficient during melting. The increases in PCM height and mass flow rate were not linear with the melting and solidification times.

Keywords: Thermal energy storage, phase change material, melting, solidification.

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198 Theoretical Model of a Flat Plate Solar Collector Integrated with Phase Change Material

Authors: Mouna Hamed, Ammar B. Brahim

Abstract:

The objective of this work was to develop a theoretical model to study the dynamic thermal behavior of a flat plate solar collector integrated with a phase change material (PCM). The PCM acted as a heat source for the solar system during low intensity solar radiation and night. The energy balance equations for the various components of the collector as well as for the PCM were formulated and numerically solved using MATLAB computational program. The effect of natural convection on heat during the melting process was taken into account by using an effective thermal conductivity. The model was used to investigate the effect of inlet water temperature, water mass flow rate, and PCM thickness on the outlet water temperature and the melt fraction during charging and discharging modes. A comparison with a collector without PCM was made. Results showed that charging and discharging processes of PCM have six stages. The adding of PCM caused a decrease in temperature during charge and an increase during discharge. The rise was most enhanced for higher inlet water temperature, PCM thickness and for lower mass flow rate. Analysis indicated that the complete melting time was shorter than the solidification time due to the high heat transfer coefficient during melting. The increases in PCM height and mass flow rate were not linear with the melting and solidification times.

Keywords: Thermal energy storage, phase change material, melting, solidification.

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197 Numerical Investigation of Electrohydrodynamics: Enhanced Heat Transfer in a Solid Sample

Authors: Suwimon Saneewong Na Ayuttaya

Abstract:

This paper presents a numerical investigation of electrically driven flow for enhancing convective heat transfer in a channel flow. This study focuses on the electrode arrangements, number of electrode and electrical voltage on Electrohydrodynamics (EHD) and effect of airflow driven on solid sample surface. The inlet airflow and inlet temperature are 0.35 m/s and 60 oC, respectively. High electrical voltage is tested in the range of 0-30 kV and number of electrode is tested in the range of 1-5. The numerical results show that electric field intensity is depended on electrical voltage and number of electrode. Increasing number of electrodes is increased shear flow, so swirling flow is increased. The swirling flows from aligned and staggered arrangements are affecting within the solid sample. When electrical voltage is increased, temperature distribution and convective heat transfer on the solid sample are significantly increased due to the electric force much stronger.

Keywords: Electrohydrodynamics, swirling flow, convective heat transfer, solid sample.

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196 Convection through Light Weight Timber Constructions with Mineral Wool

Authors: J. Schmidt, O. Kornadt

Abstract:

The major part of light weight timber constructions consists of insulation. Mineral wool is the most commonly used insulation due to its cost efficiency and easy handling. The fiber orientation and porosity of this insulation material enables flowthrough. The air flow resistance is low. If leakage occurs in the insulated bay section, the convective flow may cause energy losses and infiltration of the exterior wall with moisture and particles. In particular the infiltrated moisture may lead to thermal bridges and growth of health endangering mould and mildew. In order to prevent this problem, different numerical calculation models have been developed. All models developed so far have a potential for completion. The implementation of the flow-through properties of mineral wool insulation may help to improve the existing models. Assuming that the real pressure difference between interior and exterior surface is larger than the prescribed pressure difference in the standard test procedure for mineral wool ISO 9053 / EN 29053, measurements were performed using the measurement setup for research on convective moisture transfer “MSRCMT". These measurements show, that structural inhomogeneities of mineral wool effect the permeability only at higher pressure differences, as applied in MSRCMT. Additional microscopic investigations show, that the location of a leak within the construction has a crucial influence on the air flow-through and the infiltration rate. The results clearly indicate that the empirical values for the acoustic resistance of mineral wool should not be used for the calculation of convective transfer mechanisms.

Keywords: convection, convective transfer, infiltration, mineralwool, permeability, resistance, leakage

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195 Investigations of Natural Convective Heat Transfer in Rectangular Thermal Passages

Authors: Hussain H. Al-Kayiem, Ahmed K. Hussein, Toh Seng Peow

Abstract:

The evaluation of the convective heat transfer of flow in passages with rectangular cross section is still of interest for the heat transfer investigators, as in the air heater solar collectors. The aim of this paper is to present investigation results on the natural convection heat transfer in a solar air heater. The effect of the channel length as heat transfer surface and the inclination of the passage were investigated. The results were obtained experimentally and theoretically. For that, an experimental test rig was fabricated with channel lengths of 1m, 1.5m, and 2m. For each length, the air outlet and inlet temperatures, absorber and cover temperatures, solar radiation intensity and air flow rate were measured at 10o, 30o, 50o, 70o, and 90o tilt angles. Measurements were recorded every 2 hours interval to investigate the transient behavior of the system. The experimental and theoretical results are presented in terms of Nu number versus Ra number and discussed. The percentages of differences between experimental and theoretical results are within the margin of 6% to 13%, effectively. It is recommended to extend the investigation to study the same configurations with different artificial surface roughing by ribs or pins.

Keywords: Convective heat transfer, Flat plate, Natural convection, Passage flow, Solar energy.

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194 Probe Selection for Pathway-Specific Microarray Probe Design Minimizing Melting Temperature Variance

Authors: Fabian Horn, Reinhard Guthke

Abstract:

In molecular biology, microarray technology is widely and successfully utilized to efficiently measure gene activity. If working with less studied organisms, methods to design custom-made microarray probes are available. One design criterion is to select probes with minimal melting temperature variances thus ensuring similar hybridization properties. If the microarray application focuses on the investigation of metabolic pathways, it is not necessary to cover the whole genome. It is more efficient to cover each metabolic pathway with a limited number of genes. Firstly, an approach is presented which minimizes the overall melting temperature variance of selected probes for all genes of interest. Secondly, the approach is extended to include the additional constraints of covering all pathways with a limited number of genes while minimizing the overall variance. The new optimization problem is solved by a bottom-up programming approach which reduces the complexity to make it computationally feasible. The new method is exemplary applied for the selection of microarray probes in order to cover all fungal secondary metabolite gene clusters for Aspergillus terreus.

Keywords: bottom-up approach, gene clusters, melting temperature, metabolic pathway, microarray probe design, probe selection

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193 Magnetohydrodynamic Maxwell Nanofluids Flow over a Stretching Surface through a Porous Medium: Effects of Non-Linear Thermal Radiation, Convective Boundary Conditions and Heat Generation/Absorption

Authors: Sameh E. Ahmed, Ramadan A. Mohamed, Abd Elraheem M. Aly, Mahmoud S. Soliman

Abstract:

In this paper, an enhancement of the heat transfer using non-Newtonian nanofluids by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mixed convection along stretching sheets embedded in an isotropic porous medium is investigated. Case of the Maxwell nanofluids is studied using the two phase mathematical model of nanofluids and the Darcy model is applied for the porous medium. Important effects are taken into account, namely, non-linear thermal radiation, convective boundary conditions, electromagnetic force and presence of the heat source/sink. Suitable similarity transformations are used to convert the governing equations to a system of ordinary differential equations then it is solved numerically using a fourth order Runge-Kutta method with shooting technique. The main results of the study revealed that the velocity profiles are decreasing functions of the Darcy number, the Deborah number and the magnetic field parameter. Also, the increase in the non-linear radiation parameters causes an enhancement in the local Nusselt number.

Keywords: MHD, nanofluids, stretching surface, non-linear thermal radiation, convective condition.

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192 Numerical Heat Transfer Performance of Water-Based Graphene Nanoplatelets

Authors: Ahmad Amiri, Hamed K. Arzani, S. N. Kazi, B. T. Chew

Abstract:

Since graphene nanoplatelet (GNP) is a promising material due to desirable thermal properties, this paper is related to the thermophysical and heat transfer performance of covalently functionalized GNP-based water/ethylene glycol nanofluid through an annular channel. After experimentally measuring thermophysical properties of prepared samples, a computational fluid dynamics study has been carried out to examine the heat transfer and pressure drop of well-dispersed and stabilized nanofluids. The effect of concentration of GNP and Reynolds number at constant wall temperature boundary condition under turbulent flow regime on convective heat transfer coefficient has been investigated. Based on the results, for different Reynolds numbers, the convective heat transfer coefficient of the prepared nanofluid is higher than that of the base fluid. Also, the enhancement of convective heat transfer coefficient and thermal conductivity increase with the increase of GNP concentration in base-fluid. Based on the results of this investigation, there is a significant enhancement on the heat transfer rate associated with loading well-dispersed GNP in base-fluid.

Keywords: Nanofluid, turbulent flow, forced convection flow, graphene, annular, annulus.

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191 Direct Numerical Simulation of Oxygen Transfer at the Air-Water Interface in a Convective Flow Environment and Comparison to Experiments

Authors: B. Kubrak J. Wissink H. Herlina

Abstract:

Two-dimensional Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of high Schmidt number mass transfer in a convective flow environment (Rayleigh-B'enard) is carried out and results are compared to experimental data. A fourth-order accurate WENO-scheme has been used for scalar transport in order to aim for a high accuracy in areas of high concentration gradients. It was found that the typical spatial distance between downward plumes of cold high concentration water and the eddy size are in good agreement with experiments using a combined PIV-LIF technique for simultaneous and spatially synoptic measurements of 2D velocity and concentration fields.

Keywords: Air-Water Interface, DNS, Gas Transfer, LIF.

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190 Fourth Order Accurate Free Convective Heat Transfer Solutions from a Circular Cylinder

Authors: T. V. S. Sekhar, B. Hema Sundar Raju

Abstract:

Laminar natural-convective heat transfer from a horizontal cylinder is studied by solving the Navier-Stokes and energy equations using higher order compact scheme in cylindrical polar coordinates. Results are obtained for Rayleigh numbers of 1, 10, 100 and 1000 for a Prandtl number of 0.7. The local Nusselt number and mean Nusselt number are calculated and compared with available experimental and theoretical results. Streamlines, vorticity - lines and isotherms are plotted.

Keywords: Higher order compact scheme, Navier-Stokes equations, Energy equation, Natural convection, Boussinesq's approximation and Mean Nusselt number.

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189 The Effects of Electromagnetic Stirring on Microstructure and Properties of γ-TiAl Based Alloys Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting Technique

Authors: A. Ismaeel, C. S. Wang, D. S. Xu

Abstract:

The γ-TiAl based Ti-Al-Mn-Nb alloys were fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) on the TC4 substrate. The microstructures of the alloys were investigated in detail. The results reveal that the alloy without electromagnetic stirring (EMS) consists of γ-TiAl phase with tetragonal structure and α2-Ti3Al phase with hcp structure, while the alloy with applied EMS consists of γ-TiAl, α2-Ti3Al and α-Ti with hcp structure, and the morphological structure of the alloy without EMS which exhibits near lamellar structure and the alloy with EMS shows duplex structure, the alloy without EMS shows some microcracks and pores while they are not observed in the alloy without EMS. The microhardness and wear resistance values decrease with applied EMS.

Keywords: Selective laser melting, γ-TiAl based alloys, microstructure, properties, electromagnetic stirring.

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188 New Straw Combustion Technology for Cleaner Energy

Authors: M. Mika, , P. Volakova, V. Verner, O. Jankovsky, B. Klapste

Abstract:

We successfully developed a new straw combustion technology that efficiently reduces problems with unmanageable deposits inside straw fueled boilers in Zluticka Heating Plant. The deposits are mainly created by glass-forming melts. We plotted straw compositions in K2O-CaO-SiO2 phase diagram and illustrated they are in the area of low-melting eutectic poi melting of ash and the formation of deposits compositions by injecting additives into biomass fuel ueled points. To prevent the deposits, we modified ash fuel.

Keywords: Biomass, straw, combustion, deposit, heat

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