Search results for: blockage ratio
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1883

Search results for: blockage ratio

1883 The Effect of Blockage Factor on Savonius Hydrokinetic Turbine Performance

Authors: Thochi Seb Rengma, Mahendra Kumar Gupta, P. M. V. Subbarao

Abstract:

Hydrokinetic turbines can be used to produce power in inaccessible villages located near rivers. The hydrokinetic turbine uses the kinetic energy of the water and maybe put it directly into the natural flow of water without dams. For off-grid power production, the Savonius-type vertical axis turbine is the easiest to design and manufacture. This proposal uses three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations to measure the considerable interaction and complexity of turbine blades. Savonius hydrokinetic turbine (SHKT) performance is affected by a blockage in the river, canals, and waterways. Putting a large object in a water channel causes water obstruction and raises local free stream velocity. The blockage correction factor or velocity increment measures the impact of velocity on the performance. SHKT performance is evaluated by comparing power coefficient (Cp) with tip-speed ratio (TSR) at various blockage ratios. The maximum Cp was obtained at a TSR of 1.1 with a blockage ratio of 45%, whereas TSR of 0.8 yielded the highest Cp without blockage. The greatest Cp of 0.29 was obtained with a 45% blockage ratio compared to a Cp max of 0.18 without a blockage.

Keywords: Savonius hydrokinetic turbine, blockage ratio, vertical axis turbine, power coefficient.

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1882 Designing a Low Speed Wind Tunnel for Investigating Effects of Blockage Ratio on Heat Transfer of a Non-Circular Tube

Authors: Arash Mirabdolah Lavasani, Taher Maarefdoost

Abstract:

Effect of blockage ratio on heat transfer from non-circular tube is studied experimentally. For doing this experiment a suction type low speed wind tunnel with test section dimension of 14×14×40 and velocity in rage of 7-20 m/s was designed. The blockage ratios varied between 1.5 to 7 and Reynolds number based on equivalent diameter varies in range of 7.5×103 to 17.5×103. The results show that by increasing blockage ratio from 1.5 to 7, drag coefficient of the cam shaped tube decreased about 55 percent. By increasing Reynolds number, Nusselt number of the cam shaped tube increases about 40 to 48 percent in all ranges of blockage ratios.

Keywords: Wind tunnel, non-circular tube, blockage ratio, experimental heat transfer, cross-flow.

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1881 Simulation of the Asphaltene Deposition Rate in a Wellbore Blockage via Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: Xiaodong Gao, Pingchuan Dong, Qichao Gao

Abstract:

This work attempts to predict the deposition rate of asphaltene particles in blockage tube through CFD simulation. The Euler-Lagrange equation has been applied during the flow of crude oil and asphaltene particles. The net gravitational force, virtual mass, pressure gradient, Saffman lift, and drag forces are incorporated in the simulations process. Validation of CFD simulation results is compared to the benchmark experiments from the previous literature. Furthermore, the effects of blockage location, blockage length, and blockage thickness on deposition rate are also analyzed. The simulation results indicate that the maximum deposition rate of asphaltene occurs in the blocked tube section, and the greater the deposition thickness, the greater the deposition rate. Moreover, the deposition amount and maximum deposition rate along the length of the tube have the same trend. Results of this study are in the ability to better understand the deposition of asphaltene particles in production and help achieve to deal with the asphaltene challenges.

Keywords: Asphaltene deposition rate, blockage length, blockage thickness, blockage diameter, transient condition.

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1880 Numerical Simulation of Flow Past an Infinite Row of Equispaced Square Cylinders Using the Multi- Relaxation-Time Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: S. Ul. Islam, H. Rahman, W. S. Abbasi, N. Rathore

Abstract:

In this research numerical simulations are performed, using the multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method, in the range 3 ≤ β = w[d] ≤ 30 at Re = 100, 200 and 300, where β the blockage ratio, w is the equispaced distance between centers of cylinders, d is the diameter of the cylinder and Re is the Reynolds number, respectively. Special attention is paid to the effect of the equispaced distance between centers of cylinders. Visualization of the vorticity contour visualization are presented for some simulation showing the flow dynamics and patterns for blockage effect. Results show that the drag and mean drag coefficients, and Strouhal number, in general, decrease with the increase of β for fixed Re. It is found that the decreasing rate of drag and mean drag coefficients and Strouhal number is more distinct in the range 3 ≤ β ≤ 15. We found that when β > 15, the blockage effect almost diminishes. Our results further indicate that the drag and mean drag coefficients, peak value of the lift coefficient, root-mean-square value of the lift and drag coefficients and the ratio between lift and drag coefficients decrease with the increase of Re. The results indicate that symmetry boundary condition have more blockage effect as compared to periodic boundary condition.

Keywords: Blockage ratio, Multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method, Square cylinder, Vortex formation.

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1879 Numerical Analysis of the Performance of a Shrouded Vertical-Axis Water Turbine based on the NACA 0025 Blade Profile

Authors: M. Raciti Castelli, S. De Betta, E. Benini

Abstract:

This paper presents a numerical analysis of the performance of a five-bladed Darrieus vertical-axis water turbine, based on the NACA 0025 blade profile, for both bare and shrouded configurations. A complete campaign of 2-D simulations, performed for several values of tip speed ratio and based on RANS unsteady calculations, has been performed to obtain the rotor torque and power curves. Also the effect of a NACA-shaped central hydrofoil has been investigated, with the aim of evaluating the impact of a solid blockage on the performance of the shrouded rotor configuration. The beneficial effect of the shroud on rotor overall performances has clearly been evidenced, while the adoption of the central hydrofoil has proved to be detrimental, being the resulting flow slow down (due to the presence of the obstacle) much higher with respect to the flow acceleration (due to the solid blockage effect).

Keywords: CFD, vertical axis water turbine, shroud, NACA 0025

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1878 Improvements in Navy Data Networks and Tactical Communication Systems

Authors: Laurent Enel, Franck Guillem

Abstract:

This paper considers the benefits gained by using an efficient quality of service management such as DiffServ technique to improve the performance of military communications. Low delay and no blockage must be achieved especially for real time tactical data. All traffic flows generated by different applications do not need same bandwidth, same latency, same error ratio and this scalable technique of packet management based on priority levels is analysed. End to end architectures supporting various traffic flows and including lowbandwidth and high-delay HF or SHF military links as well as unprotected Internet sub domains are studied. A tuning of Diffserv parameters is proposed in accordance with different loads of various traffic and different operational situations.

Keywords: Military data networks, Quality of service, Tacticalsystems.

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1877 Scalable Cloud-Based LEO Satellite Constellation Simulator

Authors: Karim Sobh, Khaled El-Ayat, Fady Morcos, Amr El-Kadi

Abstract:

Distributed applications deployed on LEO satellites and ground stations require substantial communication between different members in a constellation to overcome the earth coverage barriers imposed by GEOs. Applications running on LEO constellations suffer the earth line-of-sight blockage effect. They need adequate lab testing before launching to space. We propose a scalable cloud-based network simulation framework to simulate problems created by the earth line-of-sight blockage. The framework utilized cloud IaaS virtual machines to simulate LEO satellites and ground stations distributed software. A factorial ANOVA statistical analysis is conducted to measure simulator overhead on overall communication performance. The results showed a very low simulator communication overhead. Consequently, the simulation framework is proposed as a candidate for testing LEO constellations with distributed software in the lab before space launch.

Keywords: LEO, Cloud Computing, Constellation, Satellite, Network Simulation, Netfilter.

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1876 Aerodynamic Interaction between Two Speed Skaters Measured in a Closed Wind Tunnel

Authors: Ola Elfmark, Lars M. Bardal, Luca Oggiano, H˚avard Myklebust

Abstract:

Team pursuit is a relatively new event in international long track speed skating. For a single speed skater the aerodynamic drag will account for up to 80% of the braking force, thus reducing the drag can greatly improve the performance. In a team pursuit the interactions between athletes in near proximity will also be essential, but is not well studied. In this study, systematic measurements of the aerodynamic drag, body posture and relative positioning of speed skaters have been performed in the low speed wind tunnel at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, in order to investigate the aerodynamic interaction between two speed skaters. Drag measurements of static speed skaters drafting, leading, side-by-side, and dynamic drag measurements in a synchronized and unsynchronized movement at different distances, were performed. The projected frontal area was measured for all postures and movements and a blockage correction was performed, as the blockage ratio ranged from 5-15% in the different setups. The static drag measurements where performed on two test subjects in two different postures, a low posture and a high posture, and two different distances between the test subjects 1.5T and 3T where T being the length of the torso (T=0.63m). A drag reduction was observed for all distances and configurations, from 39% to 11.4%, for the drafting test subject. The drag of the leading test subject was only influenced at -1.5T, with the biggest drag reduction of 5.6%. An increase in drag was seen for all side-by-side measurements, the biggest increase was observed to be 25.7%, at the closest distance between the test subjects, and the lowest at 2.7% with ∼ 0.7 m between the test subjects. A clear aerodynamic interaction between the test subjects and their postures was observed for most measurements during static measurements, with results corresponding well to recent studies. For the dynamic measurements, the leading test subject had a drag reduction of 3% even at -3T. The drafting showed a drag reduction of 15% when being in a synchronized (sync) motion with the leading test subject at 4.5T. The maximal drag reduction for both the leading and the drafting test subject were observed when being as close as possible in sync, with a drag reduction of 8.5% and 25.7% respectively. This study emphasize the importance of keeping a synchronized movement by showing that the maximal gain for the leading and drafting dropped to 3.2% and 3.3% respectively when the skaters are in opposite phase. Individual differences in technique also appear to influence the drag of the other test subject.

Keywords: Aerodynamic interaction, drag cycle, drag force, frontal area, speed skating.

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1875 Effect of Si/Al Ratio on SSZ-13 Crystallization and Its Methanol-To-Olefins Catalytic Properties

Authors: Zhiqiang Xu, Hongfang Ma, Haitao Zhang, Weixin Qian, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

SSZ-13 materials with different Si/Al ratio were prepared by varying the composition of aluminosilicate precursor solutions upon hydrothermal treatment at 150 °C. The Si/Al ratio of the initial system was systematically changed from 12.5 to infinity in order to study the limits of Al composition in precursor solutions for constructing CHA structure. The intermediates and final products were investigated by complementary techniques such as XRD, HRTEM, FESEM, and chemical analysis. NH3-TPD was used to study the Brønsted acidity of SSZ-13 samples with different Si/Al ratios. The effect of the Si/Al ratio on the precursor species, ultimate crystal size, morphology and yield was investigated. The results revealed that Al species determine the nucleation rate and the number of nuclei, which is tied to the morphology and yield of SSZ-13. The size of SSZ-13 increased and the yield decreased as the Si/Al ratio was improved. Varying Si/Al ratio of the initial system is a facile, commercially viable method of tailoring SSZ-13 crystal size and morphology. Furthermore, SSZ-13 materials with different Si/Al ratio were tested as catalysts for the methanol to olefins (MTO) reaction at 350 °C. SSZ-13 with the Si/Al ratio of 35 shows the best MTO catalytic performance.

Keywords: Crystallization, MTO, Si/Al ratio, SSZ-13.

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1874 Effects of Roughness on Forward Facing Step in an Open Channel

Authors: S. M. Rifat, André L. Marchildon, Mark F. Tachie

Abstract:

Experiments were performed to investigate the effects of roughness on the reattachment and redevelopment regions over a 12 mm forward facing step (FFS) in an open channel flow. The experiments were performed over an upstream smooth wall and a smooth FFS, an upstream wall coated with sandpaper 36 grit and a smooth FFS and an upstream rough wall produced from sandpaper 36 grit and a FFS coated with sandpaper 36 grit. To investigate only the wall roughness effects, Reynolds number, Froude number, aspect ratio and blockage ratio were kept constant. Upstream profiles showed reduced streamwise mean velocities close to the rough wall compared to the smooth wall, but the turbulence level was increased by upstream wall roughness. The reattachment length for the smooth-smooth wall experiment was 1.78h; however, when it is replaced with rough-smooth wall the reattachment length decreased to 1.53h. It was observed that the upstream roughness increased the physical size of contours of maximum turbulence level; however, the downstream roughness decreased both the size and magnitude of contours in the vicinity of the leading edge of the step. Quadrant analysis was performed to investigate the dominant Reynolds shear stress contribution in the recirculation region. The Reynolds shear stress and turbulent kinetic energy profiles after the reattachment showed slower recovery compared to the streamwise mean velocity, however all the profiles fairly collapse on their corresponding upstream profiles at x/h = 60. It was concluded that to obtain a complete collapse several more streamwise distances would be required.

Keywords: Forward facing step, open channel, separated and reattached turbulent flows, wall roughness.

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1873 Prediction of Soil Exchangeable Sodium Ratio Based on Soil Sodium Adsorption Ratio

Authors: M. Siosemarde, F. Kave, E. Pazira, H. Sedghi, S. J. Ghaderi

Abstract:

Researchers have long had trouble in measurement of Exchangeable Sodium Ratio (ESR) at salt-affected soils. this parameter are often determined using laborious and time consuming laboratory tests, but it may be more appropriate and economical to develop a method which uses a more simple soil salinity index. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between exchangeable sodium ratio (ESR) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) in some salt-affected soils of Khuzestan plain. To this purpose, two experimental areas (S1, S2) of Khuzestan province-IRAN were selected and four treatments with three replications by series of double rings were applied. The treatments were included 25cm, 50cm, 75cm and 100cm water application. The statistical results of the study indicated that in order to predict soil ESR based on soil SAR the linear regression model ESR=0.2048+0.0066 SAR (R2=0.53) & ESR=0.0564+0.0171 SAR (R2=0.76) can be recommended in Pilot S1 and S2 respectively.

Keywords: exchangeable sodium ratio, Khuzestan plain, saltaffectedsoils and sodium adsorption ratio.

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1872 Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Sunflower Oil Using Central Composite Design

Authors: Pascal Mwenge, Jefrey Pilusa, Tumisang Seodigeng

Abstract:

The current study investigated the effect of catalyst ratio and methanol to oil ratio on biodiesel production by using central composite design. Biodiesel was produced by transesterification using sodium hydroxide as a homogeneous catalyst, a laboratory scale reactor consisting of flat bottom flask mounts with a reflux condenser and a heating plate was used to produce biodiesel. Key parameters, including, time, temperature and mixing rate were kept constant at 60 minutes, 60 oC and 600 RPM, respectively. From the results obtained, it was observed that the biodiesel yield depends on catalyst ratio and methanol to oil ratio. The highest yield of 50.65% was obtained at catalyst ratio of 0.5 wt.% and methanol to oil mole ratio 10.5. The analysis of variances of biodiesel yield showed the R Squared value of 0.8387. A quadratic mathematical model was developed to predict the biodiesel yield in the specified parameters ranges.

Keywords: ANOVA, biodiesel, catalyst, CCD, transesterification.

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1871 Optimization of Fin Type and Fin per Inch on Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of an Air Cooler

Authors: A. Falavand Jozaei, A. Ghafouri

Abstract:

Operation enhancement in an air cooler depends on rate of heat transfer, and pressure drop. In this paper for a given heat duty, study of the effects of FPI (Fin Per Inch) and fin type (circular and hexagonal fins) on heat transfer, and pressure drop in an air cooler in Iran, Arvand petrochemical. A program in EES (Engineering Equations Solver) software moreover, Aspen B-JAC and HTFS+ softwares are used for this purpose to solve governing equations. At first the simulated results obtained from this program is compared to the experimental data for two cases of FPI. The effects of FPI from 3 to 15 over heat transfer (Q) to pressure drop ratio (Q/Δp ratio). This ratio is one of the main parameters in design, and simulation heat exchangers. The results show that heat transfer (Q) and pressure drop increase with increasing FPI steadily, and the Q/Δp ratio increases to FPI=12 and then decreased gradually to FPI=15, and Q/Δp ratio is maximum at FPI=12. The FPI value selection between 8 and 12 obtained as a result to optimum heat transfer to pressure drop ratio. Also by contrast, between circular and hexagonal fins results, the Q/Δp ratio of hexagonal fins more than Q/Δp ratio of circular fins for FPI between 8 and 12 (optimum FPI)

Keywords: Air cooler, circular and hexagonal fins, fin per inch, heat transfer and pressure drop.

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1870 Bowen Ratio in Western São Paulo State, Brazil

Authors: Elaine C. Barboza, Antonio J. Machado

Abstract:

This paper discusses micrometeorological aspects of the urban climate in three cities in Western São Paulo State: Presidente Prudente, Assis and Iepê. Particular attention is paid to the method used to estimate the components of the energy balance at the surface. Estimates of convective fluxes showed that the Bowen ratio was an indicator of the local climate and that its magnitude varied between 0.3 and 0.7. Maximum values for the Bowen ratio occurred earlier in Iepê (11:00 am) than in Presidente Prudente (4:00 pm). The results indicate that the Bowen ratio is modulated by the radiation balance at the surface and by different clusters of vegetation.

Keywords: Bowen ratio, medium-sized cities, surface energy balance, urban climate.

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1869 Microwave Plasma Dry Reforming of Methane at High CO2/CH4 Feed Ratio

Authors: Nabil Majd Alawi, Gia Hung Pham, Ahmed Barifcani

Abstract:

Dry reforming of methane that converts two greenhouses gases (CH4 and CO2) to synthesis gas (a mixture of H2 and CO) was studied in a commercial bench scale microwave (MW) plasma reactor system at atmospheric pressure. The CO2, CH4 and N2 conversions; H2, CO selectivities and yields, and syngas ratio (H2/CO) were investigated in a wide range of total feed flow rate (0.45 – 2.1 L/min), MW power (700 – 1200 watt) and CO2/CH4 molar ratio (2 – 5). At the feed flow rates of CH4, CO2 and N2 of 0.2, 0.4 and 1.5 L/min respectively, and the MWs input power of 700 W, the highest conversions of CH4 and CO2, selectivity and yield of H2, CO and H2/CO ratio of 79.35%, 44.82%, 50.12, 58.42, 39.77%, 32.89%, and 0.86, respectively, were achieved. The results of this work show that the product ratio increases slightly with the increasing total feed flow rate, but it decreases significantly with the increasing MW power and feeds CO2/CH4 ratio.

Keywords: Atmospheric pressure, methane dry reforming, microwave plasma, synthesis gas production.

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1868 A Numerical Study on Thermal Dissociation of H2S

Authors: M. Moghiman, S. M. Javadi, A. R. Moghiman, S. Baghdar Hosseini

Abstract:

The main issue in sweetening natural gas is H2S dissociation. The present study is concerned with simulating thermal dissociation of H2S in industrial natural gas carbon black furnace. The comparison of calculated results against experimental measurements shows good agreement. The results show that sulfur derived from H2S thermal dissociation peaked at φ=0.95. H2S thermal dissociation is enhanced in equivalence ratio upper than 1 and H2S oxidization is increased in equivalence ratio lower than 1. H2 concentration of H2S thermal dissociation is increased with increase of equivalence ratio up to 1. Also, H2S concentration decreased in outlet as equivalence ratio increases. H2S thermal dissociation to hydrogen and Sulfur reduces its toxic characteristics and make economical benefits.

Keywords: Equivalence ratio, H2S, natural gas furnace, thermaldissociation.

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1867 Ratio Type Estimators of the Population Mean Based on Ranked Set Sampling

Authors: Said Ali Al-Hadhrami

Abstract:

Ranked set sampling (RSS) was first suggested to increase the efficiency of the population mean. It has been shown that this method is highly beneficial to the estimation based on simple random sampling (SRS). There has been considerable development and many modifications were done on this method. When a concomitant variable is available, ratio estimation based on ranked set sampling was proposed. This ratio estimator is more efficient than that based on SRS. In this paper some ratio type estimators of the population mean based on RSS are suggested. These estimators are found to be more efficient than the estimators of similar form using simple random sample.

Keywords: Bias, Efficiency, Ranked Set Sampling, Ratio Type Estimator

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1866 Study Concerning the Energy-to-Mass Ratio in Pneumatic Muscles

Authors: Tudor Deaconescu, Andrea Deaconescu

Abstract:

The utilization of pneumatic muscles in the actuation of industrial systems is still in its early stages, hence studies on the constructive solutions which include an assessment of their functional performance with a focus on one of the most important characteristics-energy efficiency are required. A quality indicator that adequately reflects the energy efficiency of an actuator is the energy-to-mass ratio. This ratio is computed in the paper for various types and sizes of pneumatic muscles manufactured by Festo, and is subsequently compared to the similar ratios determined for two categories of pneumatic cylinders.

Keywords: Pneumatic cylinders, pneumatic muscles, energy-to-mass ratio, muscle stroke.

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1865 Design and Simulation of Air-Fuel Ratio Control System for Distributorless CNG Engine

Authors: Ei Ei Moe, Zaw Min Aung, Kyawt Khin

Abstract:

This paper puts forward one kind of air-fuel ratio control method with PI controller. With the help of MATLAB/SIMULINK software, the mathematical model of air-fuel ratio control system for distributorless CNG engine is constructed. The objective is to maintain cylinder-to-cylinder air-fuel ratio at a prescribed set point, determined primarily by the state of the Three- Way-Catalyst (TWC), so that the pollutants in the exhaust are removed with the highest efficiency. The concurrent control of airfuel under transient conditions could be implemented by Proportional and Integral (PI) controller. The simulation result indicates that the control methods can easily eliminate the air/fuel maldistribution and maintain the air/fuel ratio at the stochiometry within minimum engine events.

Keywords: Distributorless CNG Engine, Mathematical Modelof Air-fuel control, MATLAB/SIMULINK, PI controller

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1864 Strength of Fine Concrete Used in Textile Reinforced Concrete by Changing Water-Binder Ratio

Authors: Taekyun Kim, Jongho Park, Jinwoong Choi, Sun-Kyu Park

Abstract:

Recently, the abnormal climate phenomenon has enlarged due to the global warming. As a result, temperature variation is increasing and the term is being prolonged, frequency of high and low temperature is increasing by heat wave and severe cold. Especially for reinforced concrete structure, the corrosion of reinforcement has occurred by concrete crack due to temperature change and the durability of the structure that has decreased by concrete crack. Accordingly, the textile reinforced concrete (TRC) which does not corrode due to using textile is getting the interest and the investigation of TRC is proceeding. The study of TRC structure behavior has proceeded, but the characteristic study of the concrete used in TRC is insufficient. Therefore, characteristic of the concrete by changing mixing ratio is studied in this paper. As a result, mixing ratio with different water-binder ratio has influenced to the strength of concrete. Also, as the water-binder ratio has decreased, strength of concrete has increased.

Keywords: Concrete, mixing ratio, textile, TRC.

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1863 Some Collineations Preserving Cross-Ratio in some Moufang-Klingenberg Planes

Authors: Suleyman Ciftci, Atilla Akpinar, Basri Celik

Abstract:

In this paper we are interested in Moufang-Klingenberg planesM(A) defined over a local alternative ring A of dual numbers. We show that some collineations of M(A) preserve cross-ratio.

Keywords: Moufang-Klingenberg planes, local alternative ring, projective collineation, cross-ratio.

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1862 Ratio-Dependent Food Chain Models with Three Trophic Levels

Authors: R. Kara, M. Can

Abstract:

In this paper we study a food chain model with three trophic levels and Michaelis-Menten type ratio-dependent functional response. Distinctive feature of this model is the sensitive dependence of the dynamical behavior on the initial populations and parameters of the real world. The stability of the equilibrium points are also investigated.

Keywords: Food chain, Ratio dependent models, Three level models.

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1861 Effect of Taper Pin Ratio on Microstructure and Mechanical Property of Friction Stir Welded AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

Authors: N. H. Othman, N. Udin, M. Ishak, L. H. Shah

Abstract:

This study focuses on the effect of pin taper tool ratio on friction stir welding of magnesium alloy AZ31. Two pieces of AZ31 alloy with thickness of 6 mm were friction stir welded by using the conventional milling machine. The shoulder diameter used in this experiment is fixed at 18 mm. The taper pin ratio used are varied at 6:6, 6:5, 6:4, 6:3, 6:2 and 6:1. The rotational speeds that were used in this study were 500 rpm, 1000 rpm and 1500 rpm, respectively. The welding speeds used are 150 mm/min, 200 mm/min and 250 mm/min. Microstructure observation of welded area was studied by using optical microscope. Equiaxed grains were observed at the TMAZ and stir zone indicating fully plastic deformation. Tool pin diameter ratio 6/1 causes low heat input to the material because of small contact surface between tool surface and stirred materials compared to other tool pin diameter ratio. The grain size of stir zone increased with increasing of ratio of rotational speed to transverse speed due to higher heat input. It is observed that worm hole is produced when excessive heat input is applied. To evaluate the mechanical properties of this specimen, tensile test was used in this study. Welded specimens using taper pin ratio 6:1 shows higher tensile strength compared to other taper pin ratio up to 204 MPa. Moreover, specimens using taper pin ratio 6:1 showed better tensile strength with 500 rpm of rotational speed and 150mm/min welding speed.

Keywords: Friction stir welding, magnesium AZ31, cylindrical taper tool, taper pin ratio.

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1860 Rigid and Non-rigid Registration of Binary Objects using the Weighted Ratio Image

Authors: Panos Kotsas, Tony Dodd

Abstract:

This paper presents the application of a signal intensity independent similarity criterion for rigid and non-rigid body registration of binary objects. The criterion is defined as the weighted ratio image of two images. The ratio is computed on a voxel per voxel basis and weighting is performed by setting the raios between signal and background voxels to a standard high value. The mean squared value of the weighted ratio is computed over the union of the signal areas of the two images and it is minimized using the Chebyshev polynomial approximation.

Keywords: rigid and non-rigid body registration, binary objects

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1859 Adjusted Ratio and Regression Type Estimators for Estimation of Population Mean when some Observations are missing

Authors: Nuanpan Nangsue

Abstract:

Ratio and regression type estimators have been used by previous authors to estimate a population mean for the principal variable from samples in which both auxiliary x and principal y variable data are available. However, missing data are a common problem in statistical analyses with real data. Ratio and regression type estimators have also been used for imputing values of missing y data. In this paper, six new ratio and regression type estimators are proposed for imputing values for any missing y data and estimating a population mean for y from samples with missing x and/or y data. A simulation study has been conducted to compare the six ratio and regression type estimators with a previous estimator of Rueda. Two population sizes N = 1,000 and 5,000 have been considered with sample sizes of 10% and 30% and with correlation coefficients between population variables X and Y of 0.5 and 0.8. In the simulations, 10 and 40 percent of sample y values and 10 and 40 percent of sample x values were randomly designated as missing. The new ratio and regression type estimators give similar mean absolute percentage errors that are smaller than the Rueda estimator for all cases. The new estimators give a large reduction in errors for the case of 40% missing y values and sampling fraction of 30%.

Keywords: Auxiliary variable, missing data, ratio and regression type estimators.

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1858 Optimal Design of Airfoil with High Aspect Ratio in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Authors: Kyoungwoo Park, Ji-Won Han, Hyo-Jae Lim, Byeong-Sam Kim, Juhee Lee

Abstract:

Shape optimization of the airfoil with high aspect ratio of long endurance unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is performed by the multi-objective optimization technology coupled with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). For predicting the aerodynamic characteristics around the airfoil the high-fidelity Navier-Stokes solver is employed and SMOGA (Simple Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm), which is developed by authors, is used for solving the multi-objective optimization problem. To obtain the optimal solutions of the design variable (i.e., sectional airfoil profile, wing taper ratio and sweep) for high performance of UAVs, both the lift and lift-to-drag ratio are maximized whereas the pitching moment should be minimized, simultaneously. It is found that the lift force and lift-to-drag ratio are linearly dependent and a unique and dominant solution are existed. However, a trade-off phenomenon is observed between the lift-to-drag ratio and pitching moment. As the result of optimization, sixty-five (65) non-dominated Pareto individuals at the cutting edge of design spaces that is decided by airfoil shapes can be obtained.

Keywords: Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), Airfoil, CFD, Shape optimization, Lift-to-drag ratio.

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1857 Model Predictive Fuzzy Control of Air-ratio for Automotive Engines

Authors: Hang-cheong Wong, Pak-kin Wong, Chi-man Vong, Zhengchao Xie, Shaojia Huang

Abstract:

Automotive engine air-ratio plays an important role of emissions and fuel consumption reduction while maintains satisfactory engine power among all of the engine control variables. In order to effectively control the air-ratio, this paper presents a model predictive fuzzy control algorithm based on online least-squares support vector machines prediction model and fuzzy logic optimizer. The proposed control algorithm was also implemented on a real car for testing and the results are highly satisfactory. Experimental results show that the proposed control algorithm can regulate the engine air-ratio to the stoichiometric value, 1.0, under external disturbance with less than 5% tolerance.

Keywords: Air-ratio, Fuzzy logic, online least-squares support vector machine, model predictive control.

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1856 Effect of Lime on the California Bearing Ratio Behaviour of Fly Ash - mine Overburden Mixes

Authors: B. Behera, M. K. Mishra

Abstract:

Typically thermal power plants are located near to surface coal mines that produce huge amount of fly ash as a waste byproduct. Disposal of fly ash causes significant economic and environmental problems. Now-a-days, research is going on for bulk utilization of fly ash. In order to increase its percentage utilization, an investigation was carried out to evaluate its potential for haul road construction. This paper presents the laboratory California bearing ratio (CBR) tests and evaluates the effect of lime on CBR behavior of fly ash - mine overburden mixes. Tests were performed with different percentages of lime (2%, 3%, 6%, and 9%). The results show that the increase in bearing ratio of fly ash-overburden mixes was achieved by lime treatment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were conducted on 28 days cured specimens. The SEM study showed that the bearing ratio development is related to the microstructural development.

Keywords: California bearing ratio, Fly ash, Mine overburden, Lime.

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1855 Effect of the Rise/Span Ratio of a Spherical Cap Shell on the Buckling Load

Authors: Peter N. Khakina, Mohammed I. Ali, Enchun Zhu, Huazhang Zhou, Baydaa H. Moula

Abstract:

Rise/span ratio has been mentioned as one of the reasons which contribute to the lower buckling load as compared to the Classical theory buckling load but this ratio has not been quantified in the equation. The purpose of this study was to determine a more realistic buckling load by quantifying the effect of the rise/span ratio because experiments have shown that the Classical theory overestimates the load. The buckling load equation was derived based on the theorem of work done and strain energy. Thereafter, finite element modeling and simulation using ABAQUS was done to determine the variables that determine the constant in the derived equation. The rise/span was found to be the determining factor of the constant in the buckling load equation. The derived buckling load correlates closely to the load obtained from experiments.

Keywords: Buckling, Finite element, Rise/span ratio, Sphericalcap

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1854 Empirical Analysis of Private Listed Companies- Debt Financing and Business Performance in Jiangsu Province

Authors: Chengxuan Geng, Haitao E, Yijie Jiang

Abstract:

According to the theory of capital structure, this paper uses principal component analysis and linear regression analysis to study the relationship between the debt characteristics of the private listed companies in Jiangsu Province and their business performance. The results show that the average debt ratio of the 29 private listed companies selected from the sample is lower. And it is found that for the sample whose debt ratio is lower than 80%, its debt ratio is negatively related to corporate performance, while for the sample whose debt ratio is beyond 80%, the relationship of debt financing and enterprise performance shows the different trends. The conclusions reflect the drawbacks may exist that the debt ratio is relatively low and having not take full advantage of debt governance effect of the private listed companies in Jiangsu Province.

Keywords: private listed companies, debt financing, business performance

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