Search results for: Marcel Lacroix
18 Inverse Heat Transfer Analysis of a Melting Furnace Using Levenberg-Marquardt Method
Authors: Mohamed Hafid, Marcel Lacroix
Abstract:This study presents a simple inverse heat transfer procedure for predicting the wall erosion and the time-varying thickness of the protective bank that covers the inside surface of the refractory brick wall of a melting furnace. The direct problem is solved by using the Finite-Volume model. The melting/solidification process is modeled using the enthalpy method. The inverse procedure rests on the Levenberg-Marquardt method combined with the Broyden method. The effect of the location of the temperature sensors and of the measurement noise on the inverse predictions is investigated. Recommendations are made concerning the location of the temperature sensor.
Keywords: Melting furnace, inverse heat transfer, enthalpy method, Levenberg–Marquardt Method.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1171
17 Prediction of the Thermal Parameters of a High-Temperature Metallurgical Reactor Using Inverse Heat Transfer
Authors: Mohamed Hafid, Marcel Lacroix
This study presents an inverse analysis for predicting the thermal conductivities and the heat flux of a high-temperature metallurgical reactor simultaneously. Once these thermal parameters are predicted, the time-varying thickness of the protective phase-change bank that covers the inside surface of the brick walls of a metallurgical reactor can be calculated. The enthalpy method is used to solve the melting/solidification process of the protective bank. The inverse model rests on the Levenberg-Marquardt Method (LMM) combined with the Broyden method (BM). A statistical analysis for the thermal parameter estimation is carried out. The effect of the position of the temperature sensors, total number of measurements and measurement noise on the accuracy of inverse predictions is investigated. Recommendations are made concerning the location of temperature sensors.
Keywords: Inverse heat transfer, phase change, metallurgical reactor, Levenberg–Marquardt method, Broyden method, bank thickness.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1576
16 An Inverse Heat Transfer Algorithm for Predicting the Thermal Properties of Tumors during Cryosurgery
Authors: Mohamed Hafid, Marcel Lacroix
This study aimed at developing an inverse heat transfer approach for predicting the time-varying freezing front and the temperature distribution of tumors during cryosurgery. Using a temperature probe pressed against the layer of tumor, the inverse approach is able to predict simultaneously the metabolic heat generation and the blood perfusion rate of the tumor. Once these parameters are predicted, the temperature-field and time-varying freezing fronts are determined with the direct model. The direct model rests on one-dimensional Pennes bioheat equation. The phase change problem is handled with the enthalpy method. The Levenberg-Marquardt Method (LMM) combined to the Broyden Method (BM) is used to solve the inverse model. The effect (a) of the thermal properties of the diseased tissues; (b) of the initial guesses for the unknown thermal properties; (c) of the data capture frequency; and (d) of the noise on the recorded temperatures is examined. It is shown that the proposed inverse approach remains accurate for all the cases investigated.
Keywords: Cryosurgery, inverse heat transfer, Levenberg-Marquardt method, thermal properties, Pennes model, enthalpy method.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1315
15 Determination of Adequate Fuzzy Inequalities for their Usage in Fuzzy Query Languages
Authors: Marcel Shirvanian, Wolfram Lippe
Abstract:Although the usefulness of fuzzy databases has been pointed out in several works, they are not fully developed in numerous domains. A task that is mostly disregarded and which is the topic of this paper is the determination of suitable inequalities for fuzzy sets in fuzzy query languages. This paper examines which kinds of fuzzy inequalities exist at all. Afterwards, different procedures are presented that appear theoretically appropriate. By being applied to various examples, their strengths and weaknesses are revealed. Furthermore, an algorithm for an efficient computation of the selected fuzzy inequality is shown.
Keywords: Fuzzy Databases, Fuzzy Inequalities, Fuzzy QueryLanguages, Fuzzy Ranking.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1229
14 Analysis of Some Solutions to Protect the Tombolo of GIENS
Authors: Yves Lacroix, Van Van Than, Didier Leandri, Pierre Liardet
The tombolo of Giens is located in the town of Hyères (France). We recall the history of coastal erosion, and prominent factors affecting the evolution of the western tombolo. We then discuss the possibility of stabilizing the western tombolo. Our argumentation relies on a coupled model integrating swells, currents, water levels and sediment transport. We present the conclusions of the simulations of various scenarios, including pre-existing propositions from coastal engineering offices. We conclude that beach replenishment seems to be necessary but not sufficient for the stabilization of the beach. Breakwaters reveal effective particularly in the most exposed northern area. Some solutions fulfill conditions so as to be elected as satisfactory. We give a comparative analysis of the efficiency of 14 alternatives for the protection of the tombolo.
Keywords: Breakwaters, coupled models, replenishment, silting.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1797
13 Performance Analysis of a WiMax/Wi-Fi System Whilst Streaming a Video Conference Application
Authors: Patrice Obinna Umenne, Marcel O. Odhiambo
WiMAX and Wi-Fi are considered as the promising broadband access solutions for wireless MAN’s and LANs, respectively. In the recent works WiMAX is considered suitable as a backhaul service to connect multiple dispersed Wi-Fi ‘hotspots’. Hence a new integrated WiMAX/Wi-Fi architecture has been proposed in literatures. In this paper the performance of an integrated WiMAX/Wi-Fi network has been investigated by streaming a video conference application. The difference in performance between the two protocols is compared with respect to video conferencing. The Heterogeneous network was simulated in the OPNET simulator.
Keywords: Throughput, delay, delay variance, packet loss, Quality of Service (QoS).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2530
12 Building a Hierarchical, Granular Knowledge Cube
Authors: Alexander Denzler, Marcel Wehrle, Andreas Meier
Abstract:A knowledge base stores facts and rules about the world that applications can use for the purpose of reasoning. By applying the concept of granular computing to a knowledge base, several advantages emerge. These can be harnessed by applications to improve their capabilities and performance. In this paper, the concept behind such a construct, called a granular knowledge cube, is defined, and its intended use as an instrument that manages to cope with different data types and detect knowledge domains is elaborated. Furthermore, the underlying architecture, consisting of the three layers of the storing, representing, and structuring of knowledge, is described. Finally, benefits as well as challenges of deploying it are listed alongside application types that could profit from having such an enhanced knowledge base.
Keywords: Granular computing, granular knowledge, hierarchical structuring, knowledge bases.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2142
11 Novel Glycopolymers Containing Carbohydrate Moiety: Copolymerization and Thermal Properties
Authors: Liliana M. Ştefan, Ana M. Pană, Geza Bandur, Marcel Popa, Lucian M. Rusnac
Polymers are one of the most widely used materials in our every day life. The subject of renewable resources has attracted great attention in the last period of time. New polymeric materials derived from renewable resources, like carbohydrates draw attention to public eye especially because of their biocompatibility and biodegradability. The aim of our paper was to obtain environmentally compatible polymers from monosaccharides. Novel glycopolymers based on D-glucose have been obtained from copolymerization of a new monomer carrying carbohydrate moiety with methyl methacrylate (MMA) via free radical bulk polymerization. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was performed in order to study the copolymerization process of the monomer into the chosen co-monomer; the activation energy of this process was evaluated using Ozawa method. The copolymers obtained were characterized using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. The thermal stability of the obtained products was studied by thermogravimetry (TG).
Keywords: DSC, glycopolymer, monosaccarides, TG.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1589
10 Delivery of Positively Charged Proteins Using Hyaluronic Acid Microgels
Authors: Elaheh Jooybar, Mohammad J. Abdekhodaie, Marcel Karperien, Pieter J. Dijkstra
In this study, hyaluronic acid (HA) microgels were developed for the goal of protein delivery. First, a hyaluronic acid-tyramine conjugate (HA-TA) was synthesized with a degree of substitution of 13 TA moieties per 100 disaccharide units. Then, HA-TA microdroplets were produced using a water in oil emulsion method and crosslinked in the presence of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Loading capacity and the release kinetics of lysozyme and BSA, as model proteins, were investigated. It was shown that lysozyme, a cationic protein, can be incorporated efficiently in the HA microgels, while the loading efficiency for BSA, as a negatively charged protein, is low. The release profile of lysozyme showed a sustained release over a period of one month. The results demonstrated that the HA-TA microgels are a good carrier for spatial delivery of cationic proteins for biomedical applications.
Keywords: Microgel, inverse emulsion, protein delivery, hyaluronic acid, crosslinking.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 661
9 A Digital Twin Approach for Sustainable Territories Planning: A Case Study on District Heating
Authors: A. Amrani, O. Allali, A. Ben Hamida, F. Defrance, S. Morland, E. Pineau, T. Lacroix
The energy planning process is a very complex task that involves several stakeholders and requires the consideration of several local and global factors and constraints. In order to optimize and simplify this process, we propose a tool-based iterative approach applied to district heating planning. We build our tool with the collaboration of a French territory using actual district data and implementing the European incentives. We set up an iterative process including data visualization and analysis, identification and extraction of information related to the area concerned by the operation, design of sustainable planning scenarios leveraging local renewable and recoverable energy sources, and finally, the evaluation of scenarios. The last step is performed by a dynamic digital twin replica of the city. Territory’s energy experts confirm that the tool provides them with valuable support towards sustainable energy planning.
Keywords: Climate change, data management, decision support, digital twin, district heating, energy planning, renewables, smart city.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 306
8 Influence of Gas-Liquid Separator Design on Performance of Airlift Bioreactors
Authors: Mateus N. Esperança, Marcel O. Cerri, Alberto C. Badino
The performance of airlift bioreactors are closely related with their geometry, especially the gas-liquid separator design. In this study, the influence of the gas-liquid separator geometry on oxygen transfer and gas hold-up was evaluated in 10-L concentric-tube airlift bioreactor operating with distilled water and xanthan gum solution. The specific airflow rate (ɸAIR) exhibited the higher effect on the oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa) for both fluids. While the gas-liquid separator openness angle (α) and liquid volume fraction on the gas-liquid separator (VGLS) have presented opposite effects on oxygen mass transfer, they affected negatively the global gas hold-up of distilled water system. The best degassing zone geometry corresponded to a 90° openness angle with 10% of the liquid on it.
Keywords: Airlift bioreactor, gas holdup, gas-liquid separator, oxygen transfer.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2082
7 The Performance of an 802.11g/Wi-Fi Network Whilst Streaming Voice Content
Authors: P. O. Umenne, Odhiambo Marcel O.
Abstract:A simple network model is developed in OPNET to study the performance of the Wi-Fi protocol. The model is simulated in OPNET and performance factors such as load, throughput and delay are analysed from the model. Four applications such as oracle, http, ftp and voice are applied over the Wireless LAN network to determine the throughput. The voice application utilises a considerable amount of bandwidth of up to 5Mbps, as a result the 802.11g standard of the Wi-Fi protocol was chosen which can support a data rate of up to 54Mbps. Results indicate that when the load in the Wi-Fi network is increased the queuing delay on the point-to-point links in the Wi-Fi network significantly reduces until it is comparable to that of WiMAX. In conclusion, the queuing delay of the Wi-Fi protocol for the network model simulated was about 0.00001secs comparable to WiMAX network values.
Keywords: WLAN-Wireless Local Area Network, MIMO-Multiple Input Multiple Output, Queuing delay, Throughput, AP-Access Point, IP-Internet protocol, TOS-Type of Service.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2030
6 A Unified Approach for Naval Telecommunication Architectures
Authors: Y. Lacroix, J.-F. Malbranque
We present a chronological evolution for naval telecommunication networks. We distinguish periods: with or without multiplexers, with switch systems, with federative systems, with medium switching, and with medium switching with wireless networks. This highlights the introduction of new layers and technology in the architecture. These architectures are presented using layer models of transmission, in a unified way, which enables us to integrate pre-existing models. A ship of a naval fleet has internal communications (i.e. applications' networks of the edge) and external communications (i.e. the use of the means of transmission between edges). We propose architectures, deduced from the layer model, which are the point of convergence between the networks on board and the HF, UHF radio, and satellite resources. This modelling allows to consider end-to-end naval communications, and in a more global way, that is from the user on board towards the user on shore, including transmission and networks on the shore side. The new architectures need take care of quality of services for end-to-end communications, the more remote control develops a lot and will do so in the future. Naval telecommunications will be more and more complex and will use more and more advanced technologies, it will thus be necessary to establish clear global communication schemes to grant consistency of the architectures. Our latest model has been implemented in a military naval situation, and serves as the basic architecture for the RIFAN2 network.
Keywords: Equilibrium beach profile, eastern tombolo of Giens, potential function, erosion.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 741
5 Analysis of a Coupled Hydro-Sedimentological Numerical Model for the Tombolo of GIENS
Authors: Yves Lacroix, Van Van Than, Didier Leandri, Pierre Liardet
The western Tombolo of the Giens peninsula in southern France, known as Almanarre beach, is subject to coastal erosion. We are trying to use computer simulation in order to propose solutions to stop this erosion. Our aim was first to determine the main factors for this erosion and successfully apply a coupled hydrosedimentological numerical model based on observations and measurements that have been performed on the site for decades. We have gathered all available information and data about waves, winds, currents, tides, bathymetry, coastal line, and sediments concerning the site. These have been divided into two sets: one devoted to calibrating a numerical model using Mike 21 software, the other to serve as a reference in order to numerically compare the present situation to what it could be if we implemented different types of underwater constructions. This paper presents the first part of the study: selecting and melting different sources into a coherent data basis, identifying the main erosion factors, and calibrating the coupled software model against the selected reference period. Our results bring calibration of the numerical model with good fitting coefficients. They also show that the winter South-Western storm events conjugated to depressive weather conditions constitute a major factor of erosion, mainly due to wave impact in the northern part of the Almanarre beach. Together, current and wind impact is shown negligible.
Keywords: Almanarre beach, coastal erosion, hydro-sedimentological, numerical model.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1939
4 Validating Condition-Based Maintenance Algorithms Through Simulation
Authors: Marcel Chevalier, Léo Dupont, Sylvain Marié, Frédérique Roffet, Elena Stolyarova, William Templier, Costin Vasile
Industrial end users are currently facing an increasing need to reduce the risk of unexpected failures and optimize their maintenance. This calls for both short-term analysis and long-term ageing anticipation. At Schneider Electric, we tackle those two issues using both Machine Learning and First Principles models. Machine learning models are incrementally trained from normal data to predict expected values and detect statistically significant short-term deviations. Ageing models are constructed from breaking down physical systems into sub-assemblies, then determining relevant degradation modes and associating each one to the right kinetic law. Validating such anomaly detection and maintenance models is challenging, both because actual incident and ageing data are rare and distorted by human interventions, and incremental learning depends on human feedback. To overcome these difficulties, we propose to simulate physics, systems and humans – including asset maintenance operations – in order to validate the overall approaches in accelerated time and possibly choose between algorithmic alternatives.
Keywords: Degradation models, ageing, anomaly detection, soft sensor, incremental learning.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 20
3 Analysing Environmental Risks and Perceptions of Risks to Assess Health and Well-being in Poor Areas of Abidjan
Authors: Kouassi Dongo, Christian Zurbrügg, Gueladio Cissé1, Brigit Obrist, Marcel Tanner, Jean Biémi
Abstract:This study analyzed environmental health risks and people-s perceptions of risks related to waste management in poor settlements of Abidjan, to develop integrated solutions for health and well-being improvement. The trans-disciplinary approach used relied on remote sensing, a geographic information system (GIS), qualitative and quantitative methods such as interviews and a household survey (n=1800). Mitigating strategies were then developed using an integrated participatory stakeholder workshop. Waste management deficiencies resulting in lack of drainage and uncontrolled solid and liquid waste disposal in the poor settlements lead to severe environmental health risks. Health problems were caused by direct handling of waste, as well as through broader exposure of the population. People in poor settlements had little awareness of health risks related to waste management in their community and a general lack of knowledge pertaining to sanitation systems. This unfortunate combination was the key determinant affecting the health and vulnerability. For example, an increased prevalence of malaria (47.1%) and diarrhoea (19.2%) was observed in the rainy season when compared to the dry season (32.3% and 14.3%). Concerted and adapted solutions that suited all the stakeholders concerned were developed in a participatory workshop to allow for improvement of health and well-being.
Keywords: Abidjan, environmental health risks, informalsettlements, vulnerability, waste management.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1637
2 Multivariate Analytical Insights into Spatial and Temporal Variation in Water Quality of a Major Drinking Water Reservoir
Authors: Azadeh Golshan, Craig Evans, Phillip Geary, Abigail Morrow, Zoe Rogers, Marcel Maeder
22 physicochemical variables have been determined in water samples collected weekly from January to December in 2013 from three sampling stations located within a major drinking water reservoir. Classical Multivariate Curve Resolution Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) analysis was used to investigate the environmental factors associated with the physico-chemical variability of the water samples at each of the sampling stations. Matrix augmentation MCR-ALS (MA-MCR-ALS) was also applied, and the two sets of results were compared for interpretative clarity. Links between these factors, reservoir inflows and catchment land-uses were investigated and interpreted in relation to chemical composition of the water and their resolved geographical distribution profiles. The results suggested that the major factors affecting reservoir water quality were those associated with agricultural runoff, with evidence of influence on algal photosynthesis within the water column. Water quality variability within the reservoir was also found to be strongly linked to physical parameters such as water temperature and the occurrence of thermal stratification. The two methods applied (MCR-ALS and MA-MCR-ALS) led to similar conclusions; however, MA-MCR-ALS appeared to provide results more amenable to interpretation of temporal and geological variation than those obtained through classical MCR-ALS.
Keywords: Catchment management, drinking water reservoir, multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares, thermal stratification, water quality.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 692
1 Monetary Evaluation of Dispatching Decisions in Consideration of Mode Choice Models
Authors: Marcel Schneider, Nils Nießen
Abstract:Microscopic simulation tool kits allow for consideration of the two processes of railway operations and the previous timetable production. Block occupation conflicts on both process levels are often solved by using defined train priorities. These conflict resolutions (dispatching decisions) generate reactionary delays to the involved trains. The sum of reactionary delays is commonly used to evaluate the quality of railway operations, which describes the timetable robustness. It is either compared to an acceptable train performance or the delays are appraised economically by linear monetary functions. It is impossible to adequately evaluate dispatching decisions without a well-founded objective function. This paper presents a new approach for the evaluation of dispatching decisions. The approach uses mode choice models and considers the behaviour of the end-customers. These models evaluate the reactionary delays in more detail and consider other competing modes of transport. The new approach pursues the coupling of a microscopic model of railway operations with the macroscopic choice mode model. At first, it will be implemented for railway operations process but it can also be used for timetable production. The evaluation considers the possibility for the customer to interchange to other transport modes. The new approach starts to look at rail and road, but it can also be extended to air travel. The result of mode choice models is the modal split. The reactions by the end-customers have an impact on the revenue of the train operating companies. Different purposes of travel have different payment reserves and tolerances towards late running. Aside from changes to revenues, longer journey times can also generate additional costs. The costs are either time- or track-specific and arise from required changes to rolling stock or train crew cycles. Only the variable values are summarised in the contribution margin, which is the base for the monetary evaluation of delays. The contribution margin is calculated for different possible solutions to the same conflict. The conflict resolution is optimised until the monetary loss becomes minimal. The iterative process therefore determines an optimum conflict resolution by monitoring the change to the contribution margin. Furthermore, a monetary value of each dispatching decision can also be derived.
Keywords: Choice of mode, monetary evaluation, railway operations, reactionary delays.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1372