Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4862

Search results for: experimental heat transfer

4862 Estimation of Natural Convection Heat Transfer from Plate-Fin Heat Sinks in a Closed Enclosure

Authors: Han-Taw Chen, Chung-Hou Lai, Tzu-Hsiang Lin, Ge-Jang He

Abstract:

This study applies the inverse method and three- dimensional CFD commercial software in conjunction with the experimental temperature data to investigate the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of the plate-fin heat sink in a closed rectangular enclosure for various values of fin height. The inverse method with the finite difference method and the experimental temperature data is applied to determine the heat transfer coefficient. The k-ε turbulence model is used to obtain the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics within the fins. To validate the accuracy of the results obtained, the comparison of the average heat transfer coefficient is made. The calculated temperature at selected measurement locations on the plate-fin is also compared with experimental data.

Keywords: Inverse method, FLUENT, k-ε model, Heat transfer characteristics, Plate-fin heat sink.

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4861 Influence of Artificial Roughness on Heat Transfer in the Rotating Flow

Authors: T. Magrakvelidze, N. Bantsadze, N. Lekveishvili, Kh. Lomidze

Abstract:

The results of an experimental study of the process of convective and boiling heat transfer in the vessel with stirrer for smooth and rough ring-shaped pipes are presented. It is established that creation of two-dimensional artificial roughness on the heated surface causes the essential (~100%) intensification of convective heat transfer. In case of boiling the influence of roughness appears on the initial stage of boiling and in case of fully developed nucleate boiling there was no intensification of heat transfer. The similitude equation for calculating convective heat transfer coefficient, which generalizes well experimental data both for the smooth and the rough surfaces is proposed.

Keywords: boiling, heat transfer, roughness.

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4860 Numerical Calculation of Heat Transfer in Water Heater

Authors: Michal Spilacek, Martin Lisy, Marek Balas, Zdenek Skala

Abstract:

This article is trying to determine the status of flue gas that is entering the KWH heat exchanger from combustion chamber in order to calculate the heat transfer ratio of the heat exchanger. Combination of measurement, calculation and computer simulation was used to create a useful way to approximate the heat transfer rate. The measurements were taken by a number of sensors that are mounted on the experimental device and by a thermal imaging camera. The results of the numerical calculation are in a good correspondence with the real power output of the experimental device. That result shows that the research has a good direction and can be used to propose changes in the construction of the heat exchanger, but still needs enhancements.

Keywords: Heat exchanger, heat transfer rate, numerical calculation, thermal images.

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4859 Study of Natural Convection Heat Transfer of Plate-Fin Heat Sink in a Closed Enclosure

Authors: Han-Taw Chen, Tzu-Hsiang Lin, Chung-Hou Lai

Abstract:

The present study applies the inverse method and three-dimensional CFD commercial software in conjunction with the experimental temperature data to investigate the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of the plate-fin heat sink in a rectangular closed enclosure. The inverse method with the finite difference method and the experimental temperature data is applied to determine the approximate heat transfer coefficient. Later, based on the obtained results, the zero-equation turbulence model is used to obtain the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics between two fins. T0 validate the accuracy of the results obtained, the comparison of the heat transfer coefficient is made. The obtained temperature at selected measurement locations of the fin is also compared with experimental data. The effect of the height of the rectangular enclosure on the obtained results is discussed.

Keywords: Inverse method, FLUENT, Plate-fin heat sink, Heat transfer characteristics.

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4858 An Experimental Study of the Effect of Coil Step on Heat Transfer Coefficient in Shell- Side of Shell-and-Coil Heat Exchanger

Authors: Mofid Gorji Bandpy, Hasan Sajjadi

Abstract:

In this study the mixed convection heat transfer in a coil-in-shell heat exchanger for various Reynolds numbers and various dimensionless coil pitch was experimentally investigated. The experiments were conducted for both laminar and turbulent flow inside coil and the effects of coil pitch on shell-side heat transfer coefficient of the heat exchanger were studied. The particular difference in this study in comparison with the other similar studies was the boundary conditions for the helical coils. The results indicate that with the increase of coil pitch, shell-side heat transfer coefficient is increased.

Keywords: Coil pitch, Shell-and-Coil heat exchanger, Mixed convection, Experimental investigation.

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4857 Gas Condensing Unit with Inner Heat Exchanger

Authors: Dagnija Blumberga, Toms Prodanuks, Ivars Veidenbergs, Andra Blumberga

Abstract:

Gas condensing units with inner tubes heat exchangers represent third generation technology and differ from second generation heat and mass transfer units, which are fulfilled by passive filling material layer. The first one improves heat and mass transfer by increasing cooled contact surface of gas and condensate drops and film formed in inner tubes heat exchanger. This paper presents a selection of significant factors which influence the heat and mass transfer. Experimental planning is based on the research and analysis of main three independent variables; velocity of water and gas as well as density of spraying. Empirical mathematical models show that the coefficient of heat transfer is used as dependent parameter which depends on two independent variables; water and gas velocity. Empirical model is proved by the use of experimental data of two independent gas condensing units in Lithuania and Russia. Experimental data are processed by the use of heat transfer criteria-Kirpichov number. Results allow drawing the graphical nomogram for the calculation of heat and mass transfer conditions in the innovative and energy efficient gas cooling unit.

Keywords: Gas condensing unit, filling, inner heat exchanger, package, spraying, tunes.

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4856 Experimental Investigation of Heat Pipe with Annular Fins under Natural Convection at Different Inclinations

Authors: Gangacharyulu Dasaroju, Sumeet Sharma, Sanjay Singh

Abstract:

Heat pipe is characterised as superconductor of heat because of its excellent heat removal ability. The operation of several engineering system results in generation of heat. This may cause several overheating problems and lead to failure of the systems. To overcome this problem and to achieve desired rate of heat dissipation, there is need to study the performance of heat pipe with annular fins under free convection at different inclinations. This study demonstrates the effect of different mass flow rate of hot fluid into evaporator section on the condenser side heat transfer coefficient with annular fins under natural convection at different inclinations. In this study annular fins are used for the experimental work having dimensions of length of fin, thickness of fin and spacing of fin as 10 mm, 1 mm and 6 mm, respectively. The main aim of present study is to discover at what inclination angles the maximum heat transfer coefficient shall be achieved. The heat transfer coefficient on the external surface of heat pipe condenser section is determined by experimental method and then predicted by empirical correlations. The results obtained from experimental and Churchill and Chu relation for laminar are in fair agreement with not more than 22% deviation. It is elucidated the maximum heat transfer coefficient of 31.2 W/(m2-K) at 25˚ tilt angle and minimal condenser heat transfer coefficient of 26.4 W/(m2-K) is seen at 45˚ tilt angle and 200 ml/min mass flow rate. Inclination angle also affects the thermal performance of heat pipe. Beyond 25o inclination, heat transport rate starts to decrease.

Keywords: Annular fins, condenser heat transfer coefficient, heat pipe, natural convection, tilt angle.

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4855 Numerical and Experimental Study of Heat Transfer Enhancement with Metal Foams and Ultrasounds

Authors: L. Slimani, A. Bousri, A. Hamadouche, H. Ben Hamed

Abstract:

The aim of this experimental and numerical study is to analyze the effects of acoustic streaming generated by 40 kHz ultrasonic waves on heat transfer in forced convection, with and without 40 PPI aluminum metal foam. Preliminary dynamic and thermal studies were done with COMSOL Multiphase, to see heat transfer enhancement degree by inserting a 40PPI metal foam (10 × 2 × 3 cm) on a heat sink, after having determined experimentally its permeability and Forchheimer's coefficient. The results obtained numerically are in accordance with those obtained experimentally, with an enhancement factor of 205% for a velocity of 0.4 m/s compared to an empty channel. The influence of 40 kHz ultrasound on heat transfer was also tested with and without metallic foam. Results show a remarkable increase in Nusselt number in an empty channel with an enhancement factor of 37,5%, while no influence of ultrasound on heat transfer in metal foam presence.

Keywords: Enhancing heat transfer, metal foam, ultrasound, acoustic streaming, laminar flow.

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4854 Developing a Conjugate Heat Transfer Solver

Authors: Mansour A. Al Qubeissi

Abstract:

The current paper presents a numerical approach in solving the conjugate heat transfer problems. A heat conduction code is coupled internally with a computational fluid dynamics solver for developing a couple conjugate heat transfer solver. Methodology of treating non-matching meshes at interface has also been proposed. The validation results of 1D and 2D cases for the developed conjugate heat transfer code have shown close agreement with the solutions given by analysis.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, Conjugate Heat transfer, Heat Conduction, Heat Transfer

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4853 Heat Transfer Enhancement Studies in a Circular Tube Fitted with Right-Left Helical Inserts with Spacer

Authors: P. K. Nagarajan, P. Sivashanmugam

Abstract:

Experimental investigation of heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of circular tube fitted with 300 right-left helical screw inserts with 100 mm spacer of different twist ratio has been presented for laminar and turbulent flow.. The experimental data obtained were compared with those obtained from plain tube published data. The heat transfer coefficient enhancement for 300 RL inserts with 100 mm spacer is quite comparable with for 300 R-L inserts. Performance evaluation analysis has been made and found that the performance ratio increases with increasing Reynolds number and decreasing twist ration with the maximum for the twist ratio 2.93. Also, the performance ratio of more than one indicates that the type of twist inserts can be used effectively for heat transfer augmentation.

Keywords: Heat transfer augmentation, right-left helical screw inserts with spacer, Twist ratio, Heat Transfer

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4852 Optimization of Design Parameters for Wire Mesh Fin Arrays as a Heat Sink Using Taguchi Method

Authors: Kavita H. Dhanawade, Hanamant S. Dhanawade

Abstract:

Heat transfer enhancement objects like extended surfaces, fins etc. are chosen for their thermal performance as well as for other design parameters depending on various applications. The present paper is on experimental study to investigate the heat transfer enhancement through wire mesh fin arrays equipped with horizontal base plate. The data used in performance analysis were obtained experimentally for the material (mild steel) for different heat inputs such as 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 watt, by varying wire mesh diameter, fin height and spacing between two fin arrays. Using the Taguchi experimental design method, optimum design parameters and their levels were investigated. Average heat transfer coefficient was considered as a performance characteristic parameter. An L9 (33) orthogonal array was selected as an experimental plan. Optimum results were found by experimenting. It is observed that the wire mesh diameter and fin height have a higher impact on heat transfer coefficient as compared to spacing between two fin arrays.

Keywords: Heat transfer enhancement, finned surface, wire mesh diameter, natural convection.

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4851 An Improved Heat Transfer Prediction Model for Film Condensation inside a Tube with Interphacial Shear Effect

Authors: V. G. Rifert, V. V. Gorin, V. V. Sereda, V. V. Treputnev

Abstract:

The analysis of heat transfer design methods in condensing inside plain tubes under existing influence of shear stress is presented in this paper. The existing discrepancy in more than 30-50% between rating heat transfer coefficients and experimental data has been noted. The analysis of existing theoretical and semi-empirical methods of heat transfer prediction is given. The influence of a precise definition concerning boundaries of phase flow (it is especially important in condensing inside horizontal tubes), shear stress (friction coefficient) and heat flux on design of heat transfer is shown. The substantiation of boundary conditions of the values of parameters, influencing accuracy of rated relationships, is given. More correct relationships for heat transfer prediction, which showed good convergence with experiments made by different authors, are substantiated in this work.

Keywords: Film condensation, heat transfer, plain tube, shear stress.

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4850 New Effect of Duct Cross Sectional Shape on the Nanofluid Flow Heat Transfer

Authors: Mohammad R. Salimpour, Amir Dehshiri

Abstract:

In the present article, we investigate experimental laminar forced convective heat transfer specifications of TiO2/water nanofluids through conduits with different cross sections. we check the effects of different parameters such as cross sectional shape, Reynolds number and concentration of nanoparticles in stable suspension on increasing convective heat transfer by designing and assembling of an experimental apparatus. The results demonstrate adding a little amount of nanoparticles to the base fluid, improves heat transfer behavior in conduits. Moreover, conduit with circular cross-section has better performance compared to the square and triangular cross sections. However, conduits with square and triangular cross sections have more relative heat transfer enchantment than conduit with circular cross section.

Keywords: Nanofluid, cross-sectional shape, TiO2, convection.

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4849 Heat Transfer Analysis of Rectangular Channel Plate Heat Sink

Authors: Zhang Lei, Liu Min, Liu Botao

Abstract:

In order to improve the simulation effects of space cold black environment, this paper described a rectangular channel plate heat sink. By using fluid mechanics theory and finite element method, the internal fluid flow and heat transfer in heat sink was numerically simulated to analyze the impact of channel structural on fluid flow and heat transfer. The result showed that heat sink temperature uniformity is well, and the impact of channel structural on the heat sink temperature uniformity is not significant. The channel depth and spacing are important factors which affect the fluid flow and heat transfer in the heat sink. The two factors of heat transfer and resistance need to be considered comprehensively to determine the optimal flow structure parameters.

Keywords: heat transfer, heat sink, numerical simulation

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4848 Investigations of Natural Convective Heat Transfer in Rectangular Thermal Passages

Authors: Hussain H. Al-Kayiem, Ahmed K. Hussein, Toh Seng Peow

Abstract:

The evaluation of the convective heat transfer of flow in passages with rectangular cross section is still of interest for the heat transfer investigators, as in the air heater solar collectors. The aim of this paper is to present investigation results on the natural convection heat transfer in a solar air heater. The effect of the channel length as heat transfer surface and the inclination of the passage were investigated. The results were obtained experimentally and theoretically. For that, an experimental test rig was fabricated with channel lengths of 1m, 1.5m, and 2m. For each length, the air outlet and inlet temperatures, absorber and cover temperatures, solar radiation intensity and air flow rate were measured at 10o, 30o, 50o, 70o, and 90o tilt angles. Measurements were recorded every 2 hours interval to investigate the transient behavior of the system. The experimental and theoretical results are presented in terms of Nu number versus Ra number and discussed. The percentages of differences between experimental and theoretical results are within the margin of 6% to 13%, effectively. It is recommended to extend the investigation to study the same configurations with different artificial surface roughing by ribs or pins.

Keywords: Convective heat transfer, Flat plate, Natural convection, Passage flow, Solar energy.

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4847 Enhancement of Impingement Heat Transfer on a Flat Plate with Ribs

Authors: M. Kito, M. Takezaki, T. Shakouchi, K. Tsujimoto, T. Ando

Abstract:

Impinging jets are widely used in industrial cooling systems for their high heat transfer characteristics at stagnation points. However, the heat transfer characteristics are low in the downstream direction. In order to improve the heat transfer coefficient further downstream, investigations introducing ribs on jet-cooled flat plates have been conducted. Most studies regarding the heat-transfer enhancement using a rib-roughened wall have dealt with the rib pitch. In this paper, we focused on the rib spacing and demonstrated that the rib spacing must be more than 6 times the nozzle width to improve heat transfer at Reynolds number Re=5.0×103 because it is necessary to have enough space to allow reattachment of flow behind the first rib.

Keywords: Forced convection, heat transfer, impinging jet cooling, rib roughened wall

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4846 From Experiments to Numerical Modeling: A Tool for Teaching Heat Transfer in Mechanical Engineering

Authors: D. Zabala, Y. Cárdenas, G. Núñez

Abstract:

In this work the numerical simulation of transient heat transfer in a cylindrical probe is done. An experiment was conducted introducing a steel cylinder in a heating chamber and registering its surface temperature along the time during one hour. In parallel, a mathematical model was solved for one dimension transient heat transfer in cylindrical coordinates, considering the boundary conditions of the test. The model was solved using finite difference method, because the thermal conductivity in the cylindrical steel bar and the convection heat transfer coefficient used in the model are considered temperature dependant functions, and both conditions prevent the use of the analytical solution. The comparison between theoretical and experimental results showed the average deviation is below 2%. It was concluded that numerical methods are useful in order to solve engineering complex problems. For constant k and h, the experimental methodology used here can be used as a tool for teaching heat transfer in mechanical engineering, using mathematical simplified models with analytical solutions.

Keywords: Heat transfer experiment, thermal conductivity, finite difference, engineering education.

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4845 Performance Evaluation of Extruded-Type Heat Sinks Used in Inverter for Solar Power Generation

Authors: Jeong Hyun Kim, Gyo Woo Lee

Abstract:

In this study, heat release performances of the three extruded-type heat sinks can be used in inverter for solar power generation were evaluated. Numbers of fins in the heat sinks (namely E-38, E-47 and E-76) were 38, 47 and 76, respectively. Heat transfer areas of them were 1.8, 1.9 and 2.8m2. The heat release performances of E-38, E-47 and E-76 heat sinks were measured as 79.6, 81.6 and 83.2%, respectively. The results of heat release performance show that the larger amount of heat transfer area the higher heat release rate. While on the other, in this experiment, variations of mass flow rates caused by different cross sectional areas of the three heat sinks may not be the major parameter of the heat release. Despite the 47.4% increment of heat transfer area of E-76 heat sink than that of E-47 one, its heat release rate was higher by only 2.0%; this suggests that its heat transfer area need to be optimized.

Keywords: Solar Inverter, Heat Sink, Forced Convection, Heat Transfer, Performance Evaluation.

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4844 Mixed Convection Heat Transfer of Copper Oxide-Heat Transfer Oil Nanofluid in Vertical Tube

Authors: Farhad Hekmatipour, M. A. Akhavan-Behabadi, Farzad Hekmatipour

Abstract:

In this paper, experiments were conducted to investigate the heat transfer of Copper Oxide-Heat Transfer Oil (CuO-HTO) nanofluid laminar flow in vertical smooth and microfin tubes as the surface temperature is constant. The effect of adding the nanoparticle to base fluid and Richardson number on the heat transfer enhancement is investigated as Richardson number increases from 0.1 to 0.7. The experimental results demonstrate that the combined forced-natural convection heat transfer rate may be improved significantly with an increment of mass nanoparticle concentration from 0% to 1.5%. In this experiment, a correlation is also proposed to predict the mixed convection heat transfer rate of CuO-HTO nanofluid flow. The maximum deviation of both correlations is less than 14%. Moreover, a correlation is presented to estimate the Nusselt number inside vertical smooth and microfin tubes as Rayleigh number is between 2´105 and 6.8´106 with the maximum deviation of 12%.

Keywords: Nanofluid, heat transfer oil, mixed convection, vertical tube, laminar flow.

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4843 Optimization of Fin Type and Fin per Inch on Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of an Air Cooler

Authors: A. Falavand Jozaei, A. Ghafouri

Abstract:

Operation enhancement in an air cooler depends on rate of heat transfer, and pressure drop. In this paper for a given heat duty, study of the effects of FPI (Fin Per Inch) and fin type (circular and hexagonal fins) on heat transfer, and pressure drop in an air cooler in Iran, Arvand petrochemical. A program in EES (Engineering Equations Solver) software moreover, Aspen B-JAC and HTFS+ softwares are used for this purpose to solve governing equations. At first the simulated results obtained from this program is compared to the experimental data for two cases of FPI. The effects of FPI from 3 to 15 over heat transfer (Q) to pressure drop ratio (Q/Δp ratio). This ratio is one of the main parameters in design, and simulation heat exchangers. The results show that heat transfer (Q) and pressure drop increase with increasing FPI steadily, and the Q/Δp ratio increases to FPI=12 and then decreased gradually to FPI=15, and Q/Δp ratio is maximum at FPI=12. The FPI value selection between 8 and 12 obtained as a result to optimum heat transfer to pressure drop ratio. Also by contrast, between circular and hexagonal fins results, the Q/Δp ratio of hexagonal fins more than Q/Δp ratio of circular fins for FPI between 8 and 12 (optimum FPI)

Keywords: Air cooler, circular and hexagonal fins, fin per inch, heat transfer and pressure drop.

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4842 Numerical Simulation of Heat Transfer in Primary Surface with Corrugations Recuperators

Authors: Liu Xuedong, Liu Hanpeng, Zhou Ling

Abstract:

Study fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics of microchannel in a primary Cross-corrugated(CC) surface recuperators with corrugations and without corrugations, using CFD method. The pitch-over-height ratios P/H of Cross-corrugated (CC) surface is from 1.5 to 4.0, included angles β=75º. The study was performed using CFD software FLUENT to create unit model and simulate fluid temperature, velocity, heat transfer coefficient and other parameters. The results from these simulations were compared to experimental data. It is concluded that, when the Reynolds number is constant, if increase P/H, j/f will decrease, also the decreasing trend will become weak. Under the condition of P/H=2.2, if increase the inlet velocity j/f will decrease; in addition, the heat transfer performance in surface with corrugation will increase 10% compared to that without corrugation. The study results can provide the basis to optimize the design, select the type of heat transfer surface, the scale structure, and heat-transfer surface arrangement for recuperators.

Keywords: Cross-corrugated surface, Primary surface, Numerical simulation, Heat transfer.

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4841 Transient Heat Transfer Model for Car Body Primer Curing

Authors: D. Zabala, N. Sánchez, J. Pinto

Abstract:

A transient heat transfer mathematical model for the prediction of temperature distribution in the car body during primer baking has been developed by considering the thermal radiation and convection in the furnace chamber and transient heat conduction governing equations in the car framework. The car cockpit is considered like a structure with six flat plates, four vertical plates representing the car doors and the rear and front panels. The other two flat plates are the car roof and floor. The transient heat conduction in each flat plate is modeled by the lumped capacitance method. Comparison with the experimental data shows that the heat transfer model works well for the prediction of thermal behavior of the car body in the curing furnace, with deviations below 5%.

Keywords: Transient heat transfer, car body, lumpedcapacitance, primer baking.

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4840 A CFD Study of Heat Transfer Enhancement in Pipe Flow with Al2O3 Nanofluid

Authors: P.Kumar

Abstract:

Fluids are used for heat transfer in many engineering equipments. Water, ethylene glycol and propylene glycol are some of the common heat transfer fluids. Over the years, in an attempt to reduce the size of the equipment and/or efficiency of the process, various techniques have been employed to improve the heat transfer rate of these fluids. Surface modification, use of inserts and increased fluid velocity are some examples of heat transfer enhancement techniques. Addition of milli or micro sized particles to the heat transfer fluid is another way of improving heat transfer rate. Though this looks simple, this method has practical problems such as high pressure loss, clogging and erosion of the material of construction. These problems can be overcome by using nanofluids, which is a dispersion of nanosized particles in a base fluid. Nanoparticles increase the thermal conductivity of the base fluid manifold which in turn increases the heat transfer rate. In this work, the heat transfer enhancement using aluminium oxide nanofluid has been studied by computational fluid dynamic modeling of the nanofluid flow adopting the single phase approach.

Keywords: Heat transfer intensification, nanofluid, CFD, friction factor

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4839 Heat Transfer and Frictional Characteristics in Rectangular Channel with Inclined Perforated Baffles

Authors: Se Kyung Oh, Ary Bachtiar Krishna Putra, Soo Whan Ahn

Abstract:

A numerical study on the turbulent flow and heat transfer characteristics in the rectangular channel with different types of baffles is carried out. The inclined baffles have the width of 19.8 cm, the square diamond type hole having one side length of 2.55 cm, and the inclination angle of 5o. Reynolds number is varied between 23,000 and 57,000. The SST turbulence model is applied in the calculation. The validity of the numerical results is examined by the experimental data. The numerical results of the flow field depict that the flow patterns around the different baffle type are entirely different and these significantly affect the local heat transfer characteristics. The heat transfer and friction factor characteristics are significantly affected by the perforation density of the baffle plate. It is found that the heat transfer enhancement of baffle type II (3 hole baffle) has the best values.

Keywords: Turbulent flow, rectangular channel, inclined baffle, heat transfer, friction factor.

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4838 Heat Transfer at Convective Solid Melting in Fixed Bed

Authors: Stelian Petrescu, Adina Frunzâ, Camelia Petrescu

Abstract:

A method to determine experimentally the melting rate, rm, and the heat transfer coefficients, αv (W/(m3K)), at convective melting in a fixed bed of particles under adiabatic regime is established in this paper. The method lies in the determining of the melting rate by measuring the fixed bed height in time. Experimental values of rm, α and α v were determined using cylindrical particles of ice (d = 6.8 mm, h = 5.5 mm) and, as a melting agent, aqueous NaCl solution with a temperature of 283 K at different values of the liquid flow rate (11.63·10-6, 28.83·10-6, 38.83·10-6 m3/s). Our experimental results were compared with those existing in literature being noticed a good agreement for Re values higher than 50.

Keywords: Convective melting, fixed bed, packed bed, heat transfer, ice melting.

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4837 Empirical Heat Transfer Correlations of Finned-Tube Heat Exchangers in Pulsatile Flow

Authors: Jason P. Michaud, Connor P. Speer, David A. Miller, David S. Nobes

Abstract:

An experimental study on finned-tube radiators has been conducted. Three radiators found in desktop computers sized for 120 mm fans were tested in steady and pulsatile flows of ambient air over a Reynolds number range of  50 < Re < 900. Water at 60 °C was circulated through the radiators to maintain a constant fin temperature during the tests. For steady flow, it was found that the heat transfer rate increased linearly with the mass flow rate of air. The pulsatile flow experiments showed that frequency of pulsation had a negligible effect on the heat transfer rate for the range of frequencies tested (0.5 Hz – 2.5 Hz). For all three radiators, the heat transfer rate was decreased in the case of pulsatile flow. Linear heat transfer correlations for steady and pulsatile flow were calculated in terms of Reynolds number and Nusselt number.

Keywords: Finned-tube heat exchangers, radiators, heat transfer correlations, pulsatile flow, computer radiators.

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4836 The Influence of Pad Thermal Diffusivity over Heat Transfer into the PCBs Structure

Authors: Mihai Brânzei, Ioan Plotog, Ion Pencea

Abstract:

The Pads have unique values of thermophysical properties (THP) having important contribution over heat transfer into the PCB structure. Materials with high thermal diffusivity (TD) rapidly adjust their temperature to that of their surroundings, because the HT is quick in compare to their volumetric heat capacity (VHC). In the paper is presenting the diffusivity tests (ASTM E1461 flash method) for PCBs with different core materials. In the experiments, the multilayer structure of PCBA was taken into consideration, an equivalent property referring to each of experimental structure be practically measured. Concerning to entire structure, the THP emphasize the major contribution of substrate in establishing of reflow soldering process (RSP) heat transfer necessities. This conclusion offer practical solution for heat transfer time constant calculation as function of thickness and substrate material diffusivity with an acceptable error estimation.

Keywords: heat transfer time constant, packaging, reflowsoldering process, thermal diffusivity.

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4835 Study on Cross-flow Heat Transfer in Fixed Bed

Authors: Hong-fang Ma, Hai-tao Zhang, Wei-yong Ying, Ding-ye Fang

Abstract:

Radial flow reactor was focused for large scale methanol synthesis and in which the heat transfer type was cross-flow. The effects of operating conditions including the reactor inlet air temperature, the heating pipe temperature and the air flow rate on the cross-flow heat transfer was investigated and the results showed that the temperature profile of the area in front of the heating pipe was slightly affected by all the operating conditions. The main area whose temperature profile was influenced was the area behind the heating pipe. The heat transfer direction according to the air flow directions. In order to provide the basis for radial flow reactor design calculation, the dimensionless number group method was used for data fitting of the bed effective thermal conductivity and the wall heat transfer coefficient which was calculated by the mathematical model with the product of Reynolds number and Prandtl number. The comparison of experimental data and calculated value showed that the calculated value fit the experimental data very well and the formulas could be used for reactor designing calculation.

Keywords: Cross-flow, Heat transfer, Fixed bed, Mathematical model

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4834 Flat Miniature Heat Pipes for Electronics Cooling: State of the Art, Experimental and Theoretical Analysis

Authors: M.C. Zaghdoudi, S. Maalej, J. Mansouri, M.B.H. Sassi

Abstract:

An experimental study is realized in order to verify the Mini Heat Pipe (MHP) concept for cooling high power dissipation electronic components and determines the potential advantages of constructing mini channels as an integrated part of a flat heat pipe. A Flat Mini Heat Pipe (FMHP) prototype including a capillary structure composed of parallel rectangular microchannels is manufactured and a filling apparatus is developed in order to charge the FMHP. The heat transfer improvement obtained by comparing the heat pipe thermal resistance to the heat conduction thermal resistance of a copper plate having the same dimensions as the tested FMHP is demonstrated for different heat input flux rates. Moreover, the heat transfer in the evaporator and condenser sections are analyzed, and heat transfer laws are proposed. In the theoretical part of this work, a detailed mathematical model of a FMHP with axial microchannels is developed in which the fluid flow is considered along with the heat and mass transfer processes during evaporation and condensation. The model is based on the equations for the mass, momentum and energy conservation, which are written for the evaporator, adiabatic, and condenser zones. The model, which permits to simulate several shapes of microchannels, can predict the maximum heat transfer capacity of FMHP, the optimal fluid mass, and the flow and thermal parameters along the FMHP. The comparison between experimental and model results shows the good ability of the numerical model to predict the axial temperature distribution along the FMHP.

Keywords: Electronics Cooling, Micro Heat Pipe, Mini Heat Pipe, Mini Heat Spreader, Capillary grooves.

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4833 Finite Element Solution of Navier-Stokes Equations for Steam Flow and Heat Transfer

Authors: Igor Nedelkovski, Ilios Vilos, Tale Geramitcioski

Abstract:

Computational simulation of steam flow and heat transfer in power plant condensers on the basis of the threedimensional mathematical model for the flow through porous media is presented. In order to solve the mathematical model of steam flow and heat transfer in power plant condensers, the Streamline Upwind Petrov-Galerkin finite element method is applied. By comparison of the results of simulation with experimental results about an experimental condenser, it is confirmed that SUPG finite element method can be successfully applied for solving the three-dimensional mathematical model of steam flow and heat transfer in power plant condensers.

Keywords: Navier-Stokes, FEM, condensers, steam.

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