Search results for: stress analysis
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9273

Search results for: stress analysis

9273 The Interaction between Hydrogen and Surface Stress in Stainless Steel

Authors: O. Takakuwa, Y. Mano, H. Soyama

Abstract:

This paper reveals the interaction between hydrogen and surface stress in austenitic stainless steel by X-ray diffraction stress measurement and thermal desorption analysis before and after being charged with hydrogen. The surface residual stress was varied by surface finishing using several disc polishing agents. The obtained results show that the residual stress near surface had a significant effect on hydrogen absorption behavior, that is, tensile residual stress promoted the hydrogen absorption and compressive one did opposite. Also, hydrogen induced equi-biaxial stress and this stress has a linear correlation with hydrogen content.

Keywords: Hydrogen embrittlement, Residual stress, Surface finishing, Stainless steel.

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9272 The Syllabic Scrutiny of Word Stress in Najdi Saudi Arabic

Authors: Mohammad AL Amro

Abstract:

This study will provide a brief description of the stress in Najdi Arabic dialect as well as Modern Standard Arabic. Beyond the analysis of stress patterns, this paper will also attempt to deal with two important phenomena that affect stress, namely epenthesis/insertion, vowel shortening, and consonant (the glottal stop) deletion.

Keywords: Epenthesis, Najd, stress, vowel shortening.

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9271 Modal Propagation Properties of Elliptical Core Optical Fibers Considering Stress-Optic Effects

Authors: M. Shah Alam, Sarkar Rahat M. Anwar

Abstract:

The effect of thermally induced stress on the modal properties of highly elliptical core optical fibers is studied in this work using a finite element method. The stress analysis is carried out and anisotropic refractive index change is calculated using both the conventional plane strain approximation and the generalized plane strain approach. After considering the stress optical effect, the modal analysis of the fiber is performed to obtain the solutions of fundamental and higher order modes. The modal effective index, modal birefringence, group effective index, group birefringence, and dispersion of different modes of the fiber are presented. For propagation properties, it can be seen that the results depend much on the approach of stress analysis.

Keywords: Birefringence, dispersion, elliptical core fiber, optical mode analysis, stress-optic effect, stress analysis.

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9270 Influence of Drought on Yield and Yield Components in White Bean

Authors: Gholamreza Habibi

Abstract:

In order to study seed yield and seed yield components in bean under reduced irrigation condition and assessment drought tolerance of genotypes, 15 lines of White beans were evaluated in two separate RCB design with 3 replications under stress and non stress conditions. Analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences among varieties in terms of traits under study, indicating the existence of genetic variation among varieties. The results indicate that drought stress reduced seed yield, number of seed per plant, biological yield and number of pod in White been. In non stress condition, yield was highly correlated with the biological yield, whereas in stress condition it was highly correlated with harvest index. Results of stepwise regression showed that, selection can we done based on, biological yield, harvest index, number of seed per pod, seed length, 100 seed weight. Result of path analysis showed that the highest direct effect, being positive, was related to biological yield in non stress and to harvest index in stress conditions. Factor analysis were accomplished in stress and nonstress condition a, there were 4 factors that explained more than 76 percent of total variations. We used several selection indices such as Stress Susceptibility Index ( SSI ), Geometric Mean Productivity ( GMP ), Mean Productivity ( MP ), Stress Tolerance Index ( STI ) and Tolerance Index ( TOL ) to study drought tolerance of genotypes, we found that the best Stress Index for selection tolerance genotypes were STI, GMP and MP were the greatest correlations between these Indices and seed yield under stress and non stress conditions. In classification of genotypes base on phenotypic characteristics, using cluster analysis ( UPGMA ), all allels classified in 5 separate groups in stress and non stress conditions.

Keywords: Cluster analysis, factor analysis, path analysis, selection index, White bean

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9269 A Method for Evaluating the Mechanical Stress on Mandibular Advancement Devices

Authors: Tsung-yin Lin, Yi-yu Lee, Ching-hua Hung

Abstract:

This study focuses on the stress analysis of Mandibular Advancement Devices (MADs), which are considered as a standard treatment of snoring that promoted by American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM). Snoring is the most significant feature of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). SDB will lead to serious problems in human health. Oral appliances are ensured in therapeutic effect and compliance, especially the MADs. This paper proposes a new MAD design, and the finite element analysis (FEA) is introduced to precede the stress simulation for this MAD.

Keywords: Finite element analysis, mandibular advancement devices, mechanical stress, snoring.

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9268 Determination of Stress Concentration Factors of a Steam Turbine Rotor by FEA

Authors: R. Nagendra Babu, K. V. Ramana, K. Mallikarjuna Rao

Abstract:

Stress Concentration Factors are significant in machine design as it gives rise to localized stress when any change in the design of surface or abrupt change in the cross section occurs. Almost all machine components and structural members contain some form of geometrical or microstructural discontinuities. These discontinuities are very dangerous and lead to failure. So, it is very much essential to analyze the stress concentration factors for critical applications like Turbine Rotors. In this paper Finite Element Analysis (FEA) with extremely fine mesh in the vicinity of the blades of Steam Turbine Rotor is applied to determine stress concentration factors. A model of Steam Turbine Rotor is shown in Fig. 1.

Keywords: Stress Concentration Factors, Finite Element Analysis, and ANSYS.

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9267 Elastic Stress Analysis of Annular Bi-Material Discs with Variable Thickness under Mechanical and Thermomechanical Loads

Authors: E. Çetin, A. Kurşun, Ş. Aksoy, M. Tunay Çetin

Abstract:

The closed form study deals with elastic stress analysis of annular bi-material discs with variable thickness subjected to the mechanical and thermomechanical loads. Those discs have many applications in the aerospace industry, such as gas turbines and gears. Those discs normally work under thermal and mechanical loads. Their life cycle can increase when stress components are minimized. Each material property is assumed to be isotropic. The results show that material combinations and thickness of profiles play an important role in determining the responses of bi-material discs and an optimal design of those structures. Stress distribution is investigated and results are shown as graphs.

Keywords: Bi-material discs, elastic stress analysis, mechanical loads, rotating discs.

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9266 Stress Concentration around Countersunk Hole in Isotropic Plate under Transverse Loading

Authors: Parveen K. Saini, Tarun Agarwal

Abstract:

An investigation into the effect of countersunk depth, plate thickness, countersunk angle and plate width on the stress concentration around countersunk hole is carried out with the help of finite element analysis. The variation of stress concentration with respect to these parameters is studied for three types of loading viz. uniformly distributed load, uniformly varying load and functionally distributed load. The results of the finite element analysis are interpreted and some conclusions are drawn. The distribution of stress concentration around countersunk hole in isotropic plates simply supported at all the edges is found similar and is independent of loading. The maximum stress concentration also occurs at a particular point irrespective of the loading conditions.

Keywords: Stress Concentration Factor, Countersunk hole, Finite element, ANSYS.

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9265 Dissimilar Materials Joint and Effect of Angle Junction on Stress Distribution at Interface

Authors: Ali Baladi, Alireza Fallahi Arezoodar

Abstract:

in dissimilar material joints, failure often occurs along the interface between two materials due to stress singularity. Stress distribution and its concentration depend on materials and geometry of the junction. Inhomogenity of stress distribution at the interface of junction of two materials with different elastic modules and stress concentration in this zone are the main factors resulting in rupture of the junction. Effect of joining angle in the interface of aluminum-polycarbonate will be discussed in this paper. Computer simulation and finite element analysis by ABAQUS showed that convex interfacial joint leads to stress reduction at junction corners in compare with straight joint. This finding is confirmed by photoelastic experimental results.

Keywords: Elastic Modules, Stress Concentration, JoiningAngle, Photoelastic.

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9264 Finite Element Analysis and Feasibility of Simple Stochastic Modeling in the Analysis of Fissuring in Grains during Soaking

Authors: Jonathan H. Perez, Fumihiko Tanaka, Daisuke Hamanaka, Toshitaka Uchino

Abstract:

A finite element analysis was conducted to determine the effect of moisture diffusion and hygroscopic swelling in rice. A parallel simple stochastic modeling was performed to predict the number of grains cracked as a result of moisture absorption and hygroscopic swelling. Rice grains were soaked in thermally (25 oC) controlled water and then tested for compressive stress. The destructive compressive stress tests revealed through compressive stress calculation that the peak force required to cause cracking in grains soaked in water reduced with time as soaking duration was extended. Results of the experiment showed that several grains had their value of the predicted compressive stress below the von Mises stress and were interpreted as grains which become cracked and/or broke during soaking. The technique developed in this experiment will facilitate the approximation of the number of grains which will crack during soaking.

Keywords: Cracking, Finite element analysis, hygroscopic swelling, moisture diffusion, von Mises stress.

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9263 Contact Stress Analysis of Spur Gear Teeth Pair

Authors: Ali Raad Hassan

Abstract:

Contact stress analysis between two spur gear teeth was considered in different contact positions, representing a pair of mating gears during rotation. A programme has been developed to plot a pair of teeth in contact. This programme was run for each 3° of pinion rotation from the first location of contact to the last location of contact to produce 10 cases. Each case was represented a sequence position of contact between these two teeth. The programme gives graphic results for the profiles of these teeth in each position and location of contact during rotation. Finite element models were made for these cases and stress analysis was done. The results were presented and finite element analysis results were compared with theoretical calculations, wherever available.

Keywords: Contact stress, Spur gear, Contact ratio, Finite elements

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9262 Investigation of Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Parameters on Residual Stress of Heat Affected Zone in Inconel X750 Super Alloy Welding Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Kimia Khoshdel Vajari, Saber Saffar

Abstract:

Reducing the residual stresses caused by welding is desirable for the industry. The effect of welding sequence, as well as the effect of yield stress on the number of residual stresses generated in Inconel X750 superalloy sheets and beams, have been investigated. The finite element model used in this research is a three-dimensional thermal and mechanical model, and the type of analysis is indirect coupling. This analysis is done in two stages. First, thermal analysis is performed, and then the thermal changes of the first analysis are used as the applied load in the second analysis. ABAQUS has been used for modeling, and the Dflux subroutine has been used in the Fortran programming environment to move the arc and the molten pool. The results of this study show that the amount of tensile residual stress in symmetric, discontinuous, and symmetric-discontinuous welds is reduced to a maximum of 27%, 54%, and 37% compared to direct welding, respectively. The results also show that the amount of residual stresses created by welding increases linearly with increasing yield stress with a slope of 40%.

Keywords: Residual stress, X750 superalloy, finite element, welding, thermal analysis.

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9261 Free Vibration and Buckling of Rectangular Plates under Nonuniform In-Plane Edge Shear Loads

Authors: T. H. Young, Y. J. Tsai

Abstract:

A method for determining the stress distribution of a rectangular plate subjected to two pairs of arbitrarily distributed in-plane edge shear loads is proposed, and the free vibration and buckling of such a rectangular plate are investigated in this work.  The method utilizes two stress functions to synthesize the stress-resultant field of the plate with each of the stress functions satisfying the biharmonic compatibility equation. The sum of stress-resultant fields due to these two stress functions satisfies the boundary conditions at the edges of the plate, from which these two stress functions are determined. Then, the free vibration and buckling of the rectangular plate are investigated by the Galerkin method. Numerical results obtained by this work are compared with those appeared in the literature, and good agreements are observed.

Keywords: Stress analysis, free vibration, plate buckling, nonuniform in-plane edge shear.

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9260 Identification of High Stress and Strain Regions in Proximal Femur during Single-Leg Stance and Sideways Fall Using QCT-Based Finite Element Model

Authors: H. Kheirollahi, Y. Luo

Abstract:

Studying stress and strain trends in the femur and recognizing femur failure mechanism is very important for preventing hip fracture in the elderly. The aim of this study was to identify high stress and strain regions in the femur during normal walking and falling to find the mechanical behavior and failure mechanism of the femur. We developed a finite element model of the femur from the subject’s quantitative computed tomography (QCT) image and used it to identify potentially high stress and strain regions during the single-leg stance and the sideways fall. It was found that fracture may initiate from the superior region of femoral neck and propagate to the inferior region during a high impact force such as sideways fall. The results of this study showed that the femur bone is more sensitive to strain than stress which indicates the effect of strain, in addition to effect of stress, should be considered for failure analysis.

Keywords: Finite element analysis, hip fracture, strain, stress.

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9259 The Temperature Range in the Simulation of Residual Stress and Hot Tearing During Investment Casting

Authors: Saeid Norouzi, Ali Shams, Hassan Farhangi, Alireza Darvish

Abstract:

Hot tear cracking and residual stress are two different consequences of thermal stress both of which can be considered as casting problem. The purpose of the present study is simulation of the effect of casting shape characteristic on hot tearing and residual stress. This study shows that the temperature range for simulation of hot tearing and residual stress are different. In this study, in order to study the development of thermal stress and to predict the hot tearing and residual stress of shaped casting, MAGMASOFT simulation program was used. The strategy of this research was the prediction of hot tear location using pinpointing hot spot and thermal stress concentration zones. The results shows that existing of stress concentration zone increases the hot tearing probability and consequently reduces the amount of remaining residual stress in casting parts.

Keywords: Hot tearing, residual stress, simulation, investment casting.

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9258 Evaluation of Mixed-Mode Stress Intensity Factor by Digital Image Correlation and Intelligent Hybrid Method

Authors: K. Machida, H. Yamada

Abstract:

Displacement measurement was conducted on compact normal and shear specimens made of acrylic homogeneous material subjected to mixed-mode loading by digital image correlation. The intelligent hybrid method proposed by Nishioka et al. was applied to the stress-strain analysis near the crack tip. The accuracy of stress-intensity factor at the free surface was discussed from the viewpoint of both the experiment and 3-D finite element analysis. The surface images before and after deformation were taken by a CMOS camera, and we developed the system which enabled the real time stress analysis based on digital image correlation and inverse problem analysis. The great portion of processing time of this system was spent on displacement analysis. Then, we tried improvement in speed of this portion. In the case of cracked body, it is also possible to evaluate fracture mechanics parameters such as the J integral, the strain energy release rate, and the stress-intensity factor of mixed-mode. The 9-points elliptic paraboloid approximation could not analyze the displacement of submicron order with high accuracy. The analysis accuracy of displacement was improved considerably by introducing the Newton-Raphson method in consideration of deformation of a subset. The stress-intensity factor was evaluated with high accuracy of less than 1% of the error.

Keywords: Digital image correlation, mixed mode, Newton-Raphson method, stress intensity factor.

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9257 Effect of Surface Stress on the Deformation around a Nanosized Elliptical Hole: a Finite Element Study

Authors: Weifeng Wang, Xianwei Zeng, Jianping Ding

Abstract:

When the characteristic length of an elastic solid is down to the nanometer level, its deformation behavior becomes size dependent. Surface energy /surface stress have recently been applied to explain such dependency. In this paper, the effect of strain-independent surface stress on the deformation of an isotropic elastic solid containing a nanosized elliptical hole is studied by the finite element method. Two loading cases are considered, in the first case, hoop stress along the rim of the elliptical hole induced by pure surface stress is studied, in the second case, hoop stress around the elliptical opening under combined remote tension and surface stress is investigated. It has been shown that positive surface stress induces compressive hoop stress along the hole, and negative surface stress has opposite effect, maximum hoop stress occurs near the major semi-axes of the ellipse. Under combined loading of remote tension and surface stress, stress concentration around the hole can be either intensified or weakened depending on the sign of the surface stress.

Keywords: Surface stress, finite element method, stress concentration, nanosized elliptical hole

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9256 Direct Design of Steel Bridge Using Nonlinear Inelastic Analysis

Authors: Boo-Sung Koh, Seung-Eock Kim

Abstract:

In this paper, a direct design using a nonlinear inelastic analysis is suggested. Also, this paper compares the load carrying capacity obtained by a nonlinear inelastic analysis with experiment results to verify the accuracy of the results. The allowable stress design results of a railroad through a plate girder bridge and the safety factor of the nonlinear inelastic analysis were compared to examine the safety performance. As a result, the load safety factor for the nonlinear inelastic analysis was twice as high as the required safety factor under the allowable stress design standard specified in the civil engineering structure design standards for urban magnetic levitation railways, which further verified the advantages of the proposed direct design method.

Keywords: Direct design, nonlinear inelastic analysis, residual stress, initial geometric imperfection.

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9255 Relational Impact of Job Stress on Gender Based Managerial Effectiveness in Ghanaian Organizations

Authors: Jocelyn Sackey, Priscilla Boahemaa, Mohammed A. Sanda

Abstract:

This study explored the relationship between occupational stress and the perceived effectiveness of men and women managers in Ghanaian organizations. The exploration is underlined by attempt to understand the degree to which male and female managers in Ghanaian organizations experience occupational stress at the workplace. The purpose is to examine the sources and extents of occupational stress experienced by male and female managers in Ghana. Data was collected using questionnaires and analyzed using both descriptive statistics and correlation analysis. The results showed that female managers in Ghana are more likely to report of more stress experiences in the workplace than their male counterparts. The female managers are more likely to perceive role conflict and alienation as job stressors while the male managers perceived blocked career as a major source of workplace stress. It is concluded that despite the female managers experiencing enormous level of occupational stress, there was no significant differences between their managerial effectiveness and that of the male.

Keywords: Gender, job stress, managerial effectiveness, organizational environment

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9254 Optimization of New 25A-size Metal Gasket Design Based on Contact Width Considering Forming and Contact Stress Effect

Authors: Didik Nurhadiyanto , Moch Agus Choiron , Ken Kaminishi , Shigeyuki Haruyama

Abstract:

At the previous study of new metal gasket, contact width and contact stress were important design parameter for optimizing metal gasket performance. However, the range of contact stress had not been investigated thoroughly. In this study, we conducted a gasket design optimization based on an elastic and plastic contact stress analysis considering forming effect using FEM. The gasket model was simulated by using two simulation stages which is forming and tightening simulation. The optimum design based on an elastic and plastic contact stress was founded. Final evaluation was determined by helium leak quantity to check leakage performance of both type of gaskets. The helium leak test shows that a gasket based on the plastic contact stress design better than based on elastic stress design.

Keywords: Contact stress, metal gasket, plastic, elastic

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9253 Probe of Crack Initiate at the Toe of Concrete Gravity Dam using Numerical Analysis

Authors: M. S. Salimi, H. Kiamanesh, N. Hedayat

Abstract:

In this survey the process of crack propagation at the toe of concrete gravity dam is investigated by applying principals and criteria of linear elastic fracture mechanic. Simulating process of earthquake conditions for three models of dam with different geometrical condition, in empty reservoir under plain stress is calculated through special fracture mechanic software FRANNC2D [1] for determining fracture mechanic criteria. The outcomes showed that in spite of the primary expectations, the simultaneous existence of fillet in both toe and heel area (model 3), the rate of maximum principal stress has not been decreased; however, even the maximum principal stress has increased, so it caused stress intensity factors increase which is undesirable. On the other hand, the dam with heel fillet has shown the best attitude and it is because of items like decreasing the rates of maximum and minimum principal stresses and also is related to decreasing the rates of stress intensity factors for 1st & 2nd modes of the model.

Keywords: Stress intensity factor, concrete gravity dam, numerical analysis, geometry of toe.

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9252 Three Dimensional Analysis of Sequential Quasi Isotropic Composite Disc for Rotating Machine Application

Authors: Amin Almasi

Abstract:

Composite laminates are relatively weak in out of plane loading, inter-laminar stress, stress concentration near the edge and stress singularities. This paper develops a new analytical formulation for laminated composite rotating disc fabricated from symmetric sequential quasi isotropic layers to predict three dimensional stress and deformation. This analysis is necessary to evaluate mechanical integrity of fiber reinforced multi-layer laminates used for high speed rotating applications such as high speed impellers. Three dimensional governing equations are written for rotating composite disc. Explicit solution is obtained with "Frobenius" expansion series. Based on analytical results, there are two separate zones of three dimensional stress fields in centre and edge of rotating disc. For thin discs, out of plane deformations and stresses are small in comparison with plane ones. For relatively thick discs deformation and stress fields are three dimensional.

Keywords: Composite Disc, Rotating Machine.

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9251 Stress Analysis for Two Fitted Thin Walled Cylinder with High Angular Velocity

Authors: A.V. Hoseini, A. Bidi, M. H. Pol, M.Jalali azizpour

Abstract:

In this paper stress and strain for two rotating thin wall cylinder fitted together with initial interference and overlap are computed. Also stress value for variation of initial interference is calculated. At first problem is considered without rotation and next angular velocity increased from 0 to 50000 rev/min and stress in each stage is calculated. The important point is that when stress become very small in magnitude the angular velocity is critical and two cylinders will separate. The critical speed i.e. speed of separation is calculated in each step.

Keywords: Thin walled cylinder, high angular velocity, twofitted thin walled

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9250 Interspecific Variation in Heat Stress Tolerance and Oxidative Damage among 15 C3 Species

Authors: Wagdi S. Soliman, Shu-ichi Sugiyama

Abstract:

The C3 plants are frequently suffering from exposure to high temperature stress which limits the growth and yield of these plants. This study seeks to clarify the physiological mechanisms of heat tolerance in relation to oxidative stress in C3 species. Fifteen C3 species were exposed to prolonged moderately high temperature stress 36/30°C for 40 days in a growth chamber. Chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) showed great difference among species at 40 days of the stress. The species showed decreases in Fv/Fm and increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) content under stress condition as well as negative correlation between Fv/Fm and MDA (r = -0.61*) at 40 days of the stress. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content before and after stress in addition to its response under stress showed great differences among species. The results suggest that the difference in heat tolerance among C3 species is closely associated with the ability to suppress oxidative damage but not with the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which is regulated by complex network.

Keywords: C3 species, Fv/Fm, heat stress, oxidative stress.

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9249 The Study of Rapeseed Characteristics by Factor Analysis under Normal and Drought Stress Conditions

Authors: Ali Bakhtiari Gharibdosti, Mohammad Hosein Bijeh Keshavarzi, Samira Alijani

Abstract:

To understand internal characteristics relationships and determine factors which explain under consideration characteristics in rapeseed varieties, 10 rapeseed genotypes were implemented in complete accidental plot with three-time repetitions under drought stress in 2009-2010 in research field of agriculture college, Islamic Azad University, Karaj branch. In this research, 11 characteristics include of characteristics related to growth, production and functions stages was considered. Variance analysis results showed that there is a significant difference among rapeseed varieties characteristics. By calculating simple correlation coefficient under both conditions, normal and drought stress indicate that seed function characteristics in plant and pod number have positive and significant correlation in 1% probable level with seed function and selection on the base of these characteristics was effective for improving this function. Under normal and drought stress, analyzing the main factors showed that numbers of factors which have more than one amount, had five factors under normal conditions which were 82.72% of total variance totally, but under drought stress four factors diagnosed which were 76.78% of total variance. By considering total results of this research and by assessing effective characteristics for factor analysis and selecting different components of these characteristics, they can be used for modifying works to select applicable and tolerant genotypes in drought stress conditions.

Keywords: Correlation, drought stress, factor analysis, rapeseed.

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9248 Effect of Out-of-Plane Deformation on Relaxation Method of Stress Concentration in a Plate with a Circular Hole

Authors: Shingo Murakami, Shinichi Enoki

Abstract:

In structures, stress concentration is a factor of fatigue fracture. Basically, the stress concentration is a phenomenon that should be avoided. However, it is difficult to avoid the stress concentration. Therefore, relaxation of the stress concentration is important. The stress concentration arises from notches and circular holes. There is a relaxation method that a composite patch covers a notch and a circular hole. This relaxation method is used to repair aerial wings, but it is not systematized. Composites are more expensive than single materials. Accordingly, we propose the relaxation method that a single material patch covers a notch and a circular hole, and aim to systematize this relaxation method. We performed FEA (Finite Element Analysis) about an object by using a three-dimensional FEA model. The object was that a patch adheres to a plate with a circular hole. And, a uniaxial tensile load acts on the patched plate with a circular hole. In the three-dimensional FEA model, it is not easy to model the adhesion layer. Basically, the yield stress of the adhesive is smaller than that of adherents. Accordingly, the adhesion layer gets to plastic deformation earlier than the adherents under the yield load of adherents. Therefore, we propose the three-dimensional FEA model which is applied a nonlinear elastic region to the adhesion layer. The nonlinear elastic region was calculated by a bilinear approximation. We compared the analysis results with the tensile test results to confirm whether the analysis model has usefulness. As a result, the analysis results agreed with the tensile test results. And, we confirmed that the analysis model has usefulness. As a result that the three-dimensional FEA model was used to the analysis, it was confirmed that an out-of-plane deformation occurred to the patched plate with a circular hole. The out-of-plane deformation causes stress increase of the patched plate with a circular hole. Therefore, we investigated that the out-of-plane deformation affects relaxation of the stress concentration in the plate with a circular hole on this relaxation method. As a result, it was confirmed that the out-of-plane deformation inhibits relaxation of the stress concentration on the plate with a circular hole.

Keywords: Stress concentration, patch, out-of-plane deformation, Finite Element Analysis.

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9247 Effects of Thread Dimensions of Functionally Graded Dental Implants on Stress Distribution

Authors: Kaman M. O., Celik N.

Abstract:

In this study, stress distributions on dental implants made of functionally graded biomaterials (FGBM) are investigated numerically. The implant body is considered to be subjected to axial compression loads. Numerical problem is assumed to be 2D, and ANSYS commercial software is used for the analysis. The cross section of the implant thread varies as varying the height (H) and the width (t) of the thread. According to thread dimensions of implant and material properties of FGBM, equivalent stress distribution on the implant is determined and presented with contour plots along with the maximum equivalent stress values. As a result, with increasing material gradient parameter (n), the equivalent stress decreases, but the minimum stress distribution increases. Maximum stress values decrease with decreasing implant radius (r). Maximum von Mises stresses increases with decreasing H when t is constant. On the other hand, the stress values are not affected by variation of t in the case of H = constant.

Keywords: Functionally graded biomaterials, dental implant finite element method.

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9246 A Fuzzy Satisfactory Optimization Method Based on Stress Analysis for a Hybrid Composite Flywheel

Authors: Liping Yang, Curran Crawford, Jr. Ren, Zhengyi Ren

Abstract:

Considering the cost evaluation and the stress analysis, a fuzzy satisfactory optimization (FSO) method has been developed for a hybrid composite flywheel. To evaluate the cost, the cost coefficients of the flywheel components are obtained through calculating the weighted sum of the scores of the material manufacturability, the structure character, and the material price. To express the satisfactory degree of the energy, the cost, and the mass, the satisfactory functions are proposed by using the decline function and introducing a satisfactory coefficient. To imply the different significance of the objectives, the object weight coefficients are defined. Based on the stress analysis of composite material, the circumferential and radial stresses are considered into the optimization formulation. The simulations of the FSO method with different weight coefficients and storage energy density optimization (SEDO) method of a flywheel are contrasted. The analysis results show that the FSO method can satisfy different requirements of the designer and the FSO method with suitable weight coefficients can replace the SEDO method.

Keywords: Flywheel energy storage, fuzzy, optimization, stress analysis.

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9245 Faculty Stress at Higher Education: A Study on the Business Schools of Pakistan

Authors: Aqsa Akbar, Waheed Akhter

Abstract:

Job stress is one of the most important concepts for the today-s corporate as well as institutional world. The current study is conducted to identify the causes of faculty stress at Higher Education in Pakistan. For the purpose, Public & Private Business Schools of Punjab is selected as representative of Pakistan. A sample of 300 faculty members (214 males, 86 females) responded to the survey. Regression analysis shows that the Workload, Student Related issues and Role Conflicts are the major sources contributing significantly towards producing stress. The study also revealed that Private sector faculty members experienced more stress as compared to faculty in Public sector Business Schools. Moreover, females, younger ages, lower designation & low qualification faculty members experience more stress as compared to males, older ages, higher designation and high qualification. The study yield many significant results for the policy makers of Business Institutions.

Keywords: Faculty Stress, Higher Education, Stress Coping Strategies, Work Load

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9244 Electrical Characterization and Reliability Analysis of HfO2-TiO2-Al MOSCAPs

Authors: Shibesh Dutta, Sivaramakrishnan R., Sundar Gopalan, Balakrishnan Shankar

Abstract:

MOSCAPs of various combinations of Hafnium oxide and Titanium oxide of varying thickness with Aluminum as gate electrode have been fabricated and electrically characterized. The effects of voltage stress on the I-V characteristics for prolonged time durations have been studied and compared. Results showed hard breakdown and negligible degradation of reliability under stress.

Keywords: breakdown, MOSCAP, voltage stress.

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