Search results for: Bone scaffold
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 146

Search results for: Bone scaffold

146 Finite Element Analysis of Different Architectures for Bone Scaffold

Authors: Nimisha R. Shirbhate, Sanjay Bokade

Abstract:

Bone Scaffolds are fundamental architecture or a support structure that allows the regeneration of lost or damaged tissues and they are developed as a crucial tool in biomedical engineering. The structure of bone scaffolds plays an important role in treating bone defects. The shape of the bone scaffold performs a vital role, specifically pore size and shape, which help understand the behavior and strength of the scaffold. In this article, first, fundamental aspects of bone scaffold design are established. Second, the behavior of each architecture of the bone scaffold with biomaterials is discussed. Finally, for each structure, the stress analysis was carried out. This study aimed to design a porous and mechanically strong bone regeneration scaffold that can be successfully manufactured. Four porous architectures of the bone scaffold were designed using Rhinoceros solid modelling software. The structure model consisted of repeatable unit cells arranged in layers to fill the chosen scaffold volume. The mechanical behavior of used biocompatible material is studied with the help of ANSYS 19.2 software. It is also playing significant role to predict the strength of defined structures or 3 dimensional models.

Keywords: Bone scaffold, stress analysis, porous structure, static loading.

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145 Osteogenesis by Dextran Coating on and among Fibers of a Polyvinyl Formal Sponge

Authors: M. Yoshikawa, N. Tsuji, T. Yabuuchi, Y Shimomura, H. Kakigi, H. Hayashi, H. Ohgushi

Abstract:

A scaffold is necessary for tooth regeneration because of its three-dimensional geometry. For restoration of defect, it is necessary for the scaffold to be prepared in the shape of the defect. Sponges made from polyvinyl alcohol with formalin cross-linking (PVF sponge) have been used for scaffolds for bone formation in vivo. To induce osteogenesis within the sponge, methods of growing rat bone marrow cells (rBMCs) among the fiber structures in the sponge might be considered. Storage of rBMCs among the fibers in the sponge coated with dextran (10 kDa) was tried. After seeding of rBMCs to PVF sponge immersed in dextran solution at 2 g/dl concentration, osteogenesis was recognized in subcutaneously implanted PVF sponge as a scaffold in vivo. The level of osteocalcin was 25.28±5.71 ng/scaffold and that of Ca was 129.20±19.69 µg/scaffold. These values were significantly higher than those in sponges without dextran coating (p<0.01). Osteogenesis was induced in many spaces in the inner structure of the sponge with dextran coated fibers.

Keywords: Dextran, Polyvinyl formal sponge, Osteogenesis, Scaffold.

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144 Bioceramic Scaffolds Fabrication by Rapid Prototyping Technology

Authors: F.H. Liu, S.H. Chen, R.T. Lee, W.S. Lin, Y.S. Liao

Abstract:

This paper describes a rapid prototyping (RP) technology for forming a hydroxyapatite (HA) bone scaffold model. The HA powder and a silica sol are mixed into bioceramic slurry form under a suitable viscosity. The HA particles are embedded in the solidified silica matrix to form green parts via a wide range of process parameters after processing by selective laser sintering (SLS). The results indicate that the proposed process was possible to fabricate multilayers and hollow shell structure with brittle property but sufficient integrity for handling prior to post-processing. The fabricated bone scaffold models had a surface finish of 25

Keywords: bioceramic, bone scaffold, rapid prototyping, selective laser sintering

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143 Effect of Copper Ions Doped-Hydroxyapatite 3D Fiber Scaffold

Authors: Adil Elrayah, Jie Weng, Esra Suliman

Abstract:

The mineral in human bone is not pure stoichiometric calcium phosphate (Ca/P) as it is partially substituted by in organic elements. In this study, the copper ions (Cu2+) substituted hydroxyapatite (CuHA) powder has been synthesized by the co-precipitation method. The CuHA powder has been used to fabricate CuHA fiber scaffolds by sol-gel process and the following sinter process. The resulted CuHA fibers have slightly different microstructure (i.e. porosity) compared to HA fiber scaffold, which is denser. The mechanical properties test was used to evaluate CuHA, and the results showed decreases in both compression strength and hardness tests. Moreover, the in vitro used endothelial cells to evaluate the angiogenesis of CuHA. The result illustrated that the viability of endothelial cell on CuHA fiber scaffold surfaces tends to antigenic behavior. The results obtained with CuHA scaffold give this material benefit in biological applications such as antimicrobial, antitumor, antigens, compacts, filling cavities of the tooth and for the deposition of metal implants anti-tumor, anti-cancer, bone filler, and scaffold.

Keywords: Fiber scaffold, copper ions, hydroxyapatite, hardness, in vitro, mechanical properties.

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142 Synthesis and Physicochemical Characterization of Biomimetic Scaffold of Gelatin/Zn-Incorporated 58S Bioactive Glass

Authors: Seyed Mohammad Hosseini, Amirhossein Moghanian

Abstract:

The main purpose of this research was to design a biomimetic system by freeze-drying method for evaluating the effect of adding 5 and 10 mol. % of zinc (Zn) in 58S bioactive glass and gelatin (5ZnBG/G and 10ZnBG/G) in terms of structural and biological changes. The structural analyses of samples were performed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Also, 3-(4,5dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity tests were carried out for investigation of MC3T3-E1 cell behaviors. The SEM results demonstrated the spherical shape of the formed hydroxyapatite (HA) phases and also HA characteristic peaks were detected by XRD spectroscopy after 3 days of immersion in the simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. Meanwhile, FTIR spectra proved that the intensity of P–O peaks for 5ZnBG/G was more than 10ZnBG/G and control samples. Moreover, the results of ALP activity test illustrated that the optimal amount of Zn (5ZnBG/G) caused a considerable enhancement in bone cell growth. Taken together, the scaffold with 5 mol.% Zn was introduced as an optimal sample because of its higher biocompatibility, in vitro bioactivity and growth of MC3T3-E1 cells in comparison with other samples in bone tissue engineering.

Keywords: Scaffold, gelatin, modified bioactive glass, ALP, bone tissue engineering.

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141 Induced Bone Tissue Temperature in Drilling Procedures: A Comparative Laboratory Study with and without Lubrication

Authors: L. Roseiro, C. Veiga, V. Maranha, A.Neto, N. Laraqi, A. Baïri, N. Alilat

Abstract:

In orthopedic surgery there are various situations in which the surgeon needs to implement methods of cutting and drilling the bone. With this type of procedure the generated friction leads to a localized increase in temperature, which may lead to the bone necrosis. Recognizing the importance of studying this phenomenon, an experimental evaluation of the temperatures developed during the procedure of drilling bone has been done. Additionally the influence of the use of the procedure with / without additional lubrication during drilling of bone has also been done. The obtained results are presented and discussed and suggests an advantage in using additional lubrication as a way to minimize the appearance of bone tissue necrosis during bone drilling procedures.

Keywords: Bone Necrosis, Bone Drilling, Thermography.

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140 Bone Ash Impact on Soil Shear Strength

Authors: G. M. Ayininuola, A. O. Sogunro

Abstract:

Most failures of soil have been attributed to poor shear strength. Consequently, the present paper investigated the suitability of cattle bone ash as a possible additive to improve the shear strength of soils. Four soil samples were collected and stabilized with prepared bone ash in proportions of 3%, 5%, 7%, 10%, 15% and 20% by dry weight. Chemical analyses of the bone ash; followed by classification, compaction, and triaxial shear tests of the treated soil samples were conducted. Results obtained showed that bone ash contained high proportion of calcium oxide and phosphate. Addition of bone ash to soil samples led to increase in soil shear strengths within the range of 22.40% to 105.18% over the strengths of the respective control tests. Conversely, all samples attained maximum shear strengths at 7% bone ash stabilization. The use of bone ash as an additive will therefore improve the shear strength of soils; however, using bone ash quantities in excess of 7% may not yield ample results.

Keywords: Bone ash, Shear strength, Stabilization, Soil.

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139 Numerical Simulation of Bio-Chemical Diffusion in Bone Scaffolds

Authors: Masoud Madadelahi, Amir Shamloo, Seyedeh Sara Salehi

Abstract:

Previously, some materials like solid metals and their alloys have been used as implants in human’s body. In order to amend fixation of these artificial hard human tissues, some porous structures have been introduced. In this way, tissues in vicinity of the porous structure can be attached more easily to the inserted implant. In particular, the porous bone scaffolds are useful since they can deliver important biomolecules like growth factors and proteins. This study focuses on the properties of the degradable porous hard tissues using a three-dimensional numerical Finite Element Method (FEM). The most important studied properties of these structures are diffusivity flux and concentration of different species like glucose, oxygen, and lactate. The process of cells migration into the scaffold is considered as a diffusion process, and related parameters are studied for different values of production/consumption rates.

Keywords: Bone scaffolds, diffusivity, numerical simulation, tissue engineering.

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138 Fabrication of Tissue Engineering Scaffolds Using Rapid Prototyping Techniques

Authors: Osama A. Abdelaal, Saied M. Darwish

Abstract:

Rapid prototyping (RP) techniques are a group of advanced manufacturing processes that can produce custom made objects directly from computer data such as Computer Aided Design (CAD), Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data. Using RP fabrication techniques, constructs with controllable and complex internal architecture with appropriate mechanical properties can be achieved. One of the attractive and promising utilization of RP techniques is related to tissue engineering (TE) scaffold fabrication. Tissue engineering scaffold is a 3D construction that acts as a template for tissue regeneration. Although several conventional techniques such as solvent casting and gas forming are utilized in scaffold fabrication; these processes show poor interconnectivity and uncontrollable porosity of the produced scaffolds. So, RP techniques become the best alternative fabrication methods of TE scaffolds. This paper reviews the current state of the art in the area of tissue engineering scaffolds fabrication using advanced RP processes, as well as the current limitations and future trends in scaffold fabrication RP techniques.

Keywords: Biomanufacturing, Rapid prototyping, Solid FreeForm Fabrication, Scaffold Fabrication, Tissue Engineering

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137 Design Improvement of Dental Implant-Based on Bone Remodelling

Authors: Solehuddin Shuib, Koay Boon Aik, Zainul Ahmad Rajion

Abstract:

There are many types of mechanical failure on the dental implant. In this project, the failure that needs to take into consideration is the bone resorption on the dental implant. Human bone has its ability to remodel after the implantation. As the dental implant is installed into the bone, the bone will detect and change the bone structure to achieve new biomechanical environment. This phenomenon is known as bone remodeling. The objective of the project is to improve the performance of dental implant by using different types of design. These designs are used to analyze and predict the failure of the dental implant by using finite element analysis (FEA) namely ANSYS. The bone is assumed to be fully attached to the implant or cement. Hence, results are then compared with other researchers. The results were presented in the form of Von Mises stress, normal stress, shear stress analysis, and displacement. The selected design will be analyzed further based on a theoretical calculation of bone remodeling on the dental implant. The results have shown that the design constructed passed the failure analysis. Therefore, the selected design is proven to have a stable performance at the recovery stage.

Keywords: Dental implant, FEA, bone remodeling, osseointegration.

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136 Modeling of Bio Scaffolds: Structural and Fluid Transport Characterization

Authors: Sahba Sadir, M. R. A. Kadir, A. Öchsner, M. N. Harun

Abstract:

Scaffolds play a key role in tissue engineering and can be produced in many different ways depending on the applications and the materials used. Most researchers used an experimental trialand- error approach into new biomaterials but computer simulation applied to tissue engineering can offer a more exhaustive approach to test and screen out biomaterials. This paper develops the model of scaffolds and Computational Fluid Dynamics that show the value of computer simulations in determining the influence of the geometrical scaffold parameter porosity, pore size and shape on the permeability of scaffolds, magnitude of velocity, drop pressure, shear stress distribution and level and the proper design of the geometry of the scaffold. This creates a need for more advanced studies that include aspects of dynamic conditions of a micro fluid passing through the scaffold were characterized for tissue engineering applications and differentiation of tissues within scaffolds.

Keywords: Scaffold engineering, Tissue engineering, Cellularstructure, Biomaterial, Computational fluid dynamics.

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135 How the Decrease of Collagen or Mineral Affect the Fracture in the Turkey Long Bones

Authors: P. Vosynek, T. Návrat, M. Peč, J. Pořízka, P. Diviš

Abstract:

Bone properties and response behavior after static or dynamic activation (loading) are still interesting topics in many fields of the science especially in the biomechanical problems such as bone loss of astronauts in space, osteoporosis, bone remodeling after fracture or remodeling after surgery (endoprosthesis and implants) and in osteointegration. This contribution deals with the relation between physiological, demineralized and deproteinized state of the turkey long bone – tibia. Three methods for comparison were used: 1) densitometry, 2) three point bending and 3) frequency analysis. The main goal of this work was to describe the decrease of the protein (collagen) or mineral of the bone with relation to the fracture in three point bending. The comparison is linked to the problem of different bone mechanical behavior in physiological and osteoporotic state.

Keywords: Bone properties, long bone, osteoporosis, response behavior.

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134 Comparative Study of Tensile Properties of Cortical Bone Using Sub-size Specimens and Finite Element Simulation

Authors: N. K. Sharma, J. Nayak, D. K. Sehgal, R. K. Pandey

Abstract:

Bone material is treated as heterogeneous and hierarchical in nature therefore appropriate size of bone specimen is required to analyze its tensile properties at a particular hierarchical level. Tensile properties of cortical bone are important to investigate the effect of drug treatment, disease and aging as well as for development of computational and analytical models. In the present study tensile properties of buffalo as well as goat femoral and tibiae cortical bone are analyzed using sub-size tensile specimens. Femoral cortical bone was found to be stronger in tension as compared to the tibiae cortical bone and the tensile properties obtained using sub-size specimens show close resemblance with the tensile properties of full-size cortical specimens. A two dimensional finite element (FE) modal was also applied to simulate the tensile behavior of sub-size specimens. Good agreement between experimental and FE model was obtained for sub-size tensile specimens of cortical bone.

Keywords: Cortical bone, sub-size specimen, full size specimen, finite element modeling.

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133 Design of Polyetheretherketone Fixation Plates for Fractured Distal Femur

Authors: Abhishek Soni, Bhagat Singh

Abstract:

In the present study, a methodology has been proposed to treat fracture in the distal part of the femur bone. Initially, bone model has been developed using the computed tomography scan data of the fractured bone. This information has been further used to create polyether ether ketone (PEEK) implant for this fractured bone. Damaged bone and implant models have been assembled. This assembled model has been further analyzed for stress distribution. Moreover, deformation developed was also measured. It has been observed that the stress and deformation developed was not so appreciable. Thus, it proves that the aforementioned procedure can be suitably adopted for the treatment of fractured distal femur bone.

Keywords: Distal femur, fixation plates, PEEK, reverse engineering.

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132 Characterization of Fish Bone Catalyst for Biodiesel Production

Authors: Sarina Sulaiman, N. Khairudin, P. Jamal, M. Z. Alam, Zaki Zainudin, S. Azmi

Abstract:

In this study, fish bone waste was used as a new catalyst for biodiesel production. Instead of discarding the fish bone waste, it will be utilized as a source for catalyst that can provide significant benefit to the environment. Also, it can be substitute as a calcium oxide source instead of using eggshell, crab shell and snail shell. The XRD and SEM analysis proved that calcined fish bone contains calcium oxide, calcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite. The catalyst was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD).

Keywords: Calcinations, fish bone, transesterification, waste catalyst.

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131 Viscoelastic Characterization of Bovine Trabecular Bone Samples

Authors: Ramirez D. Edgar I., Angeles H. José J., Ruiz C. Osvaldo, Jacobo A. Victor H., Ortiz P. Armando

Abstract:

Knowledge of bone mechanical properties is important for bone substitutes design and fabrication, and more efficient prostheses development. The aim of this study is to characterize the viscoelastic behavior of bone specimens, through stress relaxation and fatigue tests performed to trabecular bone samples from bovine femoral heads. Relaxation tests consisted on preloading the samples at five different magnitudes and evaluate them for 1020 seconds, adjusting the results to a KWW mathematical model. Fatigue tests consisted of 700 load cycles and analyze their status at the end of the tests. As a conclusion we have that between relaxation stress and each preload there is linear relation and for samples with initial Young´s modulus greater than 1.5 GPa showed no effects due fatigue test loading cycles.

Keywords: Bone viscoelasticity, fatigue test, stress relaxation test, trabecular bone properties.

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130 A Composite Developed from a Methyl Methacrylate and Embedded Eppawala Hydroxyapatite for Orthopedics

Authors: H. K. G. K. D. K. Hapuhinna, R. D. Gunaratne, H. M. J. C. Pitawala

Abstract:

This study aimed to find out chemical and structural suitability of synthesized eppawala hydroxyapatite composite as bone cement, by comparing and contrasting it with human bone as well as commercially available bone cement, which is currently used in orthopedic surgeries. Therefore, a mixture of commercially available bone cement and its liquid monomer, commercially available methyl methacrylate (MMA) and a mixture of solid state synthesized eppawala hydroxyapatite powder with commercially available MMA were prepared as the direct substitution for bone cement. Then physical and chemical properties including composition, crystallinity, presence of functional groups, thermal stability, surface morphology, and microstructural features were examined compared to human bone. Results show that there is a close similarity between synthesized product and human bone and it has exhibited high thermal stability, good crystalline and porous properties than the commercial product. Finally, the study concluded that synthesized hydroxyapatite composite can be used directly as a substitution for commercial bone cement.

Keywords: Hydroxyapatite, bone cement, methyl methacrylate, orthopedics.

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129 Epidemiology of Bone Hydatidosis in Eastern Libya from 1995 to 2013

Authors: Sadek Makhlouf, Hassan M. Nouh

Abstract:

Bone hydatidosis is an infection in worldwide distribution. Although there is no evidence in literature on Bone Hydatid disease in Libya, we tried to present the first Epidemiological study of this disease in Eastern Libya through retrospective study from 1995 to 2013. Our data were collected from 3 hospitals in Eastern Libya particularly the sheep-raising areas with total number of musculoskeletal infection cases of two thousand one hundred ninety four (2,194). There were five (5) five cases of bone infection, four (4) of it have been diagnosed after more than three (3) months.  Our study is comparable to other international study but this type of bone infection need further studies for effective control strategies for all dogs to avoid serious complications that might happened from the delay in diagnosing this type of disease.

Keywords: Bone infection, Hydatidosis, Eastern Libya, Sheep-raising areas.

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128 Comparison of Valuation Techniques for Bone Age Assessment

Authors: N. Olarte L, A. Rubiano F, A. Mejía F.

Abstract:

This comparison of valuation techniques for bone age assessment is a work carried out by the Telemedicine Research Group of the Military University - TIGUM, as a preliminary to the Design and development a treatment system of hand and wrist radiological images for children aged 0-6 years to bone age assessment . In this paper the techniques mentioned for decades have been the most widely used and the statistically significant. Althought, initially with the current project, it wants to work with children who have limit age, this comparison and evaluation techniques work will help in the future to expand the study subject in the system to bone age assessment, implementing more techniques, tools and deeper analysis to accomplish this purpose.

Keywords: Atlas, Bone Age Assessment, Hand and Wrist Radiograph, Image Processing

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127 Compressive Properties of a Synthetic Bone Substitute for Vertebral Cancellous Bone

Authors: H. N. Mehmanparast, J.M. Mac-Thiong., Y. Petit

Abstract:

Transpedicular screw fixation in spinal fractures, degenerative changes, or deformities is a well-established procedure. However, important rate of fixation failure due to screw bending, loosening, or pullout are still reported particularly in weak bone stock in osteoporosis. To overcome the problem, mechanism of failure has to be fully investigated in vitro. Post-mortem human subjects are less accessible and animal cadavers comprise limitations due to different geometry and mechanical properties. Therefore, the development of a synthetic model mimicking the realistic human vertebra is highly demanded. A bone surrogate, composed of Polyurethane (PU) foam analogous to cancellous bone porous structure, was tested for 3 different densities in this study. The mechanical properties were investigated under uniaxial compression test by minimizing the end artifacts on specimens. The results indicated that PU foam of 0.32 g.cm-3 density has comparable mechanical properties to human cancellous bone in terms of young-s modulus and yield strength. Therefore, the obtained information can be considered as primary step for developing a realistic cancellous bone of human vertebral body. Further evaluations are also recommended for other density groups.

Keywords: Cancellous bone, Pedicle screw, Polyurethane foam, Synthetic bone

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126 Ultrasonic Evaluation of Bone Callus Growth in a Rabbit Tibial Distraction Model

Authors: H.K. Luk, Y.M. Lai, L. Qin, C.W. Chan, Z. Liu, Y.P. Huang, Y.P. Zheng

Abstract:

Ultrasound is useful in demonstrating bone mineral density of regenerating osseous tissue as well as structural alterations. A proposed ultrasound method, which included ultrasonography and acoustic parameters measurement, was employed to evaluate its efficacy in monitoring the bone callus changes in a rabbit tibial distraction osteogenesis (DO) model. The findings demonstrated that ultrasonographic images depicted characteristic changes of the bone callus, typical of histology findings, during the distraction phase. Follow-up acoustic parameters measurement of the bone callus, including speed of sound, reflection and attenuation, showed significant linear changes over time during the distraction phase. The acoustic parameters obtained during the distraction phase also showed moderate to strong correlation with consolidated bone callus density and micro-architecture measured by micro-computed tomography at the end of the consolidation phase. The results support the preferred use of ultrasound imaging in the early monitoring of bone callus changes during DO treatment.

Keywords: Bone Callus Growth, Rabbit Tibial DistractionOsteogenesis, Ultrasonography, Ultrasonometry

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125 Alteration of Bone Strength in Osteoporosis of Mouse Femora: Computational Study Based on Micro CT Images

Authors: Changsoo Chon, Sangkuy Han, Donghyun Seo, Jihyung Park, Bokku Kang, Hansung Kim, Keyoungjin Chun, Cheolwoong Ko

Abstract:

The purpose of the study is to develop a finite element model based on 3D bone structural images of Micro-CT and to analyze the stress distribution for the osteoporosis mouse femora. In this study, results of finite element analysis show that the early osteoporosis of mouse model decreased a bone density in trabecular region; however, the bone density in cortical region increased.

Keywords: Micro-CT, finite element analysis, osteoporosis, bone strength.

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124 Optimization of Mechanical Properties of Alginate Hydrogel for 3D Bio-Printing Self-Standing Scaffold Architecture for Tissue Engineering Applications

Authors: Ibtisam A. Abbas Al-Darkazly

Abstract:

In this study, the mechanical properties of alginate hydrogel material for self-standing 3D scaffold architecture with proper shape fidelity are investigated. In-lab built 3D bio-printer extrusion-based technology is utilized to fabricate 3D alginate scaffold constructs. The pressure, needle speed and stage speed are varied using a computer-controlled system. The experimental result indicates that the concentration of alginate solution, calcium chloride (CaCl2) cross-linking concentration and cross-linking ratios lead to the formation of alginate hydrogel with various gelation states. Besides, the gelling conditions, such as cross-linking reaction time and temperature also have a significant effect on the mechanical properties of alginate hydrogel. Various experimental tests such as the material gelation, the material spreading and the printability test for filament collapse as well as the swelling test were conducted to evaluate the fabricated 3D scaffold constructs. The result indicates that the fabricated 3D scaffold from composition of 3.5% wt alginate solution, that is prepared in DI water and 1% wt CaCl2 solution with cross-linking ratios of 7:3 show good printability and sustain good shape fidelity for more than 20 days, compared to alginate hydrogel that is prepared in a phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The fabricated self-standing 3D scaffold constructs measured 30 mm × 30 mm and consisted of 4 layers (n = 4) show good pore geometry and clear grid structure after printing. In addition, the percentage change of swelling degree exhibits high swelling capability with respect to time. The swelling test shows that the geometry of 3D alginate-scaffold construct and of the macro-pore are rarely changed, which indicates the capability of holding the shape fidelity during the incubation period. This study demonstrated that the mechanical and physical properties of alginate hydrogel could be tuned for a 3D bio-printing extrusion-based system to fabricate self-standing 3D scaffold soft structures. This 3D bioengineered scaffold provides a natural microenvironment present in the extracellular matrix of the tissue, which could be seeded with the biological cells to generate the desired 3D live tissue model for in vitro and in vivo tissue engineering applications.

Keywords: Biomaterial, calcium chloride, 3D bio-printing, extrusion, scaffold, sodium alginate, tissue engineering.

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123 Development of an Artificial Ear for Bone-Conducted Objective Occlusion Measurement

Authors: Yu Luan

Abstract:

The bone-conducted objective occlusion effect (OE) is characterized by a discomforting sensation of fullness experienced in an occluded ear. This phenomenon arises from various external stimuli, such as human speech, chewing, and walking, which generate vibrations transmitted through the body to the ear canal walls. The bone-conducted OE occurs due to the pressure build-up inside the occluded ear caused by sound radiating into the ear canal cavity from its walls. In the hearing aid industry, artificial ears are utilized as a tool for developing hearing aids. However, the currently available commercial artificial ears primarily focus on pure acoustics measurements, neglecting the bone-conducted vibration aspect. This research endeavors to develop an artificial ear specifically designed for bone-conducted occlusion measurements. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) modeling has been employed to gain insights into the behavior of the artificial ear.

Keywords: Artificial ear, bone conducted vibration, occlusion measurement, Finite Element Modeling.

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122 Bone Mineral Density and Quality, Body Composition of Women in the Postmenopausal Period

Authors: Vladyslav Povoroznyuk, Oksana Ivanyk, Nataliia Dzerovych

Abstract:

In the diagnostics of osteoporosis, the gold standard is considered to be bone mineral density; however, X-ray densitometry is not an accurate indicator of osteoporotic fracture risk under all circumstances. In this regard, the search for new methods that could determine the indicators not only of the mineral density, but of the bone tissue quality, is a logical step for diagnostic optimization. One of these methods is the evaluation of trabecular bone quality. The aim of this study was to examine the quality and mineral density of spine bone tissue, femoral neck, and body composition of women depending on the duration of the postmenopausal period, to determine the correlation of body fat with indicators of bone mineral density and quality. The study examined 179 women in premenopausal and postmenopausal periods. The patients were divided into the following groups: Women in the premenopausal period and women in the postmenopausal period at various stages (early, middle, late postmenopause). A general examination and study of the above parameters were conducted with General Electric X-ray densitometer. The results show that bone quality and mineral density probably deteriorate with advancing of postmenopausal period. Total fat and lean mass ratio is not likely to change with age. In the middle and late postmenopausal periods, the bone tissue mineral density of the spine and femoral neck increases along with total fat mass.

Keywords: Osteoporosis, bone tissue mineral density, bone quality, fat mass, lean mass, postmenopausal osteoporosis.

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121 Design of Hydroxyapatite-Polyetheretherketone Fixation Plates for Diaphysis Femur Fracture

Authors: Abhishek Soni, Bhagat Singh

Abstract:

In this study, scanned data of a damaged femur diaphysis are used to generate three dimensional model of the bone. Further, customized implant of Hydroxyapatite-Polyetheretherketone (HA-PEEK) material for this damaged bone is prepared using CAD modeling. Damaged bone and implant have been assembled to prepare the intact bone. This assembled model has been analyzed to evaluate the stresses and deformation developed during the static loading. It has been observed that these stresses and deformation are very less thus imply that the proposed method of preparing implant is appropriate.

Keywords: Customized implant, deformation, femur diaphysis, stress.

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120 In vitro Study of Laser Diode Radiation Effect on the Photo-Damage of MCF-7 and MCF-10A Cell Clusters

Authors: A. Dashti, M. Eskandari, L. Farahmand, P. Parvin, A. Jafargholi

Abstract:

Breast Cancer is one of the most considerable diseases in the United States and other countries and is the second leading cause of death in women. Common breast cancer treatments would lead to adverse side effects such as loss of hair, nausea, and weakness. These complications arise because these cancer treatments damage some healthy cells while eliminating the cancer cells. In an effort to address these complications, laser radiation was utilized and tested as a targeted cancer treatment for breast cancer. In this regard, tissue engineering approaches are being employed by using an electrospun scaffold in order to facilitate the growth of breast cancer cells. Polycaprolacton (PCL) was used as a material for scaffold fabricating because of its biocompatibility, biodegradability, and supporting cell growth. The specific breast cancer cells have the ability to create a three-dimensional cell cluster due to the spontaneous accumulation of cells in the porosity of the scaffold under some specific conditions. Therefore, we are looking for a higher density of porosity and larger pore size. Fibers showed uniform diameter distribution and final scaffold had optimum characteristics with approximately 40% porosity. The images were taken by SEM and the density and the size of the porosity were determined with the Image. After scaffold preparation, it has cross-linked by glutaraldehyde. Then, it has been washed with glycine and phosphate buffer saline (PBS), in order to neutralize the residual glutaraldehyde. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromidefor (MTT) results have represented approximately 91.13% viability of the scaffolds for cancer cells. In order to create a cluster, Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7, breast cancer cell line) and Michigan Cancer Foundation-10A (MCF-10A, human mammary epithelial cell line) cells were cultured on the scaffold in 24 well plate for five days. Then, we have exposed the cluster to the laser diode 808 nm radiation to investigate the effect of laser on the tumor with different power and time. Under the same conditions, cancer cells lost their viability more than the healthy ones. In conclusion, laser therapy is a viable method to destroy the target cells and has a minimum effect on the healthy tissues and cells and it can improve the other method of cancer treatments limitations.

Keywords: Breast cancer, electrospun scaffold, polycaprolacton, laser diode, cancer treatment.

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119 Numerical Modelling of Effective Diffusivity in Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: Ayesha Sohail, Khadija Maqbool, Anila Asif, Haroon Ahmad

Abstract:

These days, the field of tissue engineering is getting serious attention due to its usefulness. Bone tissue engineering helps to address and sort-out the critical sized and non-healing orthopedic problems by the creation of manmade bone tissue. We will design and validate an efficient numerical model, which will simulate the effective diffusivity in bone tissue engineering. Our numerical model will be based on the finite element analysis of the diffusion-reaction equations. It will have the ability to optimize the diffusivity, even at multi-scale, with the variation of time. It will also have a special feature “parametric sweep”, with which we will be able to predict the oxygen, glucose and cell density dynamics, more accurately. We will fix these problems by modifying the governing equations, by selecting appropriate spatio-temporal finite element schemes and by transient analysis.

Keywords: Bone tissue engineering, Transient Analysis, Scaffolds, fabrication techniques.

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118 Trabecular Bone Radiograph Characterization Using Fractal, Multifractal Analysis and SVM Classifier

Authors: I. Slim, H. Akkari, A. Ben Abdallah, I. Bhouri, M. Hedi Bedoui

Abstract:

Osteoporosis is a common disease characterized by low bone mass and deterioration of micro-architectural bone tissue, which provokes an increased risk of fracture. This work treats the texture characterization of trabecular bone radiographs. The aim was to analyze according to clinical research a group of 174 subjects: 87 osteoporotic patients (OP) with various bone fracture types and 87 control cases (CC). To characterize osteoporosis, Fractal and MultiFractal (MF) methods were applied to images for features (attributes) extraction. In order to improve the results, a new method of MF spectrum based on the q-stucture function calculation was proposed and a combination of Fractal and MF attributes was used. The Support Vector Machines (SVM) was applied as a classifier to distinguish between OP patients and CC subjects. The features fusion (fractal and MF) allowed a good discrimination between the two groups with an accuracy rate of 96.22%.

Keywords: Fractal, micro-architecture analysis, multifractal, SVM, osteoporosis.

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117 Modeling of Bisphenol A (BPA) Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

Authors: Mohammad Ali Zazouli, Farzaneh Veisi, Amir Veisi

Abstract:

Bisphenol A (BPA) is an organic synthetic compound that has many applications in various industries and is known as persistent pollutant. The aim of this research was to evaluate the efficiency of bone ash and banana peel as adsorbents for BPA adsorption from aqueous solution by using Response Surface Methodology. The effects of some variables such as sorbent dose, detention time, solution pH, and BPA concentration on the sorption efficiency was examined. All analyses were carried out according to Standard Methods. The sample size was performed using Box-Benken design and also optimization of BPA removal was done using response surface methodology (RSM). The results showed that the BPA adsorption increases with increasing of contact time and BPA concentration. However, it decreases with higher pH. More adsorption efficiency of a banana peel is very smaller than a bone ash so that BPA removal for bone ash and banana peel is 62 and 28 percent, respectively. It is concluded that a bone ash has a good ability for the BPA adsorption.

Keywords: Adsorbent, banana peel, bisphenol A (BPA), bone ash, wastewater treatment.

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