A Composite Developed from a Methyl Methacrylate and Embedded Eppawala Hydroxyapatite for Orthopedics
This study aimed to find out chemical and structural suitability of synthesized eppawala hydroxyapatite composite as bone cement, by comparing and contrasting it with human bone as well as commercially available bone cement, which is currently used in orthopedic surgeries. Therefore, a mixture of commercially available bone cement and its liquid monomer, commercially available methyl methacrylate (MMA) and a mixture of solid state synthesized eppawala hydroxyapatite powder with commercially available MMA were prepared as the direct substitution for bone cement. Then physical and chemical properties including composition, crystallinity, presence of functional groups, thermal stability, surface morphology, and microstructural features were examined compared to human bone. Results show that there is a close similarity between synthesized product and human bone and it has exhibited high thermal stability, good crystalline and porous properties than the commercial product. Finally, the study concluded that synthesized hydroxyapatite composite can be used directly as a substitution for commercial bone cement.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3299569Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 127
 Anon, Eppawala Rock Phosphate Deposit and Processing Plant. Wicky's Blog. Available at: http://slminerals.blogspot.com/2015/09/eppawalarock-phosphate-deposit-and.html (Accessed September 20, 2017).
 Hapuhinna, H.; Gunaratne, R.; Pitawala, H. (2018), 'Development of a Biomaterial from Naturally Occurring Chloroapatite Mineral for Biomedical Applications', World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, International Science Index 140, International Journal of Chemical, Molecular, Nuclear, Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, 12(8), 380 - 388.
 Hapuhinna, H., Gunaratne, R., Pitawala, H., Wijesekara, K. and Ekanayake, E. (2017). Synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite from Eppawala Rock Phosphate for Biomedical Applications as a value added product. (online). Available from: Tradmed International (International Symposium on Traditional and complementary Medicine.
 Anon, Industries from Eppawala phosphate deposit. Online edition of Daily News - Features. Available at: http://archives.dailynews.lk/2003/03/07/fea13.html (Accessed September 6, 2017).
 Ratnayake, S. P. & Navaratna, A. N., Spectroscopic Determination of Metal Impurities in Commercial Raw Material Fertiliser of Sri Lanka. Researchgate. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/ (Accessed September 4, 2017).
 Kalita SJ, Bhardwaj A, Bhatt HA. Nanocrystalline calcium phosphate ceramics in biomedical engineering. Materials Science and Engineering:C. 2007;27(3):441-9.
 M., E. (2011). Hydroxyapatite-Based Materials: Synthesis and Characterization. Biomedical Engineering - Frontiers and Challenges.
 V. P., Komlev, V. S. & Barinov, S. M., Hydroxyapatite and Hydroxyapatite-Based Ceramics. Available at: http://www2.chemia.uj.edu.pl/~skorska/Biomaterialy/hap/Orlovskii.pdf (Accessed September 4, 2017).
 Mostafa NY, Brown PW. Computer simulation of stoichiometric hydroxyapatite: Structure and substitutions. Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids. 2007;68(3):431-7.
 Teixeira S, Rodriguez MA, Pena P, De Aza AH, De Aza S, Ferraz MP, et al. Physical characterization of hydroxyapatite porous scaffolds for tissue engineering. Materials Science and Engineering: C. 2009;29(5):1510-4.
 Zobnenovice. review. (2017). Hydroxyapatite: properties, uses and applications | FLUIDINOVA. (online) Available at: http://zobnenovice.review/ (Accessed 25 Sep. 2017).
 Guo L, Huang M, Zhang X. Effects of sintering temperature on structure of hydroxyapatite studied with Rietveld method. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine. 2003;14(9):817-22.
 Thamaraiselvi TV, Prabakaran K, Rajeswari S. Synthesis of hydroxyapatite that mimic bone mineralogy. Trends Biomater Artif Org. 2006; 19(2): 81-83.
 Shikhanzadeh M. Direct formation of nanophase hydroxyapatite on cathodically polarized electrodes. J Mater Sci: Mater Med. 1998; 9: 67-72.
 Case Study: Polymer Matrix Composites in Automobiles, Available at:
 Innovative Materials for Innovative Automobiles, Available at: < https://www.ceramtec.com/files/ca_innovative_materials_for_innovative _automobiles.pdf > (Accessed on 20th August 2017).
 Hapuhinna, H.; Gunaratne, R.; Pitawala, H. (2018), 'Development of a Biomaterial from Naturally Occurring Chloroapatite Mineral for Biomedical Applications', World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, International Science Index, Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, 12(8), 1827.
 Wei G, Ma PX. Structure and properties of nanohydroxyapatite/polymer composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Biomaterials. 2004; 25(19): 4749-57.
 Composites in Automotive Applications: Review on brake pads and discs by Chrysoula A. Aza, Available at:
 Ceramic Matrix Composites-Manufacturing and Applications in the Automotive Industry by Diego Bracho García, Available at:
 Composite Manufacturing, Available at:
 Sphinxsai.com. (2010). Hydroxyapatite Synthesis Methodologies: An Overview. (online) Available at: http://sphinxsai.com/s_v2_n2/CT_V.2No.2/ChemTech_Vol_2No.2_pdf/ CT=24%20(903-907).pdf (Accessed 25 Oct. 2010).
 Deptula A, Lada W, Olezak T, Borello A, Avani C, Dibartolomea A. Preparation of spherical powders of hydroxyapatite by sol gel processing. J Non-Cryst Solids. 1992; 147: 537-541.
 Li P, de Groot K. Better bioactive ceramics through sol-gel process. J Sol-gel Sci Technol.1994; 2: 797-801.
 Balamurugan, A., Kannan, S., Selvaraj, V. and Rajeswari, S. (2004). Development and Spectral Characterization of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate)/Hydroxyapatite Composite for Biomedical Applications. (online) Medind.nic.in. Available at: http://medind.nic.in/taa/t04/i1/taat04i1p41.pdf (Accessed 20 Dec. 2018).
 Heraeus.com. (2018). PALACOS R+G (high viscosity bone cement). (online) Available at: https://www.heraeus. com/kmedia/media/hme/doc_hme/products_me/palacos_bone_cement /r_rg_mv_mvg_lv_lvg/ifu/PALACOS_RG_IFU.pdf (Accessed 19 Dec. 2018).
 Irsmcascz. 2011. The Influence of CaO and P2O5 of Bone Ash upon the Reactivity and the Burnability of Cement Raw Mixtures. (Online). (31 July 2017). Available from: https://www.irsm.cas.cz/materialy/cs_content/2012/Ifka_CS_2012_0000.pdf.
 Hapuhinna, H., Gunaratne, R., Pitawala, H. (2018), ‘Development of a Biomaterial from Naturally Occurring Chloroapatite Mineral for Biomedical Applications’, International Journal of Chemical, Materials and Biomolecular Sciences, 11.0(8).
 Anon, 2015. Synthesis and modification of apatite nanoparticles for use in dental and medical applications. Japanese Dental Science Review. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science /article/pii/S1882761615000186 (Accessed September 9, 2017).
 Anon, (2018). Complex Analysis on Heat Treated Human Compact Bones. (online) Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/ 267710992_Complex_analysis_on_heat_treated_human_compact_bones(Accessed 22 Feb.2018).