Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 125

Search results for: Braced tube

125 Optimum Design of Tall Tube-Type Building: An Approach to Structural Height Premium

Authors: Ali Kheyroddin, Niloufar Mashhadiali, Frazaneh Kheyroddin

Abstract:

In last decades, tubular systems employed for tall buildings were efficient structural systems. However, increasing the height of a building leads to an increase in structural material corresponding to the loads imposed by lateral loads. Based on this approach, new structural systems are emerging to provide strength and stiffness with the minimum premium for height. In this research, selected tube-type structural systems such as framed tubes, braced tubes, diagrids and hexagrid systems were applied as a single tube, tubular structures combined with braced core and outrigger trusses on a set of 48, 72, and 96-story, respectively, to improve integrated structural systems. This paper investigated structural material consumption by model structures focusing on the premium for height. Compared analytical results indicated that as the height of the building increased, combination of the structural systems caused the framed tube, hexagrid and braced tube system to pay fewer premiums to material tonnage while in diagrid system, combining the structural system reduced insignificantly the steel material consumption.

Keywords: Braced tube, diagrid, framed tube, hexagrid.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
124 A Numerical Study of Single-phase Forced Convective Heat Transfer in Tube in Tube Heat Exchangers

Authors: P. Mohajeri Khameneh, I. Mirzaie, N. Pourmahmoud, M. Rahimi, S. Majidyfar

Abstract:

Three dimensional simulations in tube in tube heat exchangers are investigated numerically in this study. In these simulations forced convective heat transfer and laminar flow of single-phase water are considered. In order to measure heat transfer parameters in these heat exchangers, FLUENT CFD Solver is used in this numerical method. For the purpose of creating geometry and exert boundary and initial conditions in the present model, finite volume method in Computational Fluid Dynamics is used in this study. In the present study, at each Z-location, variation of local temperatures, heat flux and Nusselt number at the whole tube is investigated in detail. Thereafter, averaged computational Nusselt number in this model is calculated. In addition, conceivable pressure drops have been obtained at each Z-location in this model. Then, pressure drop values in the present model are explored. Finally, all the numerical results for this kind of heat exchanger will be discussed precisely.

Keywords: Heat exchanger, Laminar flow, CFD, Nusseltnumber, Tube in tube, pressure drop.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
123 Performance of BRBF System and Comparing it with the OCBF

Authors: E.Talebi, F.Zahmatkesh

Abstract:

Buckling-Restrained Braced Frame system(BRBFs) are a new type of steel seismic-load-resisting system that has found use in several countries because of its efficiency and its promise of seismic performance far superior to that of conventional braced frames. The system is addressed in the 2005 edition of the AISC Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings, also a set of design provisions has been developed by NEHRP. This report illustrates the seismic design of buckling restrained braced frames and compares the result of design in the application of earthquake load for ordinary bracing systems and buckling restrained bracing systems to see the advantage and disadvantages of this new type of seismic resisting system in comparison with the old Ordinary Concentric Braced Frame systems (OCBFs); they are defined by the provisions governing their design.

Keywords: Buckling Restrained Braced Frame system (BRBFs), Ordinary Concentric Braced Frame systems (OCBFs).

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
122 CFD Study for Normal and Rifled Tube with a Convergence Check

Authors: Sharfi Dirar, Shihab Elhaj, Ahmed El Fatih

Abstract:

Computational fluid dynamics were used to simulate and study the heated water boiler tube for both normal and rifled tube with a refinement of the mesh to check the convergence. The operation condition was taken from GARRI power station and used in a boundary condition accordingly. The result indicates the rifled tube has higher heat transfer efficiency than the normal tube.

Keywords: Boiler tube, Convergence Check, Normal Tube, Rifled Tube.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
121 Design of Seismically Resistant Tree-Branching Steel Frames Using Theory and Design Guides for Eccentrically Braced Frames

Authors: R. Gary Black, Abolhassan Astaneh-Asl

Abstract:

The International Building Code (IBC) and the  California Building Code (CBC) both recognize four basic types of  steel seismic resistant frames; moment frames, concentrically braced  frames, shear walls and eccentrically braced frames. Based on  specified geometries and detailing, the seismic performance of these  steel frames is well understood. In 2011, the authors designed an  innovative steel braced frame system with tapering members in the  general shape of a branching tree as a seismic retrofit solution to an  existing four story “lift-slab” building. Located in the seismically  active San Francisco Bay Area of California, a frame of this  configuration, not covered by the governing codes, would typically  require model or full scale testing to obtain jurisdiction approval.  This paper describes how the theories, protocols, and code  requirements of eccentrically braced frames (EBFs) were employed  to satisfy the 2009 International Building Code (IBC) and the 2010  California Building Code (CBC) for seismically resistant steel frames  and permit construction of these nonconforming geometries.

 

Keywords: Eccentrically Braced Frame, Lift Slab Construction, Seismic Retrofit, Shear Link, Steel Design.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
120 An Investigation on the Accuracy of Nonlinear Static Procedures for Seismic Evaluation of Buckling-restrained Braced Frames

Authors: An Hong Nguyen, Chatpan Chintanapakdee, Toshiro Hayashikawa

Abstract:

Presented herein is an assessment of current nonlinear static procedures (NSPs) for seismic evaluation of bucklingrestrained braced frames (BRBFs) which have become a favorable lateral-force resisting system for earthquake resistant buildings. The bias and accuracy of modal, improved modal pushover analysis (MPA, IMPA) and mass proportional pushover (MPP) procedures are comparatively investigated when they are applied to BRBF buildings subjected to two sets of strong ground motions. The assessment is based on a comparison of seismic displacement demands such as target roof displacements, peak floor/roof displacements and inter-story drifts. The NSP estimates are compared to 'exact' results from nonlinear response history analysis (NLRHA). The response statistics presented show that the MPP procedure tends to significantly overestimate seismic demands of lower stories of tall buildings considered in this study while MPA and IMPA procedures provide reasonably accurate results in estimating maximum inter-story drift over all stories of studied BRBF systems.

Keywords: Buckling-restrained braced frames, nonlinearresponse history analysis, nonlinear static procedure, seismicdemands.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
119 Thermo-mechanical Behavior of Pressure Tube of Indian PHWR at 20 bar Pressure

Authors: Gopal Nandan, P. K. Sahooa, Ravi Kumara, B Chatterjeeb, D. Mukhopadhyayb, H. G. Leleb

Abstract:

In a nuclear reactor Loss of Coolant accident (LOCA) considers wide range of postulated damage or rupture of pipe in the heat transport piping system. In the case of LOCA with/without failure of emergency core cooling system in a Pressurised Heavy water Reactor, the Pressure Tube (PT) temperature could rise significantly due to fuel heat up and gross mismatch of the heat generation and heat removal in the affected channel. The extent and nature of deformation is important from reactor safety point of view. Experimental set-ups have been designed and fabricated to simulate ballooning (radial deformation) of PT for 220 MWe IPHWRs. Experiments have been conducted by covering the CT by ceramic fibers and then by submerging CT in water of voided PTs. In both the experiments, it is observed that ballooning initiates at a temperature around 665´┐¢C and complete contact between PT and Caldaria Tube (CT) occurs at around 700´┐¢C approximately. The strain rate is found to be 0.116% per second. The structural integrity of PT is retained (no breach) for all the experiments. The PT heatup is found to be arrested after the contact between PT and CT, thus establishing moderator acting as an efficient heat sink for IPHWRs.

Keywords: Pressure Tube, Calandria Tube, Thermo-mechanicaldeformation, Boiling heat transfer, Reactor safety

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
118 An Experimental Investigation on the Behavior of Pressure Tube under Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Heating Conditions in an Indian PHWR

Authors: Ashwini K. Yadav, Ravi Kumar, Akhilesh Gupta, P. Majumdar, B. Chatterjee, D. Mukhopadhyay

Abstract:

Thermal behavior of fuel channel under loss of coolant accident (LOCA) is a major concern for nuclear reactor safety. LOCA along with failure of emergency cooling water system (ECC) may leads to mechanical deformations like sagging and ballooning. In order to understand the phenomenon an experiment has been carried out using 19 pin fuel element simulator. Main purpose of the experiment was to trace temperature profiles over the pressure tube, calandria tube and clad tubes of Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (IPHWR) under symmetrical and asymmetrical heat-up conditions. For simulating the fully voided scenario, symmetrical heating of pressure was carried out by injecting 13.2 KW (2 % of nominal power) to all the 19 pins and the temperatures of pressure tube, calandria tube and clad tubes were measured. During symmetrical heating the sagging of fuel channel was initiated at 460 °C and the highest temperature attained by PT was 650 °C . The decay heat from clad tubes was dissipated to moderator mainly by radiation and natural convection. The highest temperature of 680 °C was observed over the outer ring of clad tubes of fuel simulator. Again, to simulate partially voided condition, asymmetrical heating of pressure was carried out by supplying 8.0 kW power to upper 8 pins of fuel simulator and temperature profiles were measured. Along the circumference of pressure tube (PT) the highest temperature difference of 320 °C was observed, which highlights the magnitude of thermal stresses under partially voided conditions.

Keywords: LOCA, ECCS, PHWR, ballooning, channel heat-up, pressure tube, calandria tube.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
117 Analysis of Control by Flattening of the Welded Tubes

Authors: Hannachi Med Tahar, H. Djebaili, B. Daheche

Abstract:

In this approach, we have tried to describe the flattening of welded tubes, and its experimental application. The test is carried out at the (National product processing company dishes and tubes production). Usually, the final products (tubes) undergo a series of non-destructive inspection online and offline welding, and obviously destructive mechanical testing (bending, flattening, flaring, etc.). For this and for the purpose of implementing the flattening test, which applies to the processing of round tubes in other forms, it took four sections of welded tubes draft (before stretching hot) and welded tubes finished (after drawing hot and annealing), it was also noted the report 'health' flattened tubes must not show or crack or tear. The test is considered poor if it reveals a lack of ductility of the metal.

Keywords: Flattening, destructive testing, tube drafts, finished tube, Castem 2001.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
116 Numerical Simulation of Inviscid Transient Flows in Shock Tube and its Validations

Authors: Al-Falahi Amir, Yusoff M. Z, Yusaf T

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to develop a new two dimensional time accurate Euler solver for shock tube applications. The solver was developed to study the performance of a newly built short-duration hypersonic test facility at Universiti Tenaga Nasional “UNITEN" in Malaysia. The facility has been designed, built, and commissioned for different values of diaphragm pressure ratios in order to get wide range of Mach number. The developed solver uses second order accurate cell-vertex finite volume spatial discretization and forth order accurate Runge-Kutta temporal integration and it is designed to simulate the flow process for similar driver/driven gases (e.g. air-air as working fluids). The solver is validated against analytical solution and experimental measurements in the high speed flow test facility. Further investigations were made on the flow process inside the shock tube by using the solver. The shock wave motion, reflection and interaction were investigated and their influence on the performance of the shock tube was determined. The results provide very good estimates for both shock speed and shock pressure obtained after diaphragm rupture. Also detailed information on the gasdynamic processes over the full length of the facility is available. The agreements obtained have been reasonable.

Keywords: shock tunnel, shock tube, shock wave, CFD.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
115 Numerical Investigation of the Thermal Separation in a Vortex Tube

Authors: N.Pourmahmoud, S.Akhesmeh

Abstract:

This work has been carried out in order to provide an understanding of the physical behaviors of the flow variation of pressure and temperature in a vortex tube. A computational fluid dynamics model is used to predict the flow fields and the associated temperature separation within a Ranque–Hilsch vortex tube. The CFD model is a steady axisymmetric model (with swirl) that utilizes the standard k-ε turbulence model. The second–order numerical schemes, was used to carry out all the computations. Vortex tube with a circumferential inlet stream and an axial (cold) outlet stream and a circumferential (hot) outlet stream was considered. Performance curves (temperature separation versus cold outlet mass fraction) were obtained for a specific vortex tube with a given inlet mass flow rate. Simulations have been carried out for varying amounts of cold outlet mass flow rates. The model results have a good agreement with experimental data.

Keywords: Ranque–Hilsch vortex tube, Temperature separation, k–ε model, cold mass fraction.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
114 Study on Rupture of Tube Type Crash Energy Absorber using Finite Element Method

Authors: Won Mok. Choi, Tae Su. Kwon, Hyun Sung. Jung, Jin Sung. Kim

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to confirm the effect of key design parameters, the punch radius and punch angle, on rupture of the expansion tube using a finite element analysis with a ductile damage model. The results of the finite element analysis indicated that the expansion ratio of the tube was mainly affected by the radius of the punch. However, the rupture was more affected by the punch angle than the radius of the punch. The existence of a specific punch angle, at which rupture did not occur, even if the radius of the punch was increased, was found.

Keywords: Expansion tube, Ductile damage, Shear failure, Stress triaxiality.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
113 Mannequin Evaluation of 3D-Printed Intermittent Oro-Esophageal Tube Guide for Dysphagia

Authors: Yujin Jeong, Youkyung Son, Myounghwan Choi, Sanghyub Lee, Sangyeol Lee, Changho Hwang, Kyo-in Koo

Abstract:

Dysphasia is difficulty in swallowing food because of oral cavity impairments induced by stroke, muscle damage, tumor. Intermittent oro-esophageal (IOE) tube feeding is one of the well-known feeding methods for the dysphasia patients. However, it is hard to insert at the proper position in esophagus. In this study, we design and fabricate the IOE tube guide using 3-dimensional (3D) printer. The printed IOE tube is tested in a mannequin (Airway Management Trainer, Co., Ltd., Copenhagen, Denmark) mimicking human’s esophagus. The gag reflex point is measured as the design point in the mannequin. To avoid the gag reflex, we design various shapes of IOE tube guide. One structure is separated into three parts; biting part, part through oral cavity, connecting part to oro-esophageal. We designed 6 types of IOE tube guide adjusting length and angle of these three parts. To evaluate the IOE tube guide, it is inserted in the mannequin, and through the inserted guide, an endoscopic camera successfully arrived at the oro-esophageal. We had planned to apply this mannequin-based design experience to patients in near future.

Keywords: Dysphagia, feeding method, IOE tube guide, 3-D printer.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
112 Flow of a Second Order Fluid through Constricted Tube with Slip Velocity at Wall Using Integral Method

Authors: Nosheen Zareen Khan, Abdul Majeed Siddiqui, Muhammad Afzal Rana

Abstract:

The steady flow of a second order fluid through constricted tube with slip velocity at wall is modeled and analyzed theoretically. The governing equations are simplified by implying no slip in radial direction. Based on Karman Pohlhausen procedure polynomial solution for axial velocity profile is presented. Expressions for pressure gradient, shear stress, separation and reattachment points, and radial velocity are also calculated. The effect of slip and no slip velocity on magnitude velocity, shear stress, and pressure gradient are discussed and depicted graphically. It is noted that when Reynolds number increases magnitude velocity of the fluid decreases in both slip and no slip conditions. It is also found that the wall shear stress, separation, and reattachment points are strongly affected by Reynolds number.

Keywords: Approximate solution, constricted tube, non-Newtonian fluids, Reynolds number.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
111 Economic Optimization of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Using Nanofluid

Authors: Hassan Hajabdollahi

Abstract:

Economic optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger (STHE) is presented in this paper. To increase the rate of heat transfer, copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticle is added into the tube side fluid and their optimum results are compared with the case of without additive nanoparticle. Total annual cost (TAC) is selected as fitness function and nine decision variables related to the heat exchanger parameters as well as concentration of nanoparticle are considered. Optimization results reveal the noticeable improvement in the TAC and in the case of heat exchanger working with nanofluid compared with the case of base fluid (8.9%). Comparison of the results between two studied cases also reveal that the lower tube diameter, tube number, and baffle spacing are needed in the case of heat exchanger working with nanofluid compared with the case of base fluid.

Keywords: Shell and tube heat exchanger, nanoparticles additive, total annual cost, particle volumetric concentration.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
110 Experimental Study of Performance of a Counter Flow Ranque-Hilsch Vortex Tube with Inner Threaded Body

Authors: Gürol Önal, Kevser Dincer

Abstract:

In this experimental study, performance of a counter flow Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube (RHVT) with threads cut on its inner surface was investigated experimentally (pitch is 1 and 2 mm). The inner diameter of the vortex tube used was D=9 mm and the ratio of the tube’s length to diameter was L/D=12. The experimental system was a thermodynamic open system. Flow was controlled by a valve on the hot outlet side, where the valve was changed from a nearly closed position to its nearly open position. Fraction of cold flow (ξ) = 0.1-0.9, was determined under 300 and 350 kPa pressurized air. All experimental data were compared with each other, the maximum heating performance of the RHVT system was found to be 38.2 oC and the maximum cooling performance of the RHVT in this study was found to be -30.9 oC at pitch 1 mm.

Keywords: Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube, heating, cooling, temperature separation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
109 Numerical Study of Flow around Flat Tube between Parallel Walls

Authors: Hamidreza Bayat, Arash Mirabdolah Lavasani, Meysam Bolhasani, Sajad Moosavi

Abstract:

Flow around a flat tube is studied numerically. Reynolds number is defined base on equivalent circular tube and it is varied in range of 100 to 300. Equations are solved by using finite volume method and results are presented in form of drag and lift coefficient. Results show that drag coefficient of flat tube is up to 66% lower than circular tube with equivalent diameter. In addition, by increasing l/D from 1 to 2, the drag coefficient of flat tube is decreased about 14-27%.

Keywords: Laminar flow, flat-tube, drag coefficient, cross-flow, heat exchanger.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
108 Numerical Investigation of Thermal-Hydraulic Performance of a Flat Tube in Cross-Flow of Air

Authors: Hamidreza Bayat, Arash Mirabdolah Lavasani, Meysam Bolhasani, Sajad Moosavi

Abstract:

Heat transfer from flat tube is studied numerically. Reynolds number is defined base on equivalent circular tube which is varied in range of 100 to 300. In these range of Reynolds number flow is considered to be laminar, unsteady, and incompressible. Equations are solved by using finite volume method. Results show that increasing l/D from 1 to 2 has insignificant effect on heat transfer and Nusselt number of flat tube is slightly lower than circular tube. However, thermal-hydraulic performance of flat tube is up to 2.7 times greater than circular tube.

Keywords: Laminar flow, flat tube, convective heat transfer, heat exchanger.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
107 Heat transfer Characteristics of Fin-and-Tube heat Exchanger under Condensing Conditions

Authors: Abdenour Bourabaa, Mohamed Saighi, Said El Metenani

Abstract:

In the present work an investigation of the effects of the air frontal velocity, relative humidity and dry air temperature on the heat transfer characteristics of plain finned tube evaporator has been conducted. Using an appropriate correlation for the air side heat transfer coefficient the temperature distribution along the fin surface was calculated using a dimensionless temperature distribution. For a constant relative humidity and bulb temperature, it is found that the temperature distribution decreases with increasing air frontal velocity. Apparently, it is attributed to the condensate water film flowing over the fin surface. When dry air temperature and face velocity are being kept constant, the temperature distribution decreases with the increase of inlet relative humidity. An increase in the inlet relative humidity is accompanied by a higher amount of moisture on the fin surface. This results in a higher amount of latent heat transfer which involves higher fin surface temperature. For the influence of dry air temperature, the results here show an increase in the dimensionless temperature parameter with a decrease in bulb temperature. Increasing bulb temperature leads to higher amount of sensible and latent heat transfer when other conditions remain constant.

Keywords: Fin efficiency, heat and mass transfer, dehumidifying conditions, finned tube heat exchangers.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
106 Study on Bending Characteristics of Square Tube Using Energy Absorption Part

Authors: Shigeyuki Haruyama, Zefry Darmawan, Ken Kaminishi

Abstract:

In the square tube subjected to the bending load, the rigidity of the entire square tube is reduced when a collapse occurs due to local stress concentration. Therefore, in this research, the influence of bending load on the square tube with attached energy absorbing part was examined and reported. The analysis was conducted by using Finite Element Method (FEM) to produced bending deflection and buckling points. Energy absorption was compared from rigidity of attached part and square tube body. Buckling point was influenced by the rigidity of attached part and the thickness rate of square tube.

Keywords: Square tube, bending stress, energy absorption, finite element analysis, rigidity.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
105 Plasma Properties Effect on Fluorescent Tube Plasma Antenna Performance

Authors: A. N. Dagang, E. I. Ismail, Z. Zakaria

Abstract:

This paper presents the analysis on the performance of monopole antenna with fluorescent tubes. In this research, the simulation and experimental approach is conducted. The fluorescent tube with different length and size is designed using Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software and the characteristics of antenna parameter are simulated throughout the software. CST was used to simulate antenna parameters such as return loss, resonant frequency, gain and directivity. Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) was used to measure the return loss of plasma antenna in order to validate the simulation results. In the simulation and experiment, the supply frequency is set starting from 1 GHz to 10 GHz. The results show that the return loss of plasma antenna changes when size of fluorescent tubes is varied, correspond to the different plasma properties. It shows that different values of plasma properties such as plasma frequency and collision frequency gives difference result of return loss, gain and directivity. For the gain, the values range from 2.14 dB to 2.36 dB. The return loss of plasma antenna offers higher value range from -22.187 dB to -32.903 dB. The higher the values of plasma frequency and collision frequency, the higher return loss can be obtained. The values obtained are comparative to the conventional type of metal antenna.

Keywords: Plasma antenna, fluorescent tube, computer simulation technology, plasma parameters.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
104 An Analysis on Thermal Energy Storage in Paraffin-Wax Using Tube Array on a Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

Authors: Syukri Himran, Rustan Taraka, Anto Duma

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to improve the understanding of latent and sensible thermal energy storage within a paraffin wax media by an array of cylindrical tubes arranged both in in-line and staggered layouts. An analytical and experimental study is carried out in a horizontal shell-and-tube type system during melting process. Pertamina paraffin-wax was used as a phase change material (PCM), while the tubes are embedded in the PCM. From analytical study we can obtain the useful information in designing a thermal energy storage such as: the motion of interface, amount of material melted at any time in the process, and the heat storage characteristic during melting. The use of staggered tubes is proposed compared to in-line layout in a heat exchanger as thermal storage. The experimental study is used to verify the validity of the analytical predictions. From the comparisons, the analytical and experimental data are in a good agreement.

Keywords: Latent, sensible, paraffin-wax, thermal energy storage, conduction, natural convection.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
103 A Study of the Replacement of Natural Coarse Aggregate by Spherically-Shaped and Crushed Waste Cathode Ray Tube Glass in Concrete

Authors: N. N. M. Pauzi, M. R. Karim, M. Jamil, R. Hamid, M. F. M. Zain

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to conduct an experimental investigation on the influence of complete replacement of natural coarse aggregate with spherically-shape and crushed waste cathode ray tube (CRT) glass to the aspect of workability, density, and compressive strength of the concrete. After characterizing the glass, a group of concrete mixes was prepared to contain a 40% spherical CRT glass and 60% crushed CRT glass as a complete (100%) replacement of natural coarse aggregates. From a total of 16 types of concrete mixes, the optimum proportion was selected based on its best performance. The test results showed that the use of spherical and crushed glass that possesses a smooth surface, rounded, irregular and elongated shape, and low water absorption affects the workability of concrete. Due to a higher specific gravity of crushed glass, concrete mixes containing CRT glass had a higher density compared to ordinary concrete. Despite the spherical and crushed CRT glass being stronger than gravel, the results revealed a reduction in compressive strength of the concrete. However, using a lower water to binder (w/b) ratio and a higher superplasticizer (SP) dosage, it is found to enhance the compressive strength of 60.97 MPa at 28 days that is lower by 13% than the control specimen. These findings indicate that waste CRT glass in the form of spherical and crushed could be used as an alternative of coarse aggregate that may pave the way for the disposal of hazardous e-waste.

Keywords: Cathode ray tube, glass, coarse aggregate, compressive strength.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
102 The Contraction Point for Phan-Thien/Tanner Model of Tube-Tooling Wire-Coating Flow

Authors: V. Ngamaramvaranggul, S. Thenissara

Abstract:

The simulation of extrusion process is studied widely in order to both increase products and improve quality, with broad application in wire coating. The annular tube-tooling extrusion was set up by a model that is termed as Navier-Stokes equation in addition to a rheological model of differential form based on singlemode exponential Phan-Thien/Tanner constitutive equation in a twodimensional cylindrical coordinate system for predicting the contraction point of the polymer melt beyond the die. Numerical solutions are sought through semi-implicit Taylor-Galerkin pressurecorrection finite element scheme. The investigation was focused on incompressible creeping flow with long relaxation time in terms of Weissenberg numbers up to 200. The isothermal case was considered with surface tension effect on free surface in extrudate flow and no slip at die wall. The Stream Line Upwind Petrov-Galerkin has been proposed to stabilize solution. The structure of mesh after die exit was adjusted following prediction of both top and bottom free surfaces so as to keep the location of contraction point around one unit length which is close to experimental results. The simulation of extrusion process is studied widely in order to both increase products and improve quality, with broad application in wire coating. The annular tube-tooling extrusion was set up by a model that is termed as Navier-Stokes equation in addition to a rheological model of differential form based on single-mode exponential Phan- Thien/Tanner constitutive equation in a two-dimensional cylindrical coordinate system for predicting the contraction point of the polymer melt beyond the die. Numerical solutions are sought through semiimplicit Taylor-Galerkin pressure-correction finite element scheme. The investigation was focused on incompressible creeping flow with long relaxation time in terms of Weissenberg numbers up to 200. The isothermal case was considered with surface tension effect on free surface in extrudate flow and no slip at die wall. The Stream Line Upwind Petrov-Galerkin has been proposed to stabilize solution. The structure of mesh after die exit was adjusted following prediction of both top and bottom free surfaces so as to keep the location of contraction point around one unit length which is close to experimental results.

Keywords: wire coating, free surface, tube-tooling, extrudate swell, surface tension, finite element method.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
101 Performance Improvement in Internally Finned Tube by Shape Optimization

Authors: Kyoungwoo Park, Byeong Sam Kim, Hyo-Jae Lim, Ji Won Han, Park Kyoun Oh, Juhee Lee, Keun-Yeol Yu

Abstract:

Predictions of flow and heat transfer characteristics and shape optimization in internally finned circular tubes have been performed on three-dimensional periodically fully developed turbulent flow and thermal fields. For a trapezoidal fin profile, the effects of fin height h, upper fin widths d1, lower fin widths d2, and helix angle of fin ? on transport phenomena are investigated for the condition of fin number of N = 30. The CFD and mathematical optimization technique are coupled in order to optimize the shape of internally finned tube. The optimal solutions of the design variables (i.e., upper and lower fin widths, fin height and helix angle) are numerically obtained by minimizing the pressure loss and maximizing the heat transfer rate, simultaneously, for the limiting conditions of d1 = 0.5~1.5 mm, d2 = 0.5~1.5 mm, h= 0.5~1.5mm, ? = 10~30 degrees. The fully developed flow and thermal fields are predicted using the finite volume method and the optimization is carried out by means of the multi-objective genetic algorithm that is widely used in the constrained nonlinear optimization problem.

Keywords: Computational fluid dynamics, Genetic algorithm, Internally finned tube with helix angle, Optimization.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
100 Measurement of Reverse Flow Generated at Cold Exit of Vortex Tube

Authors: Mohd Hazwan bin Yusof, Hiroshi Katanoda

Abstract:

In order to clarify the structure of the cold flow discharged from the vortex tube (VT), the pressure of the cold flow was measured, and a simple flow visualization technique using a 0.75mm-diameter needle and an oily paint is made to study the reverse flow at the cold exit. It is clear that a negative pressure and positive pressure region exist at a certain pressure and cold fraction area, and that a reverse flow is observed in the negative pressure region.

Keywords: Flow visualization, Pressure measurement, Reverse flow, Vortex tube.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
99 A Study of Dose Distribution and Image Quality under an Automatic Tube Current Modulation (ATCM) System for a Toshiba Aquilion 64 CT Scanner Using a New Design of Phantom

Authors: S. Sookpeng, C. J. Martin, D. J. Gentle

Abstract:

Automatic tube current modulation (ATCM) systems are available for all CT manufacturers and are used for the majority of patients. Understanding how the systems work and their influence on patient dose and image quality is important for CT users, in order to gain the most effective use of the systems. In the present study, a new phantom was used for evaluating dose distribution and image quality under the ATCM operation for the Toshiba Aquilion 64 CT scanner using different ATCM options and a fixed mAs technique. A routine chest, abdomen and pelvis (CAP) protocol was selected for study and Gafchromic film was used to measure entrance surface dose (ESD), peripheral dose and central axis dose in the phantom. The results show the dose reductions achievable with various ATCM options, in relation with the target noise. The doses and image noise distribution were more uniform when the ATCM system was implemented compared with the fixed mAs technique. The lower limit set for the tube current will affect the modulations especially for the lower dose option. This limit prevented the tube current being reduced further and therefore the lower dose ATCM setting resembled a fixed mAs technique. Selection of a lower tube current limit is likely to reduce doses for smaller patients in scans of chest and neck regions.

Keywords: Computed Tomography (CT), Automatic Tube Current Modulation (ATCM), Automatic Exposure Control (AEC).

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
98 An Improved Heat Transfer Prediction Model for Film Condensation inside a Tube with Interphacial Shear Effect

Authors: V. G. Rifert, V. V. Gorin, V. V. Sereda, V. V. Treputnev

Abstract:

The analysis of heat transfer design methods in condensing inside plain tubes under existing influence of shear stress is presented in this paper. The existing discrepancy in more than 30-50% between rating heat transfer coefficients and experimental data has been noted. The analysis of existing theoretical and semi-empirical methods of heat transfer prediction is given. The influence of a precise definition concerning boundaries of phase flow (it is especially important in condensing inside horizontal tubes), shear stress (friction coefficient) and heat flux on design of heat transfer is shown. The substantiation of boundary conditions of the values of parameters, influencing accuracy of rated relationships, is given. More correct relationships for heat transfer prediction, which showed good convergence with experiments made by different authors, are substantiated in this work.

Keywords: Film condensation, heat transfer, plain tube, shear stress.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
97 Experimental Investigation of Karanja Oil as a Fuel for Diesel Engine-Using Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

Authors: Nabnit Panigrahi, M. K. Mohanty, S. K. Acharya, S. R Mishra, R. C. Mohanty

Abstract:

This paper presents experimental investigation carried out on an unmodified four stroke diesel engine running with preheated straight vegetable oil (SVO) of Karanja. The viscosity of straight karanja oil was reduced by preheating the oil up to 1600C under different load condition. The preheating was done with the help of a Shell and Tube heat exchanger equipment without using any external power source. The heat exchanger was designed in the lab and the heating source was by waste exhaust gas from engine. The experimental results data were analyzed by using 20% blends of svo of Karanja with 80% diesel by volume and 100% preheated svo of karanja for various parameters like specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency and emission of exhaust gas like CO, CO2, HC and NOx. The results indicated that by using straight karanja oil, the emission parameter increases as compared to diesel but regarding engine performance it was found to be very close to that of diesel. All total it can be a replacement of diesel with a small efficiency drop.

Keywords: Karanja oil, Performance analysis, Shell &Tube heat exchanger, SVO.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
96 An Experimental Study on Evacuated Tube Solar Collector for Heating of Air in India

Authors: Avadhesh Yadav, V.K. Bajpai

Abstract:

A solar powered air heating system using one ended evacuated tubes is experimentally investigated. A solar air heater containing forty evacuated tubes is used for heating purpose. The collector surface area is about 4.44 m2. The length and outer diameters of the outer glass tube and absorber tube are 1500, 47 and 37 mm, respectively. In this experimental setup, we have a header (heat exchanger) of square shape (190 mm x 190 mm). The length of header is 1500 mm. The header consists of a hollow pipe in the center whose diameter is 60 mm through which the air is made to flow. The experimental setup contains approximately 108 liters of water. Water is working as heat collecting medium which collects the solar heat falling on the tubes. This heat is delivered to the air flowing through the header pipe. This heat flow is due to natural convection and conduction. The outlet air temperature depends upon several factors along with air flow rate and solar radiation intensity. The study has been done for both up-flow and down-flow of air in header in similar weather conditions, at different flow rates. In the present investigations the study has been made to find the effect of intensity of solar radiations and flow rate of air on the out let temperature of the air with time and which flow is more efficient. The obtained results show that the system is highly effective for the heating in this region. Moreover, it has been observed that system is highly efficient for the particular flow rate of air. It was also observed that downflow configuration is more effective than up-flow condition at all flow rates due to lesser losses in down-flow. The results show that temperature differences of upper head and lower head, both of water and surface of pipes on the respective ends is lower in down-flow.

Keywords: air flow direction, Evacuated tube solar collector, solar air heating, solar thermal utilization.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF