Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 108

Search results for: Antonio Avalos Ramirez

108 Influence of Ammonium Concentration on the Performance of an Inorganic Biofilter Treating Methane

Authors: Marc Veillette, Antonio Avalos Ramirez, Michèle Heitz

Abstract:

Among the technologies available to reduce methane emitted from the pig industry, biofiltration seems to be an effective and inexpensive solution. In methane (CH4) biofiltration, nitrogen is an important macronutrient for the microorganisms growth. The objective of this research project was to study the effect of ammonium (NH4 +) on the performance, the biomass production and the nitrogen conversion of a biofilter treating methane. For NH4 + concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 0.5 gN-NH4 +/L, the CH4 removal efficiency and the dioxide carbon production rate decreased linearly from 68 to 11.8 % and from 7.1 to 0.5 g/(m3-h), respectively. The dry biomass content varied from 4.1 to 5.8 kg/(m3 filter bed). For the same range of concentrations, the ammonium conversion decreased while the specific nitrate production rate increased. The specific nitrate production rate presented negative values indicating denitrification in the biofilter.

Keywords: Methane, biofiltration, pig, ammonium, nitrification, denitrification.

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107 Design of a Chaotic Trajectory Generator Algorithm for Mobile Robots

Authors: J. J. Cetina-Denis, R. M. López-Gutiérrez, R. Ramírez-Ramírez, C. Cruz-Hernández

Abstract:

This work addresses the problem of designing an algorithm capable of generating chaotic trajectories for mobile robots. Particularly, the chaotic behavior is induced in the linear and angular velocities of a Khepera III differential mobile robot by infusing them with the states of the H´enon chaotic map. A possible application, using the properties of chaotic systems, is patrolling a work area. In this work, numerical and experimental results are reported and analyzed. In addition, two quantitative numerical tests are applied in order to measure how chaotic the generated trajectories really are.

Keywords: Chaos, chaotic trajectories, differential mobile robot, Henons map, Khepera III robot, patrolling applications.

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106 Feasibility Study of Mine Tailing’s Treatment by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans DSM 26636

Authors: M. Gómez-Ramírez, A. Rivas-Castillo, I. Rodríguez-Pozos, R. A. Avalos-Zuñiga, N. G. Rojas-Avelizapa

Abstract:

Among the diverse types of pollutants produced by anthropogenic activities, metals represent a serious threat, due to their accumulation in ecosystems and their elevated toxicity. The mine tailings of abandoned mines contain high levels of metals such as arsenic (As), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb), which do not suffer any degradation process, they are accumulated in environment. Abandoned mine tailings potentially could contaminate rivers and aquifers representing a risk for human health due to their high metal content. In an attempt to remove the metals and thereby mitigate the environmental pollution, an environmentally friendly and economical method of bioremediation has been introduced. Bioleaching has been actively studied over the last several years, and it is one of the bioremediation solutions used to treat heavy metals contained in sewage sludge, sediment and contaminated soil. Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, an extremely acidophilic, chemolithoautotrophic, gram-negative, rod shaped microorganism, which is typically related to Cu mining operations (bioleaching), has been well studied for industrial applications. The sulfuric acid produced plays a major role in bioleaching. Specifically, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans strain DSM 26636 has been able to leach Al, Ni, V, Fe, Mg, Si, and Ni contained in slags from coal combustion wastes. The present study reports the ability of A. thiooxidans DSM 26636 for the bioleaching of metals contained in two different mine tailing samples (MT1 and MT2). It was observed that Al, Fe, and Mn were removed in 36.3±1.7, 191.2±1.6, and 4.5±0.2 mg/kg for MT1, and in 74.5±0.3, 208.3±0.5, and 20.9±0.1 for MT2. Besides, < 1.5 mg/kg of Au and Ru were also bioleached from MT1; in MT2, bioleaching of Zn was observed at 55.7±1.3 mg/kg, besides removal of < 1.5 mg/kg was observed for As, Ir, Li, and 0.6 for Os in this residue. These results show the potential of strain DSM 26636 for the bioleaching of metals that came from different mine tailings.

Keywords: A. thiooxidans, bioleaching, metals, mine tailings.

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105 Sediment Transport Monitoring in the Port of Veracruz Expansion Project

Authors: Francisco Liaño-Carrera, José Isaac Ramírez-Macías, David Salas-Monreal, Mayra Lorena Riveron-Enzastiga, Marcos Rangel-Avalos, Adriana Andrea Roldán-Ubando

Abstract:

The construction of most coastal infrastructure developments around the world are usually made considering wave height, current velocities and river discharges; however, little effort has been paid to surveying sediment transport during dredging or the modification to currents outside the ports or marinas during and after the construction. This study shows a complete survey during the construction of one of the largest ports of the Gulf of Mexico. An anchored Acoustic Doppler Current Velocity profiler (ADCP), a towed ADCP and a combination of model outputs were used at the Veracruz port construction in order to describe the hourly sediment transport and current modifications in and out of the new port. Owing to the stability of the system the new port was construction inside Vergara Bay, a low wave energy system with a tidal range of up to 0.40 m. The results show a two-current system pattern within the bay. The north side of the bay has an anticyclonic gyre, while the southern part of the bay shows a cyclonic gyre. Sediment transport trajectories were made every hour using the anchored ADCP, a numerical model and the weekly data obtained from the towed ADCP within the entire bay. The sediment transport trajectories were carefully tracked since the bay is surrounded by coral reef structures which are sensitive to sedimentation rate and water turbidity. The survey shows that during dredging and rock input used to build the wave breaker sediments were locally added (< 2500 m2) and local currents disperse it in less than 4 h. While the river input located in the middle of the bay and the sewer system plant may add more than 10 times this amount during a rainy day or during the tourist season. Finally, the coastal line obtained seasonally with a drone suggests that the southern part of the bay has not been modified by the construction of the new port located in the northern part of the bay, owing to the two subsystem division of the bay.

Keywords: Acoustic Doppler current profiler, time series, port construction, construction around coral reefs, sediment transport monitoring.

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104 Mix Goat and Sheep Yogurt: Development and Product Characterization

Authors: Susana Matos, António Pinto, Conceição Castilho, Paula Reis Correia, António Cardoso Monteiro

Abstract:

Yogurts are prepared by fermenting milk with bacterial cultures consisting of a mixture of Streptococcus ssp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus. The main aim of this investigation was to develop a majority goat yogurt, with the addition of sheep milk in order to have a final product with good physicochemical quality properties and sensorial attributes. Four types of yogurts were prepared presenting the following proportion of goat and sheep milk respectively: C100 – 100%; C80 – 80%/20%; C60 – 60%/40%; C50 – 50%/50%. The goat milk was from the Serrana Jarmelista breed and the sheep milk from the Serra da Estrela breed. The inclusion of sheep milk improved attractiveness to consumers, and it also improved the nutritional value of the product, mainly the fatty acid and mineral contents. The C50 yogurt was preferred by 28% of the panellists, followed by the C100 with 16%  and the commercial cow yogurt was 40% of preferences.

Keywords: Goat, sheep, yogurt.

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103 Optimization of Inverse Kinematics of a 3R Robotic Manipulator using Genetic Algorithms

Authors: J. Ramírez A., A. Rubiano F.

Abstract:

In this paper the direct kinematic model of a multiple applications three degrees of freedom industrial manipulator, was developed using the homogeneous transformation matrices and the Denavit - Hartenberg parameters, likewise the inverse kinematic model was developed using the same method, verifying that in the workload border the inverse kinematic presents considerable errors, therefore a genetic algorithm was implemented to optimize the model improving greatly the efficiency of the model.

Keywords: Direct Kinematic, Genetic Algorithm, InverseKinematic, Optimization, Robot Manipulator

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102 110 MW Geothermal Power Plant Multiple Simulator, Using Wireless Technology

Authors: Guillermo Romero-Jiménez, Luis A. Jiménez-Fraustro, Mayolo Salinas-Camacho, Heriberto Avalos-Valenzuela

Abstract:

A geothermal power plant multiple simulator for operators training is presented. The simulator is designed to be installed in a wireless local area network and has a capacity to train one to six operators simultaneously, each one with an independent simulation session. The sessions must be supervised only by one instructor. The main parts of this multiple simulator are: instructor and operator-s stations. On the instructor station, the instructor controls the simulation sessions, establishes training exercises and supervises each power plant operator in individual way. This station is hosted in a Main Personal Computer (NS) and its main functions are: to set initial conditions, snapshots, malfunctions or faults, monitoring trends, and process and soft-panel diagrams. On the other hand the operators carry out their actions over the power plant simulated on the operator-s stations; each one is also hosted in a PC. The main software of instructor and operator-s stations are executed on the same NS and displayed in PCs through graphical Interactive Process Diagrams (IDP). The geothermal multiple simulator has been installed in the Geothermal Simulation Training Center (GSTC) of the Comisi├│n Federal de Electricidad, (Federal Commission of Electricity, CFE), Mexico, and is being utilized as a part of the training courses for geothermal power plant operators.

Keywords: Geothermal power plant, multiple simulator, training operator.

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101 A Temporal Synchronization Model for Heterogeneous Data in Distributed Systems

Authors: Jorge Estudillo Ramirez, Saul E. Pomares Hernandez

Abstract:

Multimedia distributed systems deal with heterogeneous data, such as texts, images, graphics, video and audio. The specification of temporal relations among different data types and distributed sources is an open research area. This paper proposes a fully distributed synchronization model to be used in multimedia systems. One original aspect of the model is that it avoids the use of a common reference (e.g. wall clock and shared memory). To achieve this, all possible multimedia temporal relations are specified according to their causal dependencies.

Keywords: Multimedia, Distributed Systems, Partial Ordering, Temporal Synchronization

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100 Analysis of Security Vulnerabilities for Mobile Health Applications

Authors: Y. Cifuentes, L. Beltrán, L. Ramírez

Abstract:

The availability to deploy mobile applications for health care is increasing daily thru different mobile app stores. But within these capabilities the number of hacking attacks has also increased, in particular into medical mobile applications. The security vulnerabilities in medical mobile apps can be triggered by errors in code, incorrect logic, poor design, among other parameters. This is usually used by malicious attackers to steal or modify the users’ information. The aim of this research is to analyze the vulnerabilities detected in mobile medical apps according to risk factor standards defined by OWASP in 2014.

Keywords: mHealth apps, OWASP, protocols, security vulnerabilities, risk factors.

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99 Educational Robotics Constructivism and Modeling of Robots using Reverse Engineering

Authors: David G. Maxínez, A. Ferreyra Ramírez, Ismael Echenique Álvarez, Francisco Javier Sánchez Rangel, Guillermo Castillo Tapia, Petra Baldivia Noyola, María Antonieta García Galván

Abstract:

The project describes the modeling of various architectures mechatronics specifically morphologies of robots in an educational environment. Each structure developed by students of pre-school, primary and secondary was created using the concept of reverse engineering in a constructivist environment, to later be integrated in educational software that promotes the teaching of educational Robotics in a virtual and economic environment.

Keywords: Modeling, constructivist, engineering, reverse, robotics education, virtual, morphology.

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98 Intellectual Capital and Transparency in Universities: An Empirical Study

Authors: Yolanda Ramírez, Ángel Tejada, Agustín Baidez

Abstract:

This paper shows the general perceptions of Spanish university stakeholders in relation to the university’s annual reports and the adequacy and potential of intellectual capital reporting. To this end, a questionnaire was designed and sent to every member of the Social Councils of Spanish public universities. It was thought that these participants would provide a good example of the attitude of university stakeholders since they represent the different social groups connected with universities. From the results of this study we are in the position of confirming the need for universities to offer information on intellectual capital in their accounting information model.

Keywords: Intellectual capital, disclosure, stakeholders, universities, annual report.

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97 Exploring the Importance of Knowledge Management for CRM Success

Authors: Aurora Garrido-Moreno, Antonio Padilla-Meléndez, Ana Rosa Del Águila-Obra

Abstract:

After reporting a literature review on Customer Relationship Management (CRM) and knowledge management, some important issued arise, in particular related to the lack of success of CRM strategies implementation. The paper contributes to this proposing an integrated model of CRM success taking into account complementary factors such as organizational factors, technology, knowledge management and customer orientation.

Keywords: knowledge management, CRM, CRM success, organizational factors.

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96 Transmission Performance Analysis for Live Broadcasting over IPTV Service in Telemedicine Applications

Authors: Jenny K. Ubaque, Edward P. Guillen, Juan S. Solórzano, Leonardo J. Ramírez

Abstract:

The health care must be a right for people around the world, but in order to guarantee the access to all, it is necessary to overcome geographical barriers. Telemedicine take advantage of Information Communication Technologies to deploy health care services around the world. To achieve those goals, it is necessary to use existing last mile solution to create access for home users, which is why is necessary to establish the channel characteristics for those kinds of services. This paper presents an analysis of network performance of last mile solution for the use of IPTV broadcasting with the application of streaming for telemedicine apps.

Keywords: Telemedicine, IPTV, GPON, ADSL2+, COAXIAL, Jumbogram.

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95 The Relevance of Intellectual Capital: An Analysis of Spanish Universities

Authors: Yolanda Ramírez, Ángel Tejada, Agustín Baidez

Abstract:

In recent years, the intellectual capital reporting in higher education institutions has been acquiring progressive importance worldwide. Intellectual capital approaches becomes critical at universities, mainly due to the fact that knowledge is the main output as well as input in these institutions. Universities produce knowledge, either through scientific and technical research (the results of investigation, publications, etc.) or through teaching (students trained and productive relationships with their stakeholders). The purpose of the present paper is to identify the intangible elements about which university stakeholders demand most information. The results of a study done at Spanish universities are used to see which groups of universities have stakeholders who are more proactive to the disclosure of intellectual capital.

Keywords: Intellectual capital, universities, Spain, cluster analysis.

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94 Used Frying Oil for Biodiesel Production Over Kaolinite as Catalyst

Authors: Jorge Ramírez-Ortiz, Jorge Medina-Valtierra, Merced Martínez Rosales

Abstract:

Biodiesel production with used frying by transesterification reaction with methanol, using a commercial kaolinite thermally-activated solid acid catalyst was investigated. The surface area, the average pore diameter and pore volume of the kaolinite catalyst were 10 m2/g, 13.0 nm and 30 mm3/g, respectively. The optimal conditions for the transesterification reaction were determined to be oil/methanol, in a molar ratio 1:31, temperature 160 ºC and catalyst concentration of 3% (w/w). The yield of fatty acids methyl esters (FAME) was 92.4% after 2 h of reaction. This method of preparation of biodiesel can be a positive alternative for utilizing used frying corn oil for feedstock of biodiesel combined with the inexpensive catalyst.

Keywords: Biodiesel, frying corn oil, kaolinite, transesterification

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93 Voluntary Information of Intellectual Capital Disclosed Online by Public Spanish Universities

Authors: Yolanda Ramírez, Ángel Tejada, Agustín Baidez

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to examine the quality of voluntary intellectual capital disclosure by public Spanish universities on their websites. To this end, a content analysis was used to analyze the websites of 50 public Spanish universities i 2016. The results of this study show that human capital was the most disclosed category with relational capital being the least frequently disclosed in Spain. However, the quality of structural capital disclosures was higher than relational and human capital. Finally, most IC disclosures were narrative in nature.

Keywords: Intellectual capital, quality disclosure, websites, universities, Spain.

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92 Production of Biodiesel from Roasted Chicken Fat and Methanol: Free Catalyst

Authors: Jorge Ramírez-Ortiz, Merced Martínez Rosales, Horacio Flores Zúñiga

Abstract:

Transesterification reactions free of catalyst between roasted chicken fat with methanol were carried out in a batch reactor in order to produce biodiesel to temperatures from 120°C to 140°C. Parameters related to the transesterification reactions, including temperature, time and the molar ratio of chicken fat to methanol also investigated. The maximum yield of the reaction was of 98% under conditions of 140°C, 4 h of reaction time and a molar ratio of chicken fat to methanol of 1:31. The biodiesel thus obtained exhibited a viscosity of 6.3 mm2/s and a density of 895.9 kg/m3. The results showed this process can be right choice to produce biodiesel since this process does not use any catalyst. Therefore, the steps of neutralization and washing are avoided, indispensables in the case of the alkaline catalysis.

Keywords: Biodiesel, non-catalyst, roasted chicken fat, transesterification.

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91 Carbon Nanotubes with Magnetic Particles

Authors: Svitlana Kopyl, Vladimir Bystrov, Mikhail Maiorov, Manuel Valente, Igor Bdikin, Antonio C.M. Sousa

Abstract:

Magnetic carbon nanotubes composites were obtained by filling carbon nanotubes with paramagnetic iron oxide particles. Detailed investigation of magnetic behaviour of resulting composites was done at different temperatures. Measurements indicate that these functionalized nanotubes are superparamagnetic at room temperature; however, no superparamagnetism was observed at 125 K and 80 K. The blocking temperature TB was estimated at 145 K. These magnetic carbon nanotubes have the potential of being used in a wide range of applications, in particular, the production of nanofluids, which can be controlled and steered by appropriate magnetic fields.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, magnetic nanoparticles, magnetization, nanofluids

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90 Automatic Threshold Search for Heat Map Based Feature Selection: A Cancer Dataset Analysis

Authors: Carlos Huertas, Reyes Juarez-Ramirez

Abstract:

Public health is one of the most critical issues today; therefore, there is great interest to improve technologies in the area of diseases detection. With machine learning and feature selection, it has been possible to aid the diagnosis of several diseases such as cancer. In this work, we present an extension to the Heat Map Based Feature Selection algorithm, this modification allows automatic threshold parameter selection that helps to improve the generalization performance of high dimensional data such as mass spectrometry. We have performed a comparison analysis using multiple cancer datasets and compare against the well known Recursive Feature Elimination algorithm and our original proposal, the results show improved classification performance that is very competitive against current techniques.

Keywords: Feature selection, mass spectrometry, biomarker discovery, cancer.

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89 Design of a Compact Herriott Cell for Heat Flux Measurement Applications

Authors: R. G. Ramírez-Chavarría, C. Sánchez-Pérez, V. Argueta-Díaz

Abstract:

In this paper we present the design of an optical device based on a Herriott multi-pass cell fabricated on a small sized acrylic slab for heat flux measurements using the deflection of a laser beam propagating inside the cell. The beam deflection is produced by the heat flux conducted to the acrylic slab due to a gradient in the refractive index. The use of a long path cell as the sensitive element in this measurement device, gives the possibility of high sensitivity within a small size device. We present the optical design as well as some experimental results in order to validate the device’s operation principle.

Keywords: Heat flux, herriott cell, optical beam deflection, thermal conductivity.

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88 Study of Soil Contaminated with Arsenic, Cadmium and Lead in Ancient Tailings in Zacatecas, México

Authors: J. Ramírez-Ortiz, J. Núñez Monreal

Abstract:

Due to the growth of the urban area towards lands contaminated with ancient tails, in this work we evaluated if the leaching with calcium thiosulfate (CaS2O3) for the recovery of silver, gold and mercury from this soil, also dissolves arsenic, cadmium and lead; for this, we determined their quantity per each fraction of size of particle of the soil before and after the dissolution. Half of the soil samples were leached in the plant Beneficiadora de Jales del Centro, S. A. de C.V. and the rest of them remained in the laboratory. The ICP-OES technique was used to determine the amounts of arsenic, cadmium and lead, in the samples of both lots. The soil samples were collected in a neighboring area at El Lampotal, Vetagrande, Zacatecas, México, with an extension of 600 m2 at 22º52' 37.69'' N, 102º25' 11.73'' W. The amount of arsenic, cadmium and lead found in nonleached soil and for a particle size of 47 μm was 203.72±3.73, 33.63±1.31 and 3480.99±20.4 mg/kg respectively.

Keywords: Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, Soil, Tails.

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87 Intellectual Capital Report for Universities

Authors: Yolanda Ramírez Córcoles, Ángel Tejad Ponce, Agustín Baidez González

Abstract:

Intellectual capital reporting becomes critical at universities, mainly due to the fact that knowledge is the main output as well as input in these institutions. In addition, universities have continuous external demands for greater information and transparency about the use of public funds, and are increasingly provided with greater autonomy regarding their organization, management, and budget allocation. This situation requires new management and reporting systems. The purpose of the present study is to provide a model for intellectual capital report in Spanish universities. To this end, a questionnaire was sent to every member of the Social Councils of Spanish public universities in order to identify which intangible elements university stakeholders demand most. Our proposal for an intellectual capital report aims to act as a guide to help the Spanish universities on the road to the presentation of information on intellectual capital which can assist stakeholders to make the right decisions.

Keywords: Intellectual capital, Spain, report, universities.

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86 Recent Advances on Computational Proteomics

Authors: Sérgio F. Sousa, Nuno M. F. S. A. Cerqueira, Marta A. S. Perez, Irina S. Moreira, António J. M.Ribeiro, Ana R. A. P. Neves, Maria J. Ramos, Pedro A. Fernandes

Abstract:

In this work we report the recent progresses that have been achieved by our group in the last half decade on the field of computational proteomics. Specifically, we discuss the application of Molecular Dynamics Simulations and Electronic Structure Calculations in drug design, in the clarification of the structural and dynamic properties of proteins and enzymes and in the understanding of the catalytic and inhibition mechanism of cancer-related enzymes. A set of examples illustrate the concepts and help to introduce the reader into this important and fast moving field.

Keywords: Enzyme, Molecular Dynamics, Protein, Quantum Mechanics.

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85 Non-Invasive Technology on a Classroom Chair for Detection of Emotions Used for the Personalization of Learning Resources

Authors: Carlos Ramirez, Carlos Concha, Benjamin Valdes

Abstract:

Emotions are related with learning processes and physiological signals can be used to detect them for the personalization of learning resources and to control the pace of instruction. A model of relevant emotions has been developed, where specific combinations of emotions and cognition processes are connected and integrated with the concept of 'flow', in order to improve learning. The cardiac pulse is a reliable signal that carries useful information about the subject-s emotional condition; it is detected using a classroom chair adapted with non invasive EMFi sensor and an acquisition system that generates a ballistocardiogram (BCG), the signal is processed by an algorithm to obtain characteristics that match a specific emotional condition. The complete chair system is presented in this work, along with a framework for the personalization of learning resources.

Keywords: Ballistocardiogram, emotions in learning, noninvasive sensors, personalization of learning resources.

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84 Analytics Model in a Telehealth Center Based on Cloud Computing and Local Storage

Authors: L. Ramirez, E. Guillén, J. Sánchez

Abstract:

Some of the main goals about telecare such as monitoring, treatment, telediagnostic are deployed with the integration of applications with specific appliances. In order to achieve a coherent model to integrate software, hardware, and healthcare systems, different telehealth models with Internet of Things (IoT), cloud computing, artificial intelligence, etc. have been implemented, and their advantages are still under analysis. In this paper, we propose an integrated model based on IoT architecture and cloud computing telehealth center. Analytics module is presented as a solution to control an ideal diagnostic about some diseases. Specific features are then compared with the recently deployed conventional models in telemedicine. The main advantage of this model is the availability of controlling the security and privacy about patient information and the optimization on processing and acquiring clinical parameters according to technical characteristics.

Keywords: Analytics, telemedicine, internet of things, cloud computing.

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83 Clustering Multivariate Empiric Characteristic Functions for Multi-Class SVM Classification

Authors: María-Dolores Cubiles-de-la-Vega, Rafael Pino-Mejías, Esther-Lydia Silva-Ramírez

Abstract:

A dissimilarity measure between the empiric characteristic functions of the subsamples associated to the different classes in a multivariate data set is proposed. This measure can be efficiently computed, and it depends on all the cases of each class. It may be used to find groups of similar classes, which could be joined for further analysis, or it could be employed to perform an agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis of the set of classes. The final tree can serve to build a family of binary classification models, offering an alternative approach to the multi-class SVM problem. We have tested this dendrogram based SVM approach with the oneagainst- one SVM approach over four publicly available data sets, three of them being microarray data. Both performances have been found equivalent, but the first solution requires a smaller number of binary SVM models.

Keywords: Cluster Analysis, Empiric Characteristic Function, Multi-class SVM, R.

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82 Viscoelastic Characterization of Bovine Trabecular Bone Samples

Authors: Ramirez D. Edgar I., Angeles H. José J., Ruiz C. Osvaldo, Jacobo A. Victor H., Ortiz P. Armando

Abstract:

Knowledge of bone mechanical properties is important for bone substitutes design and fabrication, and more efficient prostheses development. The aim of this study is to characterize the viscoelastic behavior of bone specimens, through stress relaxation and fatigue tests performed to trabecular bone samples from bovine femoral heads. Relaxation tests consisted on preloading the samples at five different magnitudes and evaluate them for 1020 seconds, adjusting the results to a KWW mathematical model. Fatigue tests consisted of 700 load cycles and analyze their status at the end of the tests. As a conclusion we have that between relaxation stress and each preload there is linear relation and for samples with initial Young´s modulus greater than 1.5 GPa showed no effects due fatigue test loading cycles.

Keywords: Bone viscoelasticity, fatigue test, stress relaxation test, trabecular bone properties.

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81 A Rough Sets Approach for Relevant Internet/Web Online Searching

Authors: Erika Martinez Ramirez, Rene V. Mayorga

Abstract:

The internet is constantly expanding. Identifying web links of interest from web browsers requires users to visit each of the links listed, individually until a satisfactory link is found, therefore those users need to evaluate a considerable amount of links before finding their link of interest; this can be tedious and even unproductive. By incorporating web assistance, web users could be benefited from reduced time searching on relevant websites. In this paper, a rough set approach is presented, which facilitates classification of unlimited available e-vocabulary, to assist web users in reducing search times looking for relevant web sites. This approach includes two methods for identifying relevance data on web links based on the priority and percentage of relevance. As a result of these methods, a list of web sites is generated in priority sequence with an emphasis of the search criteria.

Keywords: Web search, Web Mining, Rough Sets, Web Intelligence, Intelligent Portals, Relevance.

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80 Analysis and Prototyping of Biological Systems: the Abstract Biological Process Model

Authors: Antonio Di Leva, Roberto Berchi, Gianpiero Pescarmona, Michele Sonnessa

Abstract:

The aim of a biological model is to understand the integrated structure and behavior of complex biological systems as a function of the underlying molecular networks to achieve simulation and forecast of their operation. Although several approaches have been introduced to take into account structural and environment related features, relatively little attention has been given to represent the behavior of biological systems. The Abstract Biological Process (ABP) model illustrated in this paper is an object-oriented model based on UML (the standard object-oriented language). Its main objective is to bring into focus the functional aspects of the biological system under analysis.

Keywords: Biological processes, system dynamics, systemmodeling, UML.

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79 Distributed Motion Control Real-Time Contouring Algorithm Implementation and Performance Test

Authors: Francisco J. Lopez-Jaquez, Sandra E. Ramirez-Jara

Abstract:

This paper presents an implementation and performance test of a distributed motion control system based on a master-slave configuration used to move a plasma-cutting torch over a predefined trajectory. The master is a general-purpose computer running on an open source operating system platform and software developer. Software running in the master computer generates commands on real time and we measure performance based on a selected set of differences between expected and observed distances. We are testing the null hypothesis that the outcome trajectory is identical to the input against the alternative hypothesis that there is a shift to the right or left of the input one. We used the Wilcoxon signed ranks test method for the hypothesis test.

Keywords: Distributed, motion, control, real-time, contouring.

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