Search results for: fuel tube
867 Experimental Study of Fuel Tank Filling
Authors: Maurizio Mastroianni, Lou Savoni, Paul Henshaw, Gary W. Rankin
Abstract:The refueling of a transparent rectangular fuel tank fitted with a standard filler pipe and roll-over valve was experimentally studied. A fuel-conditioning cart, capable of handling fuels of different Reid vapor pressure at a constant temperature, was used to dispense fuel at the desired rate. The experimental protocol included transient recording of the tank and filler tube pressures while video recording the flow patterns in the filler tube and tank during the refueling process. This information was used to determine the effect of changes in the vent tube diameter, fuel-dispense flow rate and fuel Reid vapor pressure on the pressure-time characteristics and the occurrence of premature fuel filling shut-off and fuel spill-back. Pressure-time curves for the case of normal shut-off demonstrated the classic, three-phase characteristic noted in the literature. The variation of the maximum values of tank dome and filler tube pressures are analyzed in relation to the occurrence of premature shut-off.
Keywords: experimental study, fuel tank filling, premature shutoff, spill-backProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4070
866 Failure Analysis of a Fractured Control Pressure Tube from an Aircraft Engine
Authors: M. P. Valles-González, A. González Meije, A. Pastor Muro, M. García-Martínez, B. González Caballero
This paper studies a failure case of a fuel pressure supply tube from an aircraft engine. Multiple fracture cases of the fuel pressure control tube from aircraft engines have been reported. The studied set was composed by the mentioned tube, a welded connecting pipe, where the fracture has been produced, and a union nut. The fracture has been produced in one of the most critical zones of the tube, in a region next to the supporting body of the union nut to the connector. The tube material was X6CrNiTi18-10, an austenitic stainless steel. Chemical composition was determined using an X-Ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) and combustion equipment. Furthermore, the material was characterized mechanically, by a hardness test, and microstructurally using a stereo microscope and an optical microscope. The results confirmed that the material was within specifications. To determine the macrofractographic features, a visual examination and an observation using a stereo microscope of the tube fracture surface were carried out. The results revealed a tube plastic macrodeformation, surface damaged and signs of a possible corrosion process. Fracture surface was also inspected by scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis system (EDX), to determine the microfractographic features in order to find out the failure mechanism involved in the fracture. Fatigue striations, which are typical from a progressive fracture by a fatigue mechanism, were observed. The origin of the fracture was placed in defects located on the outer wall of the tube, leading to a final overload fracture.
Keywords: Aircraft Engine, microstructure, fatigue, FE-SEM, fractography, fracture, fuel tube, stainless steel.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 370
865 An Experimental Investigation on the Behavior of Pressure Tube under Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Heating Conditions in an Indian PHWR
Authors: Ashwini K. Yadav, Ravi Kumar, Akhilesh Gupta, P. Majumdar, B. Chatterjee, D. Mukhopadhyay
Thermal behavior of fuel channel under loss of coolant accident (LOCA) is a major concern for nuclear reactor safety. LOCA along with failure of emergency cooling water system (ECC) may leads to mechanical deformations like sagging and ballooning. In order to understand the phenomenon an experiment has been carried out using 19 pin fuel element simulator. Main purpose of the experiment was to trace temperature profiles over the pressure tube, calandria tube and clad tubes of Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (IPHWR) under symmetrical and asymmetrical heat-up conditions. For simulating the fully voided scenario, symmetrical heating of pressure was carried out by injecting 13.2 KW (2 % of nominal power) to all the 19 pins and the temperatures of pressure tube, calandria tube and clad tubes were measured. During symmetrical heating the sagging of fuel channel was initiated at 460 °C and the highest temperature attained by PT was 650 °C . The decay heat from clad tubes was dissipated to moderator mainly by radiation and natural convection. The highest temperature of 680 °C was observed over the outer ring of clad tubes of fuel simulator. Again, to simulate partially voided condition, asymmetrical heating of pressure was carried out by supplying 8.0 kW power to upper 8 pins of fuel simulator and temperature profiles were measured. Along the circumference of pressure tube (PT) the highest temperature difference of 320 °C was observed, which highlights the magnitude of thermal stresses under partially voided conditions.
Keywords: LOCA, ECCS, PHWR, ballooning, channel heat-up, pressure tube, calandria tube.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1862
864 CFD Study for Normal and Rifled Tube with a Convergence Check
Authors: Sharfi Dirar, Shihab Elhaj, Ahmed El Fatih
Abstract:Computational fluid dynamics were used to simulate and study the heated water boiler tube for both normal and rifled tube with a refinement of the mesh to check the convergence. The operation condition was taken from GARRI power station and used in a boundary condition accordingly. The result indicates the rifled tube has higher heat transfer efficiency than the normal tube.
Keywords: Boiler tube, Convergence Check, Normal Tube, Rifled Tube.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1321
863 Numerical Study of Flow around Flat Tube between Parallel Walls
Authors: Hamidreza Bayat, Arash Mirabdolah Lavasani, Meysam Bolhasani, Sajad Moosavi
Flow around a flat tube is studied numerically. Reynolds number is defined base on equivalent circular tube and it is varied in range of 100 to 300. Equations are solved by using finite volume method and results are presented in form of drag and lift coefficient. Results show that drag coefficient of flat tube is up to 66% lower than circular tube with equivalent diameter. In addition, by increasing l/D from 1 to 2, the drag coefficient of flat tube is decreased about 14-27%.
Keywords: Laminar flow, flat-tube, drag coefficient, cross-flow, heat exchanger.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1903
862 Experimental Investigation of Karanja Oil as a Fuel for Diesel Engine-Using Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
Authors: Nabnit Panigrahi, M. K. Mohanty, S. K. Acharya, S. R Mishra, R. C. Mohanty
This paper presents experimental investigation carried out on an unmodified four stroke diesel engine running with preheated straight vegetable oil (SVO) of Karanja. The viscosity of straight karanja oil was reduced by preheating the oil up to 1600C under different load condition. The preheating was done with the help of a Shell and Tube heat exchanger equipment without using any external power source. The heat exchanger was designed in the lab and the heating source was by waste exhaust gas from engine. The experimental results data were analyzed by using 20% blends of svo of Karanja with 80% diesel by volume and 100% preheated svo of karanja for various parameters like specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency and emission of exhaust gas like CO, CO2, HC and NOx. The results indicated that by using straight karanja oil, the emission parameter increases as compared to diesel but regarding engine performance it was found to be very close to that of diesel. All total it can be a replacement of diesel with a small efficiency drop.
Keywords: Karanja oil, Performance analysis, Shell &Tube heat exchanger, SVO.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2929
861 Numerical Investigation of Thermal-Hydraulic Performance of a Flat Tube in Cross-Flow of Air
Authors: Hamidreza Bayat, Arash Mirabdolah Lavasani, Meysam Bolhasani, Sajad Moosavi
Heat transfer from flat tube is studied numerically. Reynolds number is defined base on equivalent circular tube which is varied in range of 100 to 300. In these range of Reynolds number flow is considered to be laminar, unsteady, and incompressible. Equations are solved by using finite volume method. Results show that increasing l/D from 1 to 2 has insignificant effect on heat transfer and Nusselt number of flat tube is slightly lower than circular tube. However, thermal-hydraulic performance of flat tube is up to 2.7 times greater than circular tube.
Keywords: Laminar flow, flat tube, convective heat transfer, heat exchanger.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2583
860 Study on Bending Characteristics of Square Tube Using Energy Absorption Part
Authors: Shigeyuki Haruyama, Zefry Darmawan, Ken Kaminishi
In the square tube subjected to the bending load, the rigidity of the entire square tube is reduced when a collapse occurs due to local stress concentration. Therefore, in this research, the influence of bending load on the square tube with attached energy absorbing part was examined and reported. The analysis was conducted by using Finite Element Method (FEM) to produced bending deflection and buckling points. Energy absorption was compared from rigidity of attached part and square tube body. Buckling point was influenced by the rigidity of attached part and the thickness rate of square tube.
Keywords: Square tube, bending stress, energy absorption, finite element analysis, rigidity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1004
859 The Effect of Angle of Attack on Pressure Drag from a Cam Shaped Tube
Authors: Arash Mir Abdolah Lavasani
The pressure drag from a cam shaped tube in cross flows have been investigated experimentally using pressure distribution measurement. The range of angle of attack and Reynolds number based on an equivalent circular tube are within 0≤α≤360° and 2×104< Reeq < 3.4 ×104, respectively. It is found that the pressure drag coefficient is at its highest at α=90° and 270° over the whole range of Reynolds number. Results show that the pressure drag coefficient of the cam shaped tube is lower than that of circular tube with the same surface area for more of the angles of attack. Furthermore, effects of the diameter ratio and finite length of the cam shaped tube upon the pressure drag coefficient are discussed.
Keywords: Pressure Drag, Cam Shaped, Experimental.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2269
858 Thermo-mechanical Behavior of Pressure Tube of Indian PHWR at 20 bar Pressure
Authors: Gopal Nandan, P. K. Sahooa, Ravi Kumara, B Chatterjeeb, D. Mukhopadhyayb, H. G. Leleb
Abstract:In a nuclear reactor Loss of Coolant accident (LOCA) considers wide range of postulated damage or rupture of pipe in the heat transport piping system. In the case of LOCA with/without failure of emergency core cooling system in a Pressurised Heavy water Reactor, the Pressure Tube (PT) temperature could rise significantly due to fuel heat up and gross mismatch of the heat generation and heat removal in the affected channel. The extent and nature of deformation is important from reactor safety point of view. Experimental set-ups have been designed and fabricated to simulate ballooning (radial deformation) of PT for 220 MWe IPHWRs. Experiments have been conducted by covering the CT by ceramic fibers and then by submerging CT in water of voided PTs. In both the experiments, it is observed that ballooning initiates at a temperature around 665´┐¢C and complete contact between PT and Caldaria Tube (CT) occurs at around 700´┐¢C approximately. The strain rate is found to be 0.116% per second. The structural integrity of PT is retained (no breach) for all the experiments. The PT heatup is found to be arrested after the contact between PT and CT, thus establishing moderator acting as an efficient heat sink for IPHWRs.
Keywords: Pressure Tube, Calandria Tube, Thermo-mechanicaldeformation, Boiling heat transfer, Reactor safetyProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2086
857 Effects of Catalyst Tubes Characteristics on a Steam Reforming Process in Ammonia
Abstract:The tubes in an Ammonia primary reformer furnace operate close to the limits of materials technology in terms of the stress induced as a result of very high temperatures, combined with large differential pressures across the tube wall. Operation at tube wall temperatures significantly above design can result in a rapid increase in the number of tube failures, since tube life is very sensitive to the absolute operating temperature of the tube. Clearly it is important to measure tube wall temperatures accurately in order to prevent premature tube failure by overheating.. In the present study, the catalyst tubes in an Ammonia primary reformer has been modeled taking into consideration heat, mass and momentum transfer as well as reformer characteristics.. The investigations concern the effects of tube characteristics and superficial tube wall temperatures on of the percentage of heat flux, unconverted methane and production of Hydrogen for various values of steam to carbon ratios. The results show the impact of catalyst tubes length and diameters on the performance of operating parameters in ammonia primary reformers.
Keywords: Catalyst, tubes, reformer, performanceProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3239
856 Use of Detectors Technology for Gamma Ray Issued from Radioactive Isotopes and its Impact on Knowledge of Behavior of the Stationary Case of Solid Phase Holdup
Authors: Abbas Ali Mahmood Karwi
Abstract:For gamma radiation detection, assemblies having scintillation crystals and a photomultiplier tube, also there is a preamplifier connected to the detector because the signals from photomultiplier tube are of small amplitude. After pre-amplification the signals are sent to the amplifier and then to the multichannel analyser. The multichannel analyser sorts all incoming electrical signals according to their amplitudes and sorts the detected photons in channels covering small energy intervals. The energy range of each channel depends on the gain settings of the multichannel analyser and the high voltage across the photomultiplier tube. The exit spectrum data of the two main isotopes studied ,putting data in biomass program ,process it by Matlab program to get the solid holdup image (solid spherical nuclear fuel)
Keywords: Multichannel analyzer, Spectrum, Energies, Fluids holdup, ImageProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1575
855 Simulation of Internal Flow Field of Pitot-Tube Jet Pump
Authors: Iqra Noor, Ihtzaz Qamar
Pitot-tube Jet pump, single-stage pump with low flow rate and high head, consists of a radial impeller that feeds water to rotating cavity. Water then enters stationary pitot-tube collector (diffuser), which discharges to the outside. By means of ANSYS Fluent 15.0, the internal flow characteristics for Pitot-tube Jet pump with standard pitot and curved pitot are studied. Under design condition, realizable k-e turbulence model and SIMPLEC algorithm are used to calculate 3D flow field inside both pumps. The simulation results reveal that energy is imparted to the flow by impeller and inside the rotor, forced vortex type flow is observed. Total pressure decreases inside pitot-tube whereas static pressure increases. Changing pitot-tube from standard to curved shape results in minimum flow circulation inside pitot-tube and leads to a higher pump performance.
Keywords: CFD, flow circulation, high pressure pump, impeller, internal flow, pickup tube pump, rectangle channels, rotating casing, turbulence.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 578
854 Optimization of Fuel Consumption of a Bus used in City Line with Regulation of Driving Characteristics
Authors: Muammer Ozkan, Orkun Ozener, Irfan Yavasliol
Abstract:The fuel cost of the motor vehicle operating on its common route is an important part of the operating cost. Therefore, the importance of the fuel saving is increasing day by day. One of the parameters which improve fuel saving is the regulation of driving characteristics. The number and duration of stop is increased by the heavy traffic load. It is possible to improve the fuel saving with regulation of traffic flow and driving characteristics. The researches show that the regulation of the traffic flow decreases fuel consumption, but it is not enough to improve fuel saving without the regulation of driving characteristics. This study analyses the fuel consumption of two trips of city bus operating on its common route and determines the effect of traffic density and driving characteristics on fuel consumption. Finally it offers some suggestions about regulation of driving characteristics to improve the fuel saving. Fuel saving is determined according to the results obtained from simulation program. When experimental and simulation results are compared, it has been found that the fuel saving was reached up the to 40 percent ratios.
Keywords: Fuel Consumption, Fuel Economy, Driving Characteristics, OptimizationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1720
853 Low NOx Combustion Technology for Minimizing NOx
Authors: Sewon Kim, Changyeop Lee, Minjun Kwon
A noble low NOx combustion technology, based on partial oxidation combustion concept in a fuel rich combustion zone, is successfully applied in this research. The burner is designed such that a portion of fuel is heated and pre-vaporized in the furnace then injected into a fuel rich combustion zone so that a partial oxidation reaction occurs. The effects of equivalence ratio, thermal load, and fuel distribution ratio on the emissions of NOx and CO are experimentally investigated. This newly developed combustion technology showed very low NOx emission level, about 12 ppm, when light oil is used as a fuel.
Keywords: Burner, low NOx, liquid fuel, partial oxidation, fuel rich.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2815
852 Numerical Studies on the Performance of Finned-Tube Heat Exchanger
Authors: Praveen Kumar S P, Bong-Su Sin, Kwon-Hee Lee
Finned-tube heat exchangers are predominantly used in space conditioning systems, as well as other applications requiring heat exchange between two fluids. The design of finned-tube heat exchangers requires the selection of over a dozen design parameters by the designer such as tube pitch, tube diameter, tube thickness, etc… Finned-tube heat exchangers are common devices; however, their performance characteristics are complicated. In this paper numerical studies have been carried out to analyze the performances of finned tube heat exchanger (without fins considered for experimental purpose) by predicting the characteristics of temperature difference and pressure drop. In this study, a design considering 5 design variables and also maximizing the temperature difference and pressure drop was suggested by applying DOE. During this process, L18 orthogonal array was adopted. Parametric analytical studies have been carried out using ANOVA to determine the relative importance of each variable with respect to the temperature difference and the pressure drop. Following the results, the final design was suggested by predicting the optimum design therefore confirming the optimized condition.
Keywords: Heat Exchanger, Fluid Analysis, Heat Transfer, Design of Experiment (DOE), Analysis of Variance (ANOVA).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2523
851 Mannequin Evaluation of 3D-Printed Intermittent Oro-Esophageal Tube Guide for Dysphagia
Authors: Yujin Jeong, Youkyung Son, Myounghwan Choi, Sanghyub Lee, Sangyeol Lee, Changho Hwang, Kyo-in Koo
Dysphasia is difficulty in swallowing food because of oral cavity impairments induced by stroke, muscle damage, tumor. Intermittent oro-esophageal (IOE) tube feeding is one of the well-known feeding methods for the dysphasia patients. However, it is hard to insert at the proper position in esophagus. In this study, we design and fabricate the IOE tube guide using 3-dimensional (3D) printer. The printed IOE tube is tested in a mannequin (Airway Management Trainer, Co., Ltd., Copenhagen, Denmark) mimicking human’s esophagus. The gag reflex point is measured as the design point in the mannequin. To avoid the gag reflex, we design various shapes of IOE tube guide. One structure is separated into three parts; biting part, part through oral cavity, connecting part to oro-esophageal. We designed 6 types of IOE tube guide adjusting length and angle of these three parts. To evaluate the IOE tube guide, it is inserted in the mannequin, and through the inserted guide, an endoscopic camera successfully arrived at the oro-esophageal. We had planned to apply this mannequin-based design experience to patients in near future.
Keywords: Dysphagia, feeding method, IOE tube guide, 3-D printer.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1434
850 Online Measurement of Fuel Stack Elongation
Authors: Sung Ho Ahn, Jintae Hong, Chang Young Joung, Tae Ho Yang, Sung Ho Heo, Seo Yun Jang
The performances of nuclear fuels and materials are qualified at an irradiation system in research reactors operating under the commercial nuclear power plant conditions. Fuel centerline temperature, coolant temperature, neutron flux, deformations of fuel stack and swelling are important parameters needed to analyze the nuclear fuel performances. The dimensional stability of nuclear fuels is a key parameter measuring the fuel densification and swelling. In this study, the fuel stack elongation is measured using a LVDT. A mockup LVDT instrumented fuel rod is developed. The performances of mockup LVDT instrumented fuel rod is evaluated by experiments.
Keywords: Axial deformation, elongation measurement, in-pile instrumentation, LVDT.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1150
849 Advanced Model for Calculation of the Neutral Axis Shifting and the Wall Thickness Distribution in Rotary Draw Bending Processes
Rotary draw bending is a method which is being used in tube forming. In the tube bending process, the neutral axis moves towards the inner arc and the wall thickness distribution changes for tube’s cross section. Thinning takes place in the outer arc of the tube (extrados) due to the stretching of the material, whereas thickening occurs in the inner arc of the tube (intrados) due to the comparison of the material. The calculations of the wall thickness distribution, neutral axis shifting, and strain distribution have not been accurate enough, so far. The previous model (the geometrical model) describes the neutral axis shifting and wall thickness distribution. The geometrical of the tube, bending radius and bending angle are considered in the geometrical model, while the influence of the material properties of the tube forming are ignored. The advanced model is a modification of the previous model using material properties that depends on the correction factor. The correction factor is a purely empirically determined factor. The advanced model was compared with the Finite element simulation (FE simulation) using a different bending factor (Bf =bending radius/ diameter of the tube), wall thickness (Wf = diameter of the tube/ wall thickness), and material properties (strain hardening exponent). Finite element model of rotary draw bending has been performed in PAM-TUBE program (version: 2012). Results from the advanced model resemble the FE simulation and the experimental test.
Keywords: Rotary draw bending, material properties, neutral axis shifting, wall thickness distribution.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3773
848 Bubble Growth in a Two Phase Upward Flow in a Miniature Tube
Authors: R. S. Hassani, S. Chikh, L. Tadrist, S. Radev
A bubbly flow in a vertical miniature tube is analyzed theoretically. The liquid and gas phase are co-current flowing upward. The gas phase is injected via a nozzle whose inner diameter is 0.11mm and it is placed on the axis of the tube. A force balance is applied on the bubble at its detachment. The set of governing equations are solved by use of Mathematica software. The bubble diameter and the bubble generation frequency are determined for various inlet phase velocities represented by the inlet mass quality. The results show different behavior of bubble growth and detachment depending on the tube size.
Keywords: Two phase flow, bubble growth, minichannel, generation frequency.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1694
847 Economic Optimization of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Using Nanofluid
Authors: Hassan Hajabdollahi
Economic optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger (STHE) is presented in this paper. To increase the rate of heat transfer, copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticle is added into the tube side fluid and their optimum results are compared with the case of without additive nanoparticle. Total annual cost (TAC) is selected as fitness function and nine decision variables related to the heat exchanger parameters as well as concentration of nanoparticle are considered. Optimization results reveal the noticeable improvement in the TAC and in the case of heat exchanger working with nanofluid compared with the case of base fluid (8.9%). Comparison of the results between two studied cases also reveal that the lower tube diameter, tube number, and baffle spacing are needed in the case of heat exchanger working with nanofluid compared with the case of base fluid.
Keywords: Shell and tube heat exchanger, nanoparticles additive, total annual cost, particle volumetric concentration.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 873
846 Non-Destructive Evaluation of Launch Tube Welds with Radiography
Authors: Tosapolporn Pornpibunsompop
Abstract:The non-destructive testing of launch tube weld with radiography was investigated and evaluated with AWS D1.1 standard. The paper started with preparation of launch tube and radiographic inspection. X-Ray inspection then was done and gotten the result. The judgment of inspection results were concluded by certified person and finally, the evaluation with AWS D1.1 standard was conducted as well. The result shown that weld position P1 was not conformed to AWS D1.1 which allowed size of incomplete penetration did not exceed 4 mm. The other welds were corresponded to as mentioned standard. Additionally, the corrective actions for incomplete penetration either provided for future actions.
Keywords: Non-destructive evaluation, Weld, Launch tube, RadiographyProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1557
845 Optimum Design of Tall Tube-Type Building: An Approach to Structural Height Premium
Authors: Ali Kheyroddin, Niloufar Mashhadiali, Frazaneh Kheyroddin
In last decades, tubular systems employed for tall buildings were efficient structural systems. However, increasing the height of a building leads to an increase in structural material corresponding to the loads imposed by lateral loads. Based on this approach, new structural systems are emerging to provide strength and stiffness with the minimum premium for height. In this research, selected tube-type structural systems such as framed tubes, braced tubes, diagrids and hexagrid systems were applied as a single tube, tubular structures combined with braced core and outrigger trusses on a set of 48, 72, and 96-story, respectively, to improve integrated structural systems. This paper investigated structural material consumption by model structures focusing on the premium for height. Compared analytical results indicated that as the height of the building increased, combination of the structural systems caused the framed tube, hexagrid and braced tube system to pay fewer premiums to material tonnage while in diagrid system, combining the structural system reduced insignificantly the steel material consumption.
Keywords: Braced tube, diagrid, framed tube, hexagrid.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 813
844 Effect of Fuel Lean Reburning Process on NOx Reduction and CO Emission
Authors: Changyeop Lee, Sewon Kim
Reburning is a useful technology in reducing nitric oxide through injection of a secondary hydrocarbon fuel. In this paper, an experimental study has been conducted to evaluate the effect of fuel lean reburning on NOx/CO reduction in LNG flame. Experiments were performed in flames stabilized by a co-flow swirl burner, which was mounted at the bottom of the furnace. Tests were conducted using LNG gas as the reburn fuel as well as the main fuel. The effects of reburn fuel fraction and injection manner of the reburn fuel were studied when the fuel lean reburning system was applied. The paper reports data on flue gas emissions and temperature distribution in the furnace for a wide range of experimental conditions. At steady state, temperature distribution and emission formation in the furnace have been measured and compared. This paper makes clear that in order to decrease both NOx and CO concentrations in the exhaust when the pulsated fuel lean reburning system was adapted, it is important that the control of some factors such as frequency and duty ratio. Also it shows the fuel lean reburning is also effective method to reduce NOx as much as reburning.
Keywords: Fuel lean reburn, NOx, CO, LNG flame.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2099
843 Designing a Low Speed Wind Tunnel for Investigating Effects of Blockage Ratio on Heat Transfer of a Non-Circular Tube
Authors: Arash Mirabdolah Lavasani, Taher Maarefdoost
Effect of blockage ratio on heat transfer from non-circular tube is studied experimentally. For doing this experiment a suction type low speed wind tunnel with test section dimension of 14×14×40 and velocity in rage of 7-20 m/s was designed. The blockage ratios varied between 1.5 to 7 and Reynolds number based on equivalent diameter varies in range of 7.5×103 to 17.5×103. The results show that by increasing blockage ratio from 1.5 to 7, drag coefficient of the cam shaped tube decreased about 55 percent. By increasing Reynolds number, Nusselt number of the cam shaped tube increases about 40 to 48 percent in all ranges of blockage ratios.
Keywords: Wind tunnel, non-circular tube, blockage ratio, experimental heat transfer, cross-flow.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2503
842 A Numerical Study of Single-phase Forced Convective Heat Transfer in Tube in Tube Heat Exchangers
Authors: P. Mohajeri Khameneh, I. Mirzaie, N. Pourmahmoud, M. Rahimi, S. Majidyfar
Abstract:Three dimensional simulations in tube in tube heat exchangers are investigated numerically in this study. In these simulations forced convective heat transfer and laminar flow of single-phase water are considered. In order to measure heat transfer parameters in these heat exchangers, FLUENT CFD Solver is used in this numerical method. For the purpose of creating geometry and exert boundary and initial conditions in the present model, finite volume method in Computational Fluid Dynamics is used in this study. In the present study, at each Z-location, variation of local temperatures, heat flux and Nusselt number at the whole tube is investigated in detail. Thereafter, averaged computational Nusselt number in this model is calculated. In addition, conceivable pressure drops have been obtained at each Z-location in this model. Then, pressure drop values in the present model are explored. Finally, all the numerical results for this kind of heat exchanger will be discussed precisely.
Keywords: Heat exchanger, Laminar flow, CFD, Nusseltnumber, Tube in tube, pressure drop.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1923
841 Thermo Mechanical Design and Analysis of PEM Fuel cell Plate
Authors: Saravana Kannan Thangavelu
Abstract:Fuel and oxidant gas delivery plate, or fuel cell plate, is a key component of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell. To manufacture low-cost and high performance fuel cell plates, advanced computer modeling and finite element structure analysis are used as virtual prototyping tools for the optimization of the plates at the early design stage. The present study examines thermal stress analysis of the fuel cell plates that are produced using a patented, low-cost fuel cell plate production technique based on screen-printing. Design optimization is applied to minimize the maximum stress within the plate, subject to strain constraint with both geometry and material parameters as design variables. The study reveals the characteristics of the printed plates, and provides guidelines for the structure and material design of the fuel cell plate.
Keywords: Design optimization, FEA, PEM fuel cell, Thermal stressProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2061
840 A Comparison of Fuel Usage and Harvest Capacity in Self-Propelled Forage Harvesters
Authors: Brian H. Marsh
Self-propelled forage harvesters in the 850 horsepower range were tested over three years for fuel consumption, throughput and quality of chop for corn silage. Cut length had a significant effect on fuel consumption, throughput and some aspects of chop quality. Measure cut length was often different than theoretical length of cut. Where cut length was equivalent fuel consumption and throughput were equivalent across brands. Shortening cut length from 17 to 11mm increases fuel consumption 53 percent measured as Mg of silage harvested per gallon of fuel used and a 42 percent decrease in capacity as tons of fresh material per hour run time.
Keywords: Corn silage, forage harvester, fuel use, length of cut.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4885
839 Numerical Investigation of the Thermal Separation in a Vortex Tube
Authors: N.Pourmahmoud, S.Akhesmeh
This work has been carried out in order to provide an understanding of the physical behaviors of the flow variation of pressure and temperature in a vortex tube. A computational fluid dynamics model is used to predict the flow fields and the associated temperature separation within a Ranque–Hilsch vortex tube. The CFD model is a steady axisymmetric model (with swirl) that utilizes the standard k-ε turbulence model. The second–order numerical schemes, was used to carry out all the computations. Vortex tube with a circumferential inlet stream and an axial (cold) outlet stream and a circumferential (hot) outlet stream was considered. Performance curves (temperature separation versus cold outlet mass fraction) were obtained for a specific vortex tube with a given inlet mass flow rate. Simulations have been carried out for varying amounts of cold outlet mass flow rates. The model results have a good agreement with experimental data.
Keywords: Ranque–Hilsch vortex tube, Temperature separation, k–ε model, cold mass fraction.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2287
838 Study on Rupture of Tube Type Crash Energy Absorber using Finite Element Method
Authors: Won Mok. Choi, Tae Su. Kwon, Hyun Sung. Jung, Jin Sung. Kim
Abstract:The aim of this paper is to confirm the effect of key design parameters, the punch radius and punch angle, on rupture of the expansion tube using a finite element analysis with a ductile damage model. The results of the finite element analysis indicated that the expansion ratio of the tube was mainly affected by the radius of the punch. However, the rupture was more affected by the punch angle than the radius of the punch. The existence of a specific punch angle, at which rupture did not occur, even if the radius of the punch was increased, was found.
Keywords: Expansion tube, Ductile damage, Shear failure, Stress triaxiality.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1596