Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30761
Optimum Design of Tall Tube-Type Building: An Approach to Structural Height Premium

Authors: Ali Kheyroddin, Niloufar Mashhadiali, Frazaneh Kheyroddin


In last decades, tubular systems employed for tall buildings were efficient structural systems. However, increasing the height of a building leads to an increase in structural material corresponding to the loads imposed by lateral loads. Based on this approach, new structural systems are emerging to provide strength and stiffness with the minimum premium for height. In this research, selected tube-type structural systems such as framed tubes, braced tubes, diagrids and hexagrid systems were applied as a single tube, tubular structures combined with braced core and outrigger trusses on a set of 48, 72, and 96-story, respectively, to improve integrated structural systems. This paper investigated structural material consumption by model structures focusing on the premium for height. Compared analytical results indicated that as the height of the building increased, combination of the structural systems caused the framed tube, hexagrid and braced tube system to pay fewer premiums to material tonnage while in diagrid system, combining the structural system reduced insignificantly the steel material consumption.

Keywords: diagrid, braced tube, framed tube, hexagrid

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 517


[1] G. M. Montuori, E. Mele, G. Brandonisio, and A. De Luca, “Design criteria for diagrid tall buildings: stiffness versus strength”. Struct. Design Tall Spec. Build, 2014, vol 23, pp.1294–1314.
[2] F. R. Khan, “Recent structural systems in steel for high-rise buildings”, In Proceedings of the British Constructional Steelwork Association Conference on Steel in Architecture, London: British Constructional Steelwork Association. 1969.
[3] M. M. Ali, Art of the Skyscraper: The Genius of Fazlur Khan. New York: Rizzoli. 2001.
[4] C. C. Pouangare, and J. J. Connor, “New structural systems for tall buildings: the space- truss concept”, Struct. Design Tall Spec. Build, 1995, vol 4, pp. 155-168.
[5] K. S. Moon, “Sustainable structural engineering strategies for tall buildings”, Struct. Design Tall Spec. Build, 2008, vol 17, pp. 895–914.
[6] K. S. Moon, J. J. Connor, and J. E. Fernandez, Diagrid structural systems for tall buildings: characteristics and methodology for preliminary design. Struct. Design Tall Spec. Build., 2007, vol 16: pp. 205–230.
[7] K. S. Moon, “Sustainable structural engineering strategies for tall buildings”, Struct. Design Tall Spec. Build, 2008, vol 17, pp. 895–914.
[8] N. Mashhadiali, and A. Kheyroddin, “Proposing the hexagrid system as a new structural system for tall buildings”, Struct. Design Tall Spec. Build, 2013, vol 22, pp. 1310–1329.
[9] G. M. Montuori, M. Fadda, G. Perrella, and E. Mele, “Hexagrid – hexagonal tube structures for tall buildings: patterns, modeling, and design”. Struct. Design Tall Spec. Build., 2015, vol 24: pp. 912–940.
[10] N. Mashhadiali and A. Kheyroddin. “Progressive collapse assessment of new hexagrid structural system for tall buildings”. Struct. Design Tall Spec. Build, 2014, vol 23: 947–961.
[11] N. Mashhadiali, A. Kheyroddin, and R. Zahiri-Hashemi, “Dynamic increase factor for investigation of progressive collapse potential in tall tube-type buildings”, J. Perform. Constr. Facil., 2016, vol 30
[12] K. S. Moon, “Stiffness-based design methodology for steel braced tube structures: a sustainable approach”, Eng. Struct., 2010, vol 32, pp. 3163–3170.
[13] K. S. Moon, “Sustainable design of braced tube structures: The role of geometric configuration”, Int. J. Sustain. Build. Technol. Urban Dev., 2011, vol 2, pp. 229-236.
[14] K. S. Moon, “Sustainable structural systems and configurations for tall buildings,” Archit. Eng. Conf., 2011, pp. 196-203
[15] K. S. Moon, “Comparative efficiency of structural systems for steel tall buildings”. Int. J. Sustain. Build. Technol. Urban Dev., 2014, vol 5, 230-237.
[16] Taranath, Structural Analysis and Design of Tall Buildings: Steel and Composite Construction, New York: McGraw-Hill. 1998.
[17] K. Al-Kodmany, Eco-Towers: Sustainable Cities in the Sky. WIT Press. 2015.
[18] K., Kwon, M. Jung, and J. Kim, “Collapse behavior of mega-frame buildings”, EUROSTEEL. 2011.
[19] SAP2000 (Computer software), Berkeley, CA, Computers and Structures. 2009.
[20] ASCE/SEI 7-10, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and other Structures. American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA. 2010.
[21] AISC, Manual of steel construction, load and resistance factor design, 14th Ed., Chicago. 2010.
[22] J. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Seismic performance evaluation of diagrid system buildings”, Struct. Design Tall Spec. Build, 2012, vol 21, 736–749.
[23] M. M. Ali and K. S. Moon, “Structural development in tall buildings: currents trends and future prospects”, Archit. Sci. Rev, 2007, vol 50, 205–223.