Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2566

Search results for: Acoustic Doppler current profiler

2566 Sediment Transport Monitoring in the Port of Veracruz Expansion Project

Authors: Francisco Liaño-Carrera, José Isaac Ramírez-Macías, David Salas-Monreal, Mayra Lorena Riveron-Enzastiga, Marcos Rangel-Avalos, Adriana Andrea Roldán-Ubando

Abstract:

The construction of most coastal infrastructure developments around the world are usually made considering wave height, current velocities and river discharges; however, little effort has been paid to surveying sediment transport during dredging or the modification to currents outside the ports or marinas during and after the construction. This study shows a complete survey during the construction of one of the largest ports of the Gulf of Mexico. An anchored Acoustic Doppler Current Velocity profiler (ADCP), a towed ADCP and a combination of model outputs were used at the Veracruz port construction in order to describe the hourly sediment transport and current modifications in and out of the new port. Owing to the stability of the system the new port was construction inside Vergara Bay, a low wave energy system with a tidal range of up to 0.40 m. The results show a two-current system pattern within the bay. The north side of the bay has an anticyclonic gyre, while the southern part of the bay shows a cyclonic gyre. Sediment transport trajectories were made every hour using the anchored ADCP, a numerical model and the weekly data obtained from the towed ADCP within the entire bay. The sediment transport trajectories were carefully tracked since the bay is surrounded by coral reef structures which are sensitive to sedimentation rate and water turbidity. The survey shows that during dredging and rock input used to build the wave breaker sediments were locally added (< 2500 m2) and local currents disperse it in less than 4 h. While the river input located in the middle of the bay and the sewer system plant may add more than 10 times this amount during a rainy day or during the tourist season. Finally, the coastal line obtained seasonally with a drone suggests that the southern part of the bay has not been modified by the construction of the new port located in the northern part of the bay, owing to the two subsystem division of the bay.

Keywords: Acoustic Doppler current profiler, time series, port construction, construction around coral reefs, sediment transport monitoring.

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2565 The Estimate Rate of Permanent Flow of a Liquid Simulating Blood by Doppler Effect

Authors: Malika.D Kedir-Talha, Mohammed Mehenni

Abstract:

To improve the characterization of blood flows, we propose a method which makes it possible to use the spectral analysis of the Doppler signals. Our calculation induces a reasonable approximation, the error made on estimated speed reflects the fact that speed depends on the flow conditions as well as on measurement parameters like the bore and the volume flow rate. The estimate of the Doppler signal frequency enables us to determine the maximum Doppler frequencie Fd max as well as the maximum flow speed. The results show that the difference between the estimated frequencies ( Fde ) and the Doppler frequencies ( Fd ) is small, this variation tends to zero for important θ angles and it is proportional to the diameter D. The description of the speed of friction and the coefficient of friction justify the error rate obtained.

Keywords: Doppler frequency, Doppler spectrum, estimate speed, permanent flow.

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2564 Despiking of Turbulent Flow Data in Gravel Bed Stream

Authors: Ratul Das

Abstract:

The present experimental study insights the decontamination of instantaneous velocity fluctuations captured by Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) in gravel-bed streams to ascertain near-bed turbulence for low Reynolds number. The interference between incidental and reflected pulses produce spikes in the ADV data especially in the near-bed flow zone and therefore filtering the data are very essential. Nortek’s Vectrino four-receiver ADV probe was used to capture the instantaneous three-dimensional velocity fluctuations over a non-cohesive bed. A spike removal algorithm based on the acceleration threshold method was applied to note the bed roughness and its influence on velocity fluctuations and velocity power spectra in the carrier fluid. The velocity power spectra of despiked signals with a best combination of velocity threshold (VT) and acceleration threshold (AT) are proposed which ascertained velocity power spectra a satisfactory fit with the Kolmogorov “–5/3 scaling-law” in the inertial sub-range. Also, velocity distributions below the roughness crest level fairly follows a third-degree polynomial series.

Keywords: Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter, gravel-bed, spike removal, Reynolds shear stress, near-bed turbulence, velocity power spectra.

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2563 Study of Unsteady Swirling Flow in a Hydrodynamic Vortex Chamber

Authors: Sergey I. Shtork, Aleksey P. Vinokurov, Sergey V. Alekseenko

Abstract:

The paper reports on the results of experimental and numerical study of nonstationary swirling flow in an isothermal model of vortex burner. It has been identified that main source of the instability is related to a precessing vortex core (PVC) phenomenon. The PVC induced flow pulsation characteristics such as precession frequency and its variation as a function of flowrate and swirl number have been explored making use of acoustic probes. Additionally pressure transducers were used to measure the pressure drops on the working chamber and across the vortex flow. The experiments have been included also the mean velocity measurements making use of a laser-Doppler anemometry. The features of instantaneous flowfield generated by the PVC were analyzed employing a commercial CFD code (Star-CCM+) based on Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) approach. Validity of the numerical code has been checked by comparison calculated flowfield data with the obtained experimental results. It has been confirmed particularly that the CFD code applied correctly reproduces the flow features.

Keywords: Acoustic probes, detached eddy simulation (DES), laser-Doppler anemometry (LDA), precessing vortex core (PVC).

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2562 Investigation of the Unbiased Characteristic of Doppler Frequency to Different Antenna Array Geometries

Authors: Somayeh Komeylian

Abstract:

Array signal processing techniques have been recently developing in a variety application of the performance enhancement of receivers by refraining the power of jamming and interference signals. In this scenario, biases induced to the antenna array receiver degrade significantly the accurate estimation of the carrier phase. Owing to the integration of frequency becomes the carrier phase, we have obtained the unbiased doppler frequency for the high precision estimation of carrier phase. The unbiased characteristic of Doppler frequency to the power jamming and the other interference signals allows achieving the highly accurate estimation of phase carrier. In this study, we have rigorously investigated the unbiased characteristic of Doppler frequency to the variation of the antenna array geometries. The simulation results have efficiently verified that the Doppler frequency remains also unbiased and accurate to the variation of antenna array geometries.

Keywords: Array signal processing, unbiased Doppler frequency, GNSS, carrier phase, slowly fluctuating point target.

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2561 A Novel Receiver Algorithm for Coherent Underwater Acoustic Communications

Authors: Liang Zhao, Jianhua Ge

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed a novel receiver algorithm for coherent underwater acoustic communications. The proposed receiver is composed of three parts: (1) Doppler tracking and correction, (2) Time reversal channel estimation and combining, and (3) Joint iterative equalization and decoding (JIED). To reduce computational complexity and optimize the equalization algorithm, Time reversal (TR) channel estimation and combining is adopted to simplify multi-channel adaptive decision feedback equalizer (ADFE) into single channel ADFE without reducing the system performance. Simultaneously, the turbo theory is adopted to form joint iterative ADFE and convolutional decoder (JIED). In JIED scheme, the ADFE and decoder exchange soft information in an iterative manner, which can enhance the equalizer performance using decoding gain. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can reduce computational complexity and improve the performance of equalizer. Therefore, the performance of coherent underwater acoustic communications can be improved greatly.

Keywords: Underwater acoustic communication, Time reversal (TR) combining, joint iterative equalization and decoding (JIED)

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2560 Laser Doppler Flowmetry in Diagnostics of Vascular Lesions in Lower Extremities

Authors: Petr V. Vasilev, Eduard V. Volkov, Alexej N. Godok, Alexej A, Grischschuk, Vitalij A. Rybalchenko

Abstract:

Laser Doppler flowmetry is a modern method of noninvasive microcirculation investigation. The aim of our study was to use this method in the examination of patients with secondary lymphedema of the lower extremities and obliterating atherosclerosis of lower extremities. In the analysis of the amplitude-frequency spectrum of secondary lymphedema patients we have identified remarkable changes. To describe the changes we used a special amplitude rate. In both of patients groups this rate was significally (p<0.05) different with the control group. So the marker phenomena of the amplitude-frequency spectrum of the LDF signal were identified. It is suggested that there is a limfodynamics contribution to the formation of the output signal of laser Doppler flowmetry. These data have fundamental meaning and are interesting for practical medicine, as they give an opportunity to further developments for the use of laser Doppler flowmetry in the diagnostics and monitoring the effectiveness of the treatment.

Keywords: laser Doppler flowmetry, secondary lymphedema of the lower extremities, obliterating atherosclerosis, non-invasive diagnostics.

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2559 An Analysis of Acoustic Function and Navier-Stokes Equations in Aerodynamic

Authors: Hnin Hnin Kyi, Khaing Khaing Aye

Abstract:

Acoustic function plays an important role in aerodynamic mechanical engineering. It can classify the kind of air-vehicle such as subsonic or supersonic. Acoustic velocity relates with velocity and Mach number. Mach number relates again acoustic stability or instability condition. Mach number plays an important role in growth or decay in energy system. Acoustic is a function of temperature and temperature is directly proportional to pressure. If we control the pressure, we can control acoustic function. To get pressure stability condition, we apply Navier-Stokes equations.

Keywords: Acoustic velocity, Irrotational, Mach number, Rotational.

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2558 Architectural Acoustic Modeling for Predicting Reverberation Time in Room Acoustic Design Using Multiple Criteria Decision Making Analysis

Authors: C.Ardil

Abstract:

This paper presents architectural acoustic modeling to estimate reverberation time in room acoustic design using multiple criteria decision making analysis. First, fundamental decision criteria were determined to evaluate the reverberation time in the room acoustic design problem. Then, the proposed model was applied to a practical decision problem to evaluate and select the optimal room acoustic design model. Finally, the optimal acoustic design of the rooms was analyzed and ranked using a multiple criteria decision making analysis method.

Keywords: Architectural acoustics, room acoustics, architectural acoustic modeling, reverberation time, room acoustic design, multiple criteria decision making analysis, decision analysis, MCDMA

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2557 Modeling and Simulation of Acoustic Link Using Mackenize Propagation Speed Equation

Authors: Christhu Raj M. R., Rajeev Sukumaran

Abstract:

Underwater acoustic networks have attracted great attention in the last few years because of its numerous applications. High data rate can be achieved by efficiently modeling the physical layer in the network protocol stack. In Acoustic medium, propagation speed of the acoustic waves is dependent on many parameters such as temperature, salinity, density, and depth. Acoustic propagation speed cannot be modeled using standard empirical formulas such as Urick and Thorp descriptions. In this paper, we have modeled the acoustic channel using real time data of temperature, salinity, and speed of Bay of Bengal (Indian Coastal Region). We have modeled the acoustic channel by using Mackenzie speed equation and real time data obtained from National Institute of Oceanography and Technology. It is found that acoustic propagation speed varies between 1503 m/s to 1544 m/s as temperature and depth differs. The simulation results show that temperature, salinity, depth plays major role in acoustic propagation and data rate increases with appropriate data sets substituted in the simulated model.

Keywords: Underwater Acoustics, Mackenzie Speed Equation, Temperature, Salinity.

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2556 Examination of the Effect of Air Viscosity on Narrow Acoustic Tubes Using FEM Involving Complex Effective Density and Complex Bulk Modulus

Authors: M. Watanabe, T. Yamaguchi, M. Sasajima, Y. Kurosawa, Y. Koike

Abstract:

Earphones and headphones, which are compact electro-acoustic transducers, tend to have a lot of acoustic absorption materials and porous materials known as dampers, which often have a large number of extremely small holes and narrow slits to inhibit the resonance of the vibrating system, because the air viscosity significantly affects the acoustic characteristics in such acoustic paths. In order to perform simulations using the finite element method (FEM), it is necessary to be aware of material characteristics such as the impedance and propagation constants of sound absorbing materials and porous materials. The transfer function is widely known as a measurement method for an acoustic tube with such physical properties, but literature describing the measurements at the upper limits of the audible range is yet to be found. The acoustic tube, which is a measurement instrument, must be made narrow, and the distance between the two sets of microphones must be shortened in order to take measurements of acoustic characteristics at higher frequencies. When such a tube is made narrow, however, the characteristic impedance has been observed to become lower than the impedance of air. This paper considers the cause of this phenomenon to be the effect of the air viscosity and describes an FEM analysis of an acoustic tube considering air viscosity to compare to the theoretical formula by including the effect of air viscosity in the theoretical formula for an acoustic tube.

Keywords: Acoustic tube, air viscosity, earphones, FEM, porous materials, sound absorbing materials, transfer function method.

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2555 Analytical Solutions for Geodesic Acoustic Eigenmodes in Tokamak Plasmas

Authors: Victor I. Ilgisonis, Ludmila V. Konovaltseva, Vladimir P. Lakhin, Ekaterina A. Sorokina

Abstract:

The analytical solutions for geodesic acoustic eigenmodes in tokamak plasmas with circular concentric magnetic surfaces are found. In the frame of ideal magnetohydrodynamics the dispersion relation taking into account the toroidal coupling between electrostatic perturbations and electromagnetic perturbations with poloidal mode number |m| = 2 is derived. In the absence of such a coupling the dispersion relation gives the standard continuous spectrum of geodesic acoustic modes. The analysis of the existence of global eigenmodes for plasma equilibria with both off-axis and on-axis maximum of the local geodesic acoustic frequency is performed.

Keywords: Tokamak, MHD, geodesic acoustic mode, eigenmode.

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2554 Simulations of Cryogenic Cavitation of Low Temperature Fluids with Thermodynamics Effects

Authors: A. Alhelfi, B. Sunden

Abstract:

Cavitation in cryogenic liquids is widely present in contemporary science. In the current study, we re-examine a previously validated acoustic cavitation model which was developed for a gas bubble in liquid water. Furthermore, simulations of cryogenic fluids including the thermal effect, the effect of acoustic pressure amplitude and the frequency of sound field on the bubble dynamics are presented. A gas bubble (Helium) in liquids Nitrogen, Oxygen and Hydrogen in an acoustic field at ambient pressure and low temperature is investigated numerically. The results reveal that the oscillation of the bubble in liquid Hydrogen fluctuates more than in liquids Oxygen and Nitrogen. The oscillation of the bubble in liquids Oxygen and Nitrogen is approximately similar.

Keywords: Cryogenic liquids, cavitation, rocket engineering, ultrasound.

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2553 Non-Invasive Capillary Blood Flow Measurement: Laser Speckle and Laser Doppler

Authors: A.K.Jayanthy, N.Sujatha, M.Ramasubba Reddy

Abstract:

Microcirculation is essential for the proper supply of oxygen and nutritive substances to the biological tissue and the removal of waste products of metabolism. The determination of blood flow in the capillaries is therefore of great interest to clinicians. A comparison has been carried out using the developed non-invasive, non-contact and whole field laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) based technique and as well as a commercially available laser Doppler blood flowmeter (LDF) to evaluate blood flow at the finger tip and elbow and is presented here. The LSCI technique gives more quantitative information on the velocity of blood when compared to the perfusion values obtained using the LDF. Measurement of blood flow in capillaries can be of great interest to clinicians in the diagnosis of vascular diseases of the upper extremities.

Keywords: Blood flow, Laser Doppler flowmeter, LSCI, speckle

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2552 Numerical Simulations of Flood and Inundation in Jobaru River Basin Using Laser Profiler Data

Authors: Hiroto Nakashima, Toshihiro Morita, Koichiro Ohgushi

Abstract:

Laser Profiler (LP) data from aerial laser surveys have been increasingly used as topographical inputs to numerical simulations of flooding and inundation in river basins. LP data has great potential for reproducing topography, but its effective usage has not yet been fully established. In this study, flooding and inundation are simulated numerically using LP data for the Jobaru River basin of Japan’s Saga Plain. The analysis shows that the topography is reproduced satisfactorily in the computational domain with urban and agricultural areas requiring different grid sizes. A 2-D numerical simulation shows that flood flow behavior changes as grid size is varied.

Keywords: LP data, numerical simulation, topological analysis, mesh size.

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2551 Bearing Condition Monitoring with Acoustic Emission Techniques

Authors: Faisal AlShammari, Abdulmajid Addali

Abstract:

Monitoring the conditions of rotating machinery, such as bearings, is important in order to improve the stability of work. Acoustic Emission (AE) and vibration analysis are some of the most accomplished techniques used for this purpose. Acoustic emission has the ability to detect the initial phase of component degradation. Moreover, it has been observed that vibration analysis is not as successful at low rotational speeds (below 100 rpm). This because the energy generated within this speed region is not detectable using conventional vibration. From this perspective, this paper has presented a brief review of using acoustic emission techniques for monitoring bearing conditions.

Keywords: Condition monitoring, stress wave analysis, low-speed bearings, bearing defect diagnosis.

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2550 Error Effects on SAR Image Resolution using Range Doppler Imaging Algorithm

Authors: Su Su Yi Mon, Fang Jiancheng

Abstract:

Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is an imaging radar form by taking full advantage of the relative movement of the antenna with respect to the target. Through the simultaneous processing of the radar reflections over the movement of the antenna via the Range Doppler Algorithm (RDA), the superior resolution of a theoretical wider antenna, termed synthetic aperture, is obtained. Therefore, SAR can achieve high resolution two dimensional imagery of the ground surface. In addition, two filtering steps in range and azimuth direction provide accurate enough result. This paper develops a simulation in which realistic SAR images can be generated. Also, the effect of velocity errors in the resulting image has also been investigated. Taking some velocity errors into account, the simulation results on the image resolution would be presented. Most of the times, algorithms need to be adjusted for particular datasets, or particular applications.

Keywords: Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), Range Doppler Algorithm (RDA), Image Resolution.

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2549 Environmentally Adaptive Acoustic Echo Suppression for Barge-in Speech Recognition

Authors: Jong Han Joo, Jeong Hun Lee, Young Sun Kim, Jae Young Kang, Seung Ho Choi

Abstract:

In this study, we propose a novel technique for acoustic echo suppression (AES) during speech recognition under barge-in conditions. Conventional AES methods based on spectral subtraction apply fixed weights to the estimated echo path transfer function (EPTF) at the current signal segment and to the EPTF estimated until the previous time interval. However, the effects of echo path changes should be considered for eliminating the undesired echoes. We describe a new approach that adaptively updates weight parameters in response to abrupt changes in the acoustic environment due to background noises or double-talk. Furthermore, we devised a voice activity detector and an initial time-delay estimator for barge-in speech recognition in communication networks. The initial time delay is estimated using log-spectral distance measure, as well as cross-correlation coefficients. The experimental results show that the developed techniques can be successfully applied in barge-in speech recognition systems.

Keywords: Acoustic echo suppression, barge-in, speech recognition, echo path transfer function, initial delay estimator, voice activity detector.

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2548 Cardiac Function and Morphological Adaptations in Endurance and Resistance Athletes: Evaluation using a new Method

Authors: K. Hosseini, MD., R. Mazaheri, MD., H.R. Khoddami Vishteh, MD., M.A. Mansournia, MD., H. Angoorani, MD

Abstract:

Background: Tissue Doppler Echocardiography (TDE) assesses diastolic function more accurately than routine pulse Doppler echo. Assessment of the effects of dynamic and static exercises on the heart by using TDE can provides new information about the athlete-s heart syndrome. Methods: This study was conducted on 20 elite wrestlers, 14 endurance runners at national level and 21 non-athletes as the control group. Participants underwent two-dimensional echocardiography, standard Doppler and TDE. Results: Wrestlers had the highest left ventricular mass index, enddiastolic inter-ventricular septum thickness and left ventricular Posterior wall thickness. Runners had the highest Left ventricular end-diastolic volume, LV ejection fraction, stroke volume and cardiac output. In TDE, the early diastolic velocity of mitral annulus to the late diastolic velocity ratio in athletic groups was greater than the controls with no significant difference. Conclusion: In spite of cardiac morphological changes in athletes, TDE shows that cardiac diastolic function won-t be adversely affected.

Keywords: Tissue Doppler Echocardiography, Diastolic function, Athlete's heart syndrome, Static exercise, Dynamic exercise

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2547 Ion- Acoustic Solitary Waves in a Self- Gravitating Dusty Plasma Having Two-Temperature Electrons

Authors: S.N.Paul, G.Pakira, B.Paul, B.Ghosh

Abstract:

Nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic waves in a selfgravitating dusty plasma consisting of warm positive ions, isothermal two-temperature electrons and negatively charged dust particles having charge fluctuations is studied using the reductive perturbation method. It is shown that the nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic waves in such plasma can be described by an uncoupled third order partial differential equation which is a modified form of the usual Korteweg-deVries (KdV) equation. From this nonlinear equation, a new type of solution for the ion-acoustic wave is obtained. The effects of two-temperature electrons, gravity and dust charge fluctuations on the ion-acoustic solitary waves are discussed with possible applications.

Keywords: Charge fluctuations, gravitating dusty plasma, Ionacoustic solitary wave, Two-temperature electrons

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2546 Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Sound Radiation by the Boundary Element Method

Authors: Costa, E.S., Borges, E.N.M., Afonso, M.M.

Abstract:

The modeling of sound radiation is of fundamental importance for understanding the propagation of acoustic waves and, consequently, develop mechanisms for reducing acoustic noise. The propagation of acoustic waves, are involved in various phenomena such as radiation, absorption, transmission and reflection. The radiation is studied through the linear equation of the acoustic wave that is obtained through the equation for the Conservation of Momentum, equation of State and Continuity. From these equations, is the Helmholtz differential equation that describes the problem of acoustic radiation. In this paper we obtained the solution of the Helmholtz differential equation for an infinite cylinder in a pulsating through free and homogeneous. The analytical solution is implemented and the results are compared with the literature. A numerical formulation for this problem is obtained using the Boundary Element Method (BEM). This method has great power for solving certain acoustical problems in open field, compared to differential methods. BEM reduces the size of the problem, thereby simplifying the input data to be worked and reducing the computational time used.

Keywords: Acoustic radiation, boundary element

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2545 Quantum Ion Acoustic Solitary and Shock Waves in Dissipative Warm Plasma with Fermi Electron and Positron

Authors: Hamid Reza Pakzad

Abstract:

Ion-acoustic solitary and shock waves in dense quantum plasmas whose constituents are electrons, positrons, and positive ions are investigated. We assume that ion velocity is weakly relativistic and also the effects of kinematic viscosity among the plasma constituents is considered. By using the reductive perturbation method, the Korteweg–deVries–Burger (KdV-B) equation is derived.

Keywords: Ion acoustic shock waves; Quantum plasmas

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2544 An Overview of Energy Efficient Routing Protocols for Acoustic Sensor Network

Authors: V. P. Dhivya, R. Arthi

Abstract:

Underwater acoustic network is one of the rapidly growing areas of research and finds different applications for monitoring and collecting various data for environmental studies. The communication among dynamic nodes and high error probability in an acoustic medium forced to maximize energy consumption in Underwater Sensor Networks (USN) than in traditional sensor networks. Developing energy-efficient routing protocol is the fundamental and a curb challenge because all the sensor nodes are powered by batteries, and they cannot be easily replaced in UWSNs. This paper surveys the various recent routing techniques that mainly focus on energy efficiency.

Keywords: Acoustic channels, Energy efficiency, Routing in sensor networks, Underwater Sensor Network.

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2543 Nonplanar Ion-acoustic Waves in a Relativistically Degenerate Quantum Plasma

Authors: Swarniv Chandra, Sibarjun Das, Agniv Chandra, Basudev Ghosh, Apratim Jash

Abstract:

Using the quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model the nonlinear properties of ion-acoustic waves in are lativistically degenerate quantum plasma is investigated by deriving a nonlinear Spherical Kadomtsev–Petviashvili (SKP) equation using the standard reductive perturbation method equation. It was found that the electron degeneracy parameter significantly affects the linear and nonlinear properties of ion-acoustic waves in quantum plasma.

Keywords: Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation, Ion-acoustic Waves, Relativistic Degeneracy, Quantum Plasma, Quantum Hydrodynamic Model.

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2542 Comparison of Fricative Vocal Tract Transfer Functions Derived using Two Different Segmentation Techniques

Authors: K. S. Subari, C. H. Shadle, A. Barney, R. I. Damper

Abstract:

The acoustic and articulatory properties of fricative speech sounds are being studied using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and acoustic recordings from a single subject. Area functions were derived from a complete set of axial and coronal MR slices using two different methods: the Mermelstein technique and the Blum transform. Area functions derived from the two techniques were shown to differ significantly in some cases. Such differences will lead to different acoustic predictions and it is important to know which is the more accurate. The vocal tract acoustic transfer function (VTTF) was derived from these area functions for each fricative and compared with measured speech signals for the same fricative and same subject. The VTTFs for /f/ in two vowel contexts and the corresponding acoustic spectra are derived here; the Blum transform appears to show a better match between prediction and measurement than the Mermelstein technique.

Keywords: Area functions, fricatives, vocal tract transferfunction, MRI, speech.

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2541 Ant System with Acoustic Communication

Authors: S. Bougrine, S. Ouchraa, B. Ahiod, A. A. El Imrani

Abstract:

Ant colony optimization is an ant algorithm framework that took inspiration from foraging behavior of ant colonies. Indeed, ACO algorithms use a chemical communication, represented by pheromone trails, to build good solutions. However, ants involve different communication channels to interact. Thus, this paper introduces the acoustic communication between ants while they are foraging. This process allows fine and local exploration of search space and permits optimal solution to be improved.

Keywords: Acoustic Communication, Ant Colony Optimization, Local Search, Traveling Salesman Problem.

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2540 Automatic Discrimimation of the Modes of Permanent Flow of a Liquid Simulating Blood

Authors: Malika.D Kedir-Talha, Mohamed Mehenni

Abstract:

In order to be able to automatically differentiate between two modes of permanent flow of a liquid simulating blood, it was imperative to put together a data bank. Thus, the acquisition of the various amplitude spectra of the Doppler signal of this liquid in laminar flow and other spectra in turbulent flow enabled us to establish an automatic difference between the two modes. According to the number of parameters and their nature, a comparative study allowed us to choose the best classifier.

Keywords: Doppler spectrum, flow mode, pattern recognition, permanent flow.

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2539 An Investigation of Surface Texturing by Ultrasonic Impingement of Micro-Particles

Authors: Nagalingam Arun Prasanth, Ahmed Syed Adnan, S. H. Yeo

Abstract:

Surface topography plays a significant role in the functional performance of engineered parts. It is important to have a control on the surface geometry and understanding on the surface details to get the desired performance. Hence, in the current research contribution, a non-contact micro-texturing technique has been explored and developed. The technique involves ultrasonic excitation of a tool as a prime source of surface texturing for aluminum alloy workpieces. The specimen surface is polished first and is then immersed in a liquid bath containing 10% weight concentration of Ti6Al4V grade 5 spherical powders. A submerged slurry jet is used to recirculate the spherical powders under the ultrasonic horn which is excited at an ultrasonic frequency and amplitude of 40 kHz and 70 µm respectively. The distance between the horn and workpiece surface was remained fixed at 200 µm using a precision control stage. Texturing effects were investigated for different process timings of 1, 3 and 5 s. Thereafter, the specimens were cleaned in an ultrasonic bath for 5 mins to remove loose debris on the surface. The developed surfaces are characterized by optical and contact surface profiler. The optical microscopic images show a texture of circular spots on the workpiece surface indented by titanium spherical balls. Waviness patterns obtained from contact surface profiler supports the texturing effect produced from the proposed technique. Furthermore, water droplet tests were performed to show the efficacy of the proposed technique to develop hydrophilic surfaces and to quantify the texturing effect produced.

Keywords: Surface texturing, surface modification, topography, ultrasonic.

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2538 Evaluation of the Accuracy of Time of Arrival Source Location Algorithm of Acoustic Emission in Concrete-Mortar Structure

Authors: Hisham A. Elfergani, Ayad A. Abdalla, Ahmed R. Ballil

Abstract:

Acoustic Emission (AE) is one of the most effective non-destructive tests that can be used to detect the defect process as it is occurring. AE techniques can be used to monitor a wide range of structures and materials such as metals, non-metals and combinations of these when load is applied. The current work investigates the effectiveness and accuracy of TOA method in AE tests involving reinforced composite concrete-mortar structures. A series of experimental tests were performed using the Hsu-Neilson (H-N) source to study 2-D location accuracy using this method on concrete-mortar (400×400 mm) specimens. Four AE sensors (R3I – resonant frequency 30 kHz) were mounted to the mortar surface and six sources were performed at each point of preselected locations on the upper surface of the mortar. Results show that the TOA method can be used effectively to locate signals on composite concrete/mortar specimen and has high accuracy.

Keywords: Acoustic emission, time of arrival, composite materials, reinforced concrete.

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2537 Statistical Modeling of Mobile Fading Channels Based on Triply Stochastic Filtered Marked Poisson Point Processes

Authors: Jihad S. Daba, J. P. Dubois

Abstract:

Understanding the statistics of non-isotropic scattering multipath channels that fade randomly with respect to time, frequency, and space in a mobile environment is very crucial for the accurate detection of received signals in wireless and cellular communication systems. In this paper, we derive stochastic models for the probability density function (PDF) of the shift in the carrier frequency caused by the Doppler Effect on the received illuminating signal in the presence of a dominant line of sight. Our derivation is based on a generalized Clarke’s and a two-wave partially developed scattering models, where the statistical distribution of the frequency shift is shown to be consistent with the power spectral density of the Doppler shifted signal.

Keywords: Doppler shift, filtered Poisson process, generalized Clark’s model, non-isotropic scattering, partially developed scattering, Rician distribution.

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