Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 52

Search results for: boiling

52 Influence of Artificial Roughness on Heat Transfer in the Rotating Flow

Authors: T. Magrakvelidze, N. Bantsadze, N. Lekveishvili, Kh. Lomidze

Abstract:

The results of an experimental study of the process of convective and boiling heat transfer in the vessel with stirrer for smooth and rough ring-shaped pipes are presented. It is established that creation of two-dimensional artificial roughness on the heated surface causes the essential (~100%) intensification of convective heat transfer. In case of boiling the influence of roughness appears on the initial stage of boiling and in case of fully developed nucleate boiling there was no intensification of heat transfer. The similitude equation for calculating convective heat transfer coefficient, which generalizes well experimental data both for the smooth and the rough surfaces is proposed.

Keywords: boiling, heat transfer, roughness.

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51 Effect of Nanofluids on the Saturated Pool Film Boiling

Authors: Dogan Ciloglu, Abdurrahim Bolukbasi, Kemal Comakli

Abstract:

In this study, the effect of nanofluids on the pool film boiling was experimentally investigated at saturated condition under atmospheric pressure. For this purpose, four different water-based nanofluids (Al2O3, SiO2, TiO2 and CuO) with 0.1% particle volume fraction were prepared. To investigate the boiling heat transfer, a cylindrical rod with high temperature was used. The rod heated up to high temperatures was immersed into nanofluids. The center temperature of rod during the cooling process was recorded by using a K-type thermocouple. The quenching curves showed that the pool boiling heat transfer was strongly dependent on the nanoparticle materials. During the repetitive quenching tests, the cooling time decreased and thus, the film boiling vanished. Consequently, the primary reason of this was the change of the surface characteristics due to the nanoparticles deposition on the rod-s surface.

Keywords: Heat transfer, nanofluid, nanoparticles, pool film boiling

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50 Direct Numerical Simulation of Subcooled Nucleate Pool Boiling

Authors: Sreeyuth Lal, Yohei Sato, Bojan Niceno

Abstract:

With the long-term objective of Critical Heat Flux (CHF) prediction, a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) framework for simulation of subcooled and saturated nucleate pool boiling is developed. One case of saturated, and three cases of subcooled boiling at different subcooling levels are simulated. Grid refinement study is also reported. Both boiling and condensation phenomena can be computed simultaneously in the proposed numerical framework. Computed bubble detachment diameters of the saturated nucleate pool boiling cases agree well with the experiment. The flow structures around the growing bubble are presented and the accompanying physics is described. The relation between heat flux evolution from the heated wall and the bubble growth is studied, along with investigations of temperature distribution and flow field evolutions.

Keywords: CFD, interface tracking method, phase change model, subcooled nucleate pool boiling.

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49 Electric Field Effect on the Rise of Single Bubbles during Boiling

Authors: N. Masoudnia, M. Fatahi

Abstract:

An experimental study of saturated pool boiling on a single artificial nucleation site without and with the application of an electric field on the boiling surface has been conducted. N-pentane is boiling on a copper surface and is recorded with a high speed camera providing high quality pictures and movies. The accuracy of the visualization allowed establishing an experimental bubble growth law from a large number of experiments. This law shows that the evaporation rate is decreasing during the bubble growth, and underlines the importance of liquid motion induced by the preceding bubble. Bubble rise is therefore studied: once detached, bubbles accelerate vertically until reaching a maximum velocity in good agreement with a correlation from literature. The bubbles then turn to another direction. The effect of applying an electric field on the boiling surface in finally studied. In addition to changes of the bubble shape, changes are also shown in the liquid plume and the convective structures above the surface. Lower maximum rising velocities were measured in the presence of electric fields, especially with a negative polarity.

Keywords: Single bubbles, electric field, boiling, effect.

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48 Evaluation of Exerting Force on the Heating Surface Due to Bubble Ebullition in Subcooled Flow Boiling

Authors: M. R. Nematollahi

Abstract:

Vibration characteristics of subcooled flow boiling on thin and long structures such as a heating rod were recently investigated by the author. The results show that the intensity of the subcooled boiling-induced vibration (SBIV) was influenced strongly by the conditions of the subcooling temperature, linear power density and flow velocity. Implosive bubble formation and collapse are the main nature of subcooled boiling, and their behaviors are the only sources to originate from SBIV. Therefore, in order to explain the phenomenon of SBIV, it is essential to obtain reliable information about bubble behavior in subcooled boiling conditions. This was investigated at different conditions of coolant subcooling temperatures of 25 to 75°C, coolant flow velocities of 0.16 to 0.53m/s, and linear power densities of 100 to 600 W/cm. High speed photography at 13,500 frames per second was performed at these conditions. The results show that even at the highest subcooling condition, the absolute majority of bubbles collapse very close to the surface after detaching from the heating surface. Based on these observations, a simple model of surface tension and momentum change is introduced to offer a rough quantitative estimate of the force exerted on the heating surface during the bubble ebullition. The formation of a typical bubble in subcooled boiling is predicted to exert an excitation force in the order of 10-4 N.

Keywords: Subcooled boiling, vibration mechanism, bubble behavior.

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47 Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Annular Flow Boiling in a Microchannel with 70000 Atoms

Authors: D.Toghraie, A.R.Azimian

Abstract:

Molecular dynamics simulation of annular flow boiling in a nanochannel with 70000 particles is numerically investigated. In this research, an annular flow model is developed to predict the superheated flow boiling heat transfer characteristics in a nanochannel. To characterize the forced annular boiling flow in a nanochannel, an external driving force F ext ranging from 1to12PN (PN= Pico Newton) is applied along the flow direction to inlet fluid particles during the simulation. Based on an annular flow model analysis, it is found that saturation condition and superheat degree have great influences on the liquid-vapor interface. Also, the results show that due to the relatively strong influence of surface tension in small channel, the interface between the liquid film and vapor core is fairly smooth, and the mean velocity along the stream-wise direction does not change anymore.

Keywords: Lennard-Jones Potential, Molecular DynamicsSimulation, Periodic Boundary Conditions (PBC), Non-EquilibriumMolecular Dynamics (NEMD), Annular Flow Boiling

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46 Roughness Effects on Nucleate Pool Boiling of R-113 on Horizontal Circular Copper Surfaces

Authors: R. Hosseini, A. Gholaminejad, H. Jahandar

Abstract:

The present paper is an experimental investigation of roughness effects on nucleate pool boiling of refrigerant R113 on horizontal circular copper surfaces. The copper samples were treated by different sand paper grit sizes to achieve different surface roughness. The average surface roughness of the four samples was 0.901, 0.735, 0.65, and 0.09, respectively. The experiments were performed in the heat flux range of 8 to 200kW/m2. The heat transfer coefficient was calculated by measuring wall superheat of the samples and the input heat flux. The results show significant improvement of heat transfer coefficient as the surface roughness is increased. It is found that the heat transfer coefficient of the sample with Ra=0.901 is 3.4, 10.5, and 38.5% higher in comparison with surfaces with Ra of 0.735, 0.65, and 0.09 at heat flux of 170 kW/m2. Moreover, the results are compared with literature data and the well known Cooper correlation.

Keywords: Nucleate Boiling, Pool Boiling, R113, SurfaceRoughness

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45 Application of Neural Networks to Predict Changing the Diameters of Bubbles in Pool Boiling Distilled Water

Authors: V. Nikkhah Rashidabad, M. Manteghian, M. Masoumi, S. Mousavian, D. Ashouri

Abstract:

In this research, the capability of neural networks in  modeling and learning complicated and nonlinear relations has been  used to develop a model for the prediction of changes in the diameter  of bubbles in pool boiling distilled water. The input parameters used  in the development of this network include element temperature, heat  flux, and retention time of bubbles. The test data obtained from the  experiment of the pool boiling of distilled water, and the  measurement of the bubbles form on the cylindrical element. The  model was developed based on training algorithm, which is  typologically of back-propagation type. Considering the correlation  coefficient obtained from this model is 0.9633. This shows that this  model can be trusted for the simulation and modeling of the size of  bubble and thermal transfer of boiling.

Keywords: Bubble Diameter, Heat Flux, Neural Network, Training Algorithm.

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44 CFD Study of Subcooled Boiling Flow at Elevated Pressure Using a Mechanistic Wall Heat Partitioning Model

Authors: Machimontorn Promtong, Sherman C. P. Cheung, Guan H. Yeoh, Sara Vahaji, Jiyuan Tu

Abstract:

The wide range of industrial applications involved with boiling flows promotes the necessity of establishing fundamental knowledge in boiling flow phenomena. For this purpose, a number of experimental and numerical researches have been performed to elucidate the underlying physics of this flow. In this paper, the improved wall boiling models, implemented on ANSYS CFX 14.5, were introduced to study subcooled boiling flow at elevated pressure. At the heated wall boundary, the Fractal model, Force balance approach and Mechanistic frequency model are given for predicting the nucleation site density, bubble departure diameter, and bubble departure frequency. The presented wall heat flux partitioning closures were modified to consider the influence of bubble sliding along the wall before the lift-off, which usually happens in the flow boiling. The simulation was performed based on the Two-fluid model, where the standard k-ω SST model was selected for turbulence modelling. Existing experimental data at around 5 bars were chosen to evaluate the accuracy of the presented mechanistic approach. The void fraction and Interfacial Area Concentration (IAC) are in good agreement with the experimental data. However, the predicted bubble velocity and Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) are over-predicted. This over-prediction may be caused by consideration of only dispersed and spherical bubbles in the simulations. In the future work, the important physical mechanisms of bubbles, such as merging and shrinking during sliding on the heated wall will be incorporated into this mechanistic model to enhance its capability for a wider range of flow prediction.

Keywords: CFD, mechanistic model, subcooled boiling flow, two-fluid model.

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43 Multiphase Flow Regime Detection Algorithm for Gas-Liquid Interface Using Ultrasonic Pulse-Echo Technique

Authors: Serkan Solmaz, Jean-Baptiste Gouriet, Nicolas Van de Wyer, Christophe Schram

Abstract:

Efficiency of the cooling process for cryogenic propellant boiling in engine cooling channels on space applications is relentlessly affected by the phase change occurs during the boiling. The effectiveness of the cooling process strongly pertains to the type of the boiling regime such as nucleate and film. Geometric constraints like a non-transparent cooling channel unable to use any of visualization methods. The ultrasonic (US) technique as a non-destructive method (NDT) has therefore been applied almost in every engineering field for different purposes. Basically, the discontinuities emerge between mediums like boundaries among different phases. The sound wave emitted by the US transducer is both transmitted and reflected through a gas-liquid interface which makes able to detect different phases. Due to the thermal and structural concerns, it is impractical to sustain a direct contact between the US transducer and working fluid. Hence the transducer should be located outside of the cooling channel which results in additional interfaces and creates ambiguities on the applicability of the present method. In this work, an exploratory research is prompted so as to determine detection ability and applicability of the US technique on the cryogenic boiling process for a cooling cycle where the US transducer is taken place outside of the channel. Boiling of the cryogenics is a complex phenomenon which mainly brings several hindrances for experimental protocol because of thermal properties. Thus substitute materials are purposefully selected based on such parameters to simplify experiments. Aside from that, nucleate and film boiling regimes emerging during the boiling process are simply simulated using non-deformable stainless steel balls, air-bubble injection apparatuses and air clearances instead of conducting a real-time boiling process. A versatile detection algorithm is perennially developed concerning exploratory studies afterward. According to the algorithm developed, the phases can be distinguished 99% as no-phase, air-bubble, and air-film presences. The results show the detection ability and applicability of the US technique for an exploratory purpose.

Keywords: Ultrasound, ultrasonic, multiphase flow, boiling, cryogenics, detection algorithm.

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42 Vapor Bubble Dynamics in Upward Subcooled Flow Boiling During Void Evolution

Authors: Rouhollah Ahmadi, Tatsuya Ueno, Tomio Okawa

Abstract:

Bubble generation was observed using a high-speed camera in subcooled flow boiling at low void fraction. Constant heat flux was applied on one side of an upward rectangular channel to make heated test channel. Water as a working fluid from high subcooling to near saturation temperature was injected step by step to investigate bubble behavior during void development. Experiments were performed in two different pressures condition close to 2bar and 4bar. It was observed that in high subcooling when boiling was commenced, bubble after nucleation departed its origin and slid beside heated surface. In an observation window mean release frequency of bubble fb,mean, nucleation site Ns and mean bubble volume Vb,mean in each step of experiments were measured to investigate wall vaporization rate. It was found that in proximity of PNVG vaporization rate was increased significantly in compare with condensation rate which remained in low value.

Keywords: Subcooled flow boiling, Bubble dynamics, Void fraction, Sliding bubble.

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41 CFD Modeling of Boiling in a Microchannel Based On Phase-Field Method

Authors: Rahim Jafari, Tuba Okutucu-Özyurt

Abstract:

The hydrodynamics and heat transfer characteristics of a vaporized elongated bubble in a rectangular microchannel have been simulated based on Cahn-Hilliard phase-field method. In the simulations, the initially nucleated bubble starts growing as it comes in contact with superheated water. The growing shape of the bubble compared well with the available experimental data in the literature.

Keywords: Microchannel, boiling, Cahn-Hilliard method, Two-phase flow, Simulation.

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40 CFD Simulation of Condensing Vapor Bubble using VOF Model

Authors: Seong-Su Jeon, Seong-Jin Kim, Goon-Cherl Park

Abstract:

In this study, direct numerical simulation for the bubble condensation in the subcooled boiling flow was performed. The main goal was to develop the CFD modeling for the bubble condensation and to evaluate the accuracy of the VOF model with the developed CFD modeling. CFD modeling for the bubble condensation was developed by modeling the source terms in the governing equations of VOF model using UDF. In the modeling, the amount of condensation was determined using the interfacial heat transfer coefficient obtained from the bubble velocity, liquid temperature and bubble diameter every time step. To evaluate the VOF model using the CFD modeling for the bubble condensation, CFD simulation results were compared with SNU experimental results such as bubble volume and shape, interfacial area, bubble diameter and bubble velocity. Simulation results predicted well the behavior of the actual condensing bubble. Therefore, it can be concluded that the VOF model using the CFD modeling for the bubble condensation will be a useful computational fluid dynamics tool for analyzing the behavior of the condensing bubble in a wide range of the subcooled boiling flow.

Keywords: Bubble condensation, CFD modeling, Subcooled boiling flow, VOF model.

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39 The Applications of Quantum Mechanics Simulation for Solvent Selection in Chemicals Separation

Authors: Attapong T., Hong-Ming Ku, Nakarin M., Narin L., Alisa L, Jirut W.

Abstract:

The quantum mechanics simulation was applied for calculating the interaction force between 2 molecules based on atomic level. For the simple extractive distillation system, it is ternary components consisting of 2 closed boiling point components (A,lower boiling point and B, higher boiling point) and solvent (S). The quantum mechanics simulation was used to calculate the intermolecular force (interaction force) between the closed boiling point components and solvents consisting of intermolecular between A-S and B-S. The requirement of the promising solvent for extractive distillation is that solvent (S) has to form stronger intermolecular force with only one component than the other component (A or B). In this study, the systems of aromatic-aromatic, aromatic-cycloparaffin, and paraffindiolefin systems were selected as the demonstration for solvent selection. This study defined new term using for screening the solvents called relative interaction force which is calculated from the quantum mechanics simulation. The results showed that relative interaction force gave the good agreement with the literature data (relative volatilities from the experiment). The reasons are discussed. Finally, this study suggests that quantum mechanics results can improve the relative volatility estimation for screening the solvents leading to reduce time and money consuming

Keywords: Extractive distillation, Interaction force, Quamtum mechanic, Relative volatility, Solvent extraction.

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38 Multi-Modal Film Boiling Simulations on Adaptive Octree Grids

Authors: M. Wasy Akhtar

Abstract:

Multi-modal film boiling simulations are carried out on adaptive octree grids. The liquid-vapor interface is captured using the volume-of-fluid framework adjusted to account for exchanges of mass, momentum, and energy across the interface. Surface tension effects are included using a volumetric source term in the momentum equations. The phase change calculations are conducted based on the exact location and orientation of the interface; however, the source terms are calculated using the mixture variables to be consistent with the one field formulation used to represent the entire fluid domain. The numerical model on octree representation of the computational grid is first verified using test cases including advection tests in severely deforming velocity fields, gravity-based instabilities and bubble growth in uniformly superheated liquid under zero gravity. The model is then used to simulate both single and multi-modal film boiling simulations. The octree grid is dynamically adapted in order to maintain the highest grid resolution on the instability fronts using markers of interface location, volume fraction, and thermal gradients. The method thus provides an efficient platform to simulate fluid instabilities with or without phase change in the presence of body forces like gravity or shear layer instabilities.

Keywords: Boiling flows, dynamic octree grids, heat transfer, interface capturing, phase change.

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37 Nonlinear Thermal Hydraulic Model to Analyze Parallel Channel Density Wave Instabilities in Natural Circulation Boiling Water Reactor with Asymmetric Power Distribution

Authors: Sachin Kumar, Vivek Tiwari, Goutam Dutta

Abstract:

The paper investigates parallel channel instabilities of natural circulation boiling water reactor. A thermal-hydraulic model is developed to simulate two-phase flow behavior in the natural circulation boiling water reactor (NCBWR) with the incorporation of ex-core components and recirculation loop such as steam separator, down-comer, lower-horizontal section and upper-horizontal section and then, numerical analysis is carried out for parallel channel instabilities of the reactor undergoing both in-phase and out-of-phase modes of oscillations. To analyze the relative effect on stability of the reactor due to inclusion of various ex-core components and recirculation loop, marginal stable point is obtained at a particular inlet enthalpy of the reactor core without the inclusion of ex-core components and recirculation loop and then with the inclusion of the same. Numerical simulations are also conducted to determine the relative dominance between two modes of oscillations i.e. in-phase and out-of-phase. Simulations are also carried out when the channels are subjected to asymmetric power distribution keeping the inlet enthalpy same.

Keywords: Asymmetric power distribution, Density wave oscillations, In-phase and out-of-phase modes of instabilities, Natural circulation boiling water reactor

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36 Operation Stability Enhancement in Once-Through Micro Evaporators

Authors: Cor M. Rops, Giaco C. Oosterbaan, Cees W.M. v/d Geld

Abstract:

Equipment miniaturisation offers several opportunities such as an increased surface-to-volume ratio and higher heat transfer coefficients. However, moving towards small-diameter channels demands extra attention to fouling, reliability and stable operation of the system. The present investigation explores possibilities to enhance the stability of the once-through micro evaporator by reducing its flow boiling induced pressure fluctuations. Experimental comparison shows that the measured reduction factor approaches a theoretically derived value. Pressure fluctuations are reduced by a factor of ten in the solid conical channel and a factor of 15 in the porous conical channel. This presumably leads to less backflow and therefore to a better flow control.

Keywords: Flow boiling, Operation stability, Microfluidics, Microchannels.

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35 Comparison of the Distillation Curve Obtained Experimentally with the Curve Extrapolated by a Commercial Simulator

Authors: Lívia B. Meirelles, Erika C. A. N. Chrisman, Flávia B. de Andrade, Lilian C. M. de Oliveira

Abstract:

True Boiling Point distillation (TBP) is one of the most common experimental techniques for the determination of petroleum properties. This curve provides information about the performance of petroleum in terms of its cuts. The experiment is performed in a few days. Techniques are used to determine the properties faster with a software that calculates the distillation curve when a little information about crude oil is known. In order to evaluate the accuracy of distillation curve prediction, eight points of the TBP curve and specific gravity curve (348 K and 523 K) were inserted into the HYSYS Oil Manager, and the extended curve was evaluated up to 748 K. The methods were able to predict the curve with the accuracy of 0.6%-9.2% error (Software X ASTM), 0.2%-5.1% error (Software X Spaltrohr).

Keywords: Distillation curve, petroleum distillation, simulation, true boiling point curve.

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34 Visual Study on Flow Patterns and Heat Transfer during Convective Boiling Inside Horizontal Smooth and Microfin Tubes

Authors: V.D. Hatamipour, M.A. Akhavan-Behabadi

Abstract:

Evaporator is an important and widely used heat exchanger in air conditioning and refrigeration industries. Different methods have been used by investigators to increase the heat transfer rates in evaporators. One of the passive techniques to enhance heat transfer coefficient is the application of microfin tubes. The mechanism of heat transfer augmentation in microfin tubes is dependent on the flow regime of two-phase flow. Therefore many investigations of the flow patterns for in-tube evaporation have been reported in literatures. The gravitational force, surface tension and the vapor-liquid interfacial shear stress are known as three dominant factors controlling the vapor and liquid distribution inside the tube. A review of the existing literature reveals that the previous investigations were concerned with the two-phase flow pattern for flow boiling in horizontal tubes [12], [9]. Therefore, the objective of the present investigation is to obtain information about the two-phase flow patterns for evaporation of R-134a inside horizontal smooth and microfin tubes. Also Investigation of heat transfer during flow boiling of R-134a inside horizontal microfin and smooth tube have been carried out experimentally The heat transfer coefficients for annular flow in the smooth tube is shown to agree well with Gungor and Winterton-s correlation [4]. All the flow patterns occurred in the test can be divided into three dominant regimes, i.e., stratified-wavy flow, wavy-annular flow and annular flow. Experimental data are plotted in two kinds of flow maps, i.e., Weber number for the vapor versus weber number for the liquid flow map and mass flux versus vapor quality flow map. The transition from wavy-annular flow to annular or stratified-wavy flow is identified in the flow maps.

Keywords: Flow boiling, Flow pattern, Heat transfer, Horizontal, Smooth tube, Microfin tube.

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33 Investigation of Bubble Growth during Nucleate Boiling Using CFD

Authors: K. Jagannath, Akhilesh Kotian, S. S. Sharma, Achutha Kini U., P. R. Prabhu

Abstract:

Boiling process is characterized by the rapid formation of vapour bubbles at the solid–liquid interface (nucleate boiling) with pre-existing vapour or gas pockets. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is an important tool to study bubble dynamics. In the present study, CFD simulation has been carried out to determine the bubble detachment diameter and its terminal velocity. Volume of fluid method is used to model the bubble and the surrounding by solving single set of momentum equations and tracking the volume fraction of each of the fluids throughout the domain. In the simulation, bubble is generated by allowing water-vapour to enter a cylinder filled with liquid water through an inlet at the bottom. After the bubble is fully formed, the bubble detaches from the surface and rises up during which the bubble accelerates due to the net balance between buoyancy force and viscous drag. Finally when these forces exactly balance each other, it attains a constant terminal velocity. The bubble detachment diameter and the terminal velocity of the bubble are captured by the monitor function provided in FLUENT. The detachment diameter and the terminal velocity obtained are compared with the established results based on the shape of the bubble. A good agreement is obtained between the results obtained from simulation and the equations in comparison with the established results.

Keywords: Bubble growth, computational fluid dynamics, detachment diameter, terminal velocity.

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32 The Effect of Type of Nanoparticles on the Quenching Process

Authors: Dogan Ciloglu, Abdurrahim Bolukbasi, Harun Cifci

Abstract:

In this study, the experiments were carried out to determine the best coolant for the quenching process among waterbased silica, alumina, titania and copper oxide nanofluids (0.1 vol%). A sphere made up off brass material was used in the experiments. When the spherical test specimen was heated at high temperatures, it was suddenly immersed into the nanofluids. All experiments were carried out at saturated conditions and under atmospheric pressure. After the experiments, the cooling curves were obtained by using the temperature-time data of the specimen. The experimental results showed that the cooling performance of test specimen depended on the type of nanofluids. The silica nanoparticles enhanced the performance of boiling heat transfer and it is the best coolant for the quenching among other nanoparticles.

Keywords: Heat transfer, nanofluid, pool boiling, quenching.

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31 Investigation Bubble Growth and Nucleation Rates during the Pool Boiling Heat Transfer of Distilled Water Using Population Balance Model

Authors: V. Nikkhah Rashidabad, M. Manteghian, M. Masoumi, S. Mousavian

Abstract:

In this research, the changes in bubbles diameter and  number that may occur due to the change in heat flux of pure water  during pool boiling process. For this purpose, test equipment was  designed and developed to collect test data. The bubbles were graded  using Caliper Screen software. To calculate the growth and  nucleation rates of bubbles under different fluxes, population balance  model was employed. The results show that the increase in heat flux  from q=20 kw/m2 to q= 102 kw/m2 raised the growth and nucleation  rates of bubbles.

 

Keywords: Heat flux, bubble growth, bubble nucleation, population balance model.

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30 Effect of Processing on Sensory Characteristics and Chemical Composition of Cottonseed (Gossypium hirsutum) and Its Extract

Authors: Olufunke O. Ezekiel, Abiodun A. Oriku

Abstract:

The seeds of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fall among the lesser known oil seeds. Cottonseeds are not normally consumed in their natural state due to their gossypol content, an antinutrient. The effect of processing on the sensory characteristics and chemical composition of cottonseed and its extract was studied by subjecting the cottonseed extract to heat treatment (boiling) and the cottonseed to fermentation. The cottonseed extract was boiled using the open pot and the pressure pot for 30 minutes respectively. The fermentation of the cottonseed was carried out for 6 days with samples withdrawn at intervals of 2 days. The extract and fermented samples were subjected to chemical analysis and sensory evaluated for colour, aroma, taste, mouth feel, appearance and overallacceptability. The open pot sample was more preferred. Fermentation for 6 days resulted into a significant reduction in gossypol level of the cottonseed; however, sample fermented for 2 days was most preferred.

Keywords: Cottonseed, boiling, extract, fermentation, True protein.

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29 The Main Steamline Break Transient Analysis for Advanced Boiling Water Reactor Using TRACE, PARCS, and SNAP Codes

Authors: H. C. Chang, J. R. Wang, A. L. Ho, S. W. Chen, J. H. Yang, C. Shih, L. C. Wang

Abstract:

To confirm the reactor and containment integrity of the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR), we perform the analysis of main steamline break (MSLB) transient by using the TRACE, PARCS, and SNAP codes. The process of the research has four steps. First, the ABWR nuclear power plant (NPP) model is developed by using the above codes. Second, the steady state analysis is performed by using this model. Third, the ABWR model is used to run the analysis of MSLB transient. Fourth, the predictions of TRACE and PARCS are compared with the data of FSAR. The results of TRACE/PARCS and FSAR are similar. According to the TRACE/PARCS results, the reactor and containment integrity of ABWR can be maintained in a safe condition for MSLB.

Keywords: ABWR, TRACE, PARCS, SNAP.

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28 Numerical Simulation of the Liquid-Vapor Interface Evolution with Material Properties

Authors: Kimou Kouadio Prosper, Souleymane Oumtanaga, Tety Pierre, Adou Kablan Jérôme

Abstract:

A satured liquid is warmed until boiling in a parallelepipedic boiler. The heat is supplied in a liquid through the horizontal bottom of the boiler, the other walls being adiabatic. During the process of boiling, the liquid evaporates through its free surface by deforming it. This surface which subdivides the boiler into two regions occupied on both sides by the boiled liquid (broth) and its vapor which surmounts it. The broth occupying the region and its vapor the superior region. A two- fluids model is used to describe the dynamics of the broth, its vapor and their interface. In this model, the broth is treated as a monophasic fluid (homogeneous model) and form with its vapor adiphasic pseudo fluid (two-fluid model). Furthermore, the interface is treated as a zone of mixture characterized by superficial void fraction noted α* . The aim of this article is to describe the dynamics of the interface between the boiled fluid and its vapor within a boiler. The resolution of the problem allowed us to show the evolution of the broth and the level of the liquid.

Keywords: Two-fluid models, homogeneous model, interface, averaged equations, Jumps conditions, void fraction.

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27 CFD Simulation for Flow Behavior in Boiling Water Reactor Vessel and Upper Pool under Decommissioning Condition

Authors: Y. T. Ku, S. W. Chen, J. R. Wang, C. Shih, Y. F. Chang

Abstract:

In order to respond the policy decision of non-nuclear homes, Tai Power Company (TPC) will provide the decommissioning project of Kuosheng Nuclear power plant (KSNPP) to meet the regulatory requirement in near future. In this study, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methodology has been employed to develop a flow prediction model for boiling water reactor (BWR) with upper pool under decommissioning stage. The model can be utilized to investigate the flow behavior as the vessel combined with upper pool and continuity cooling system. At normal operating condition, different parameters are obtained for the full fluid area, including velocity, mass flow, and mixing phenomenon in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and upper pool. Through the efforts of the study, an integrated simulation model will be developed for flow field analysis of decommissioning KSNPP under normal operating condition. It can be expected that a basis result for future analysis application of TPC can be provide from this study.

Keywords: CFD, BWR, decommissioning, upper pool.

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26 Automated Separation of Organic Liquids through Their Boiling Points

Authors: Muhammad Tahir Qadri, Syed Shafi-Uddin Qadri, Faizan Farid, Nabeel Abid

Abstract:

This paper discuss the separation of the miscible liquids by means of fractional distillation. For complete separation of liquids, the process of heating, condensation, separation and storage is done automatically to achieve the objective. PIC micro-controller has been used to control each and every process of the work. The controller also controls the storage process by activating and deactivating the conveyors. The liquids are heated which on reaching their respective boiling points evaporate and enter the condensation chamber where they convert into liquid. The liquids are then directed to their respective tanks by means of stepper motor which moves in three directions, each movement into different tank. The tank on filling sends the signal to controller which then opens the solenoid valves. The tank is emptied into the beakers below the nozzle. As the beaker filled, the nozzle closes and the conveyors come into operation. The filled beaker is replaced by an empty beaker from behind. The work can be used in oil industries, chemical industries and paint industries.

Keywords: Miscible Liquid Separation Unit, Distillation, Waste Water Treatment, Organic Liquids Collection.

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25 Hydrodynamic Processes in Bubbly Liquid Flow in Tubes and Nozzles

Authors: Raisa Kh. Bolotnova, Marat N. Galimzianov, Andrey S. Topolnikov, Valeria A. Buzina, Uliana O. Agisheva

Abstract:

The hydrodynamic processes in bubbly liquid flowing in tubes and nozzles are studied theoretically and numerically. The principal regularities of non-stationary processes of boiling liquid outflow are established under conditions of experiments when the depressurization of a tube with high pressure inside occurs. The steady-state solution of bubbly liquid flow in the nozzle of round cross section with high pressure and temperature conditions inside bubbles is studied accounting for phase transition and chemical reactions.

Keywords: bubbly liquid, cavitation, chemical reactions, phase transition.

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24 Realization of a Temperature Based Automatic Controlled Domestic Electric Boiling System

Authors: Shengqi Yu, Jinwei Zhao

Abstract:

This paper presents a kind of analog circuit based temperature control system, which is mainly composed by threshold control signal circuit, synchronization signal circuit and trigger pulse circuit. Firstly, the temperature feedback signal function is realized by temperature sensor TS503F3950E. Secondly, the main control circuit forms the cycle controlled pulse signal to control the thyristor switching model. Finally two reverse paralleled thyristors regulate the output power by their switching state. In the consequence, this is a modernized and energy-saving domestic electric heating system.

Keywords: Time base circuit, automatic control, zero-crossing trigger, temperature control.

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23 Eco-friendly and Cleaner Process for Isolation of Essential Oil Using Photovoltaic Energy: Experimental and Theoretical Study

Authors: Hanen Nafaa, Maissa Farhat, Sina Ouriemi, Sbita Lassaad

Abstract:

The use of renewable energies is growing significantly worldwide. Faced with the increasing demand for electrical energy, mainly for the needs of remote, deserted and mountainous regions, numerous applications use photovoltaic energy. In this sense, the proposed study concerns a mathematical modeling and an experimental validation for the recovery of essential oil by a steam distillation system using photovoltaic energy. In this paper, we proceed to a modeling of the solar system that includes a photovoltaic (PV) generator with an electronic power converter allowing a continuation of the optimum operating point. The results obtained are promising and are validated practically.

Keywords: Boiling in tubes, DC-DC converter, desalination, maximum power point tracking command, photovoltaic energy, solar generator.

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