Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: surface finish.

13 Mathematical Expression for Machining Performance

Authors: Md. Ashikur Rahman Khan, M. M. Rahman

Abstract:

In electrical discharge machining (EDM), a complete and clear theory has not yet been established. The developed theory (physical models) yields results far from reality due to the complexity of the physics. It is difficult to select proper parameter settings in order to achieve better EDM performance. However, modelling can solve this critical problem concerning the parameter settings. Therefore, the purpose of the present work is to develop mathematical model to predict performance characteristics of EDM on Ti-5Al-2.5Sn titanium alloy. Response surface method (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) are employed to develop the mathematical models. The developed models are verified through analysis of variance (ANOVA). The ANN models are trained, tested, and validated utilizing a set of data. It is found that the developed ANN and mathematical model can predict performance of EDM effectively. Thus, the model has found a precise tool that turns EDM process cost-effective and more efficient.

Keywords: Analysis of variance, artificial neural network, material removal rate, modelling, response surface method, surface finish.

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12 Performance Assessment of Carbon Nano Tube Based Cutting Fluid in Machining Process

Authors: Alluru Gopala Krishna, Thella Babu Rao

Abstract:

In machining, there is always a problem with heat generation and friction produced during the process as they consequently affect tool wear and surface finish. An instant heat transfer mechanism could protect the cutting tool edge and enhance the tool life by cooling the cutting edge of the tool. In the present work, carbon nanotube (CNT) based nano-cutting fluid is proposed for machining a hard-to-cut material. Tool wear and surface roughness are considered for the evaluation of the nano-cutting fluid in turning process. The performance of nanocoolant is assessed against the conventional coolant and dry machining conditions and it is observed that the proposed nanocoolant has produced better performance than the conventional coolant.

Keywords: CNT based nanocoolant, turning, tool wear, surface roughness.

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11 Optimization of Wire EDM Parameters for Fabrication of Micro Channels

Authors: Gurinder Singh Brar, Sarbjeet Singh, Harry Garg

Abstract:

Wire Electric Discharge Machining (WEDM) is thermal machining process capable of machining very hard electrically conductive material irrespective of their hardness. WEDM is being widely used to machine micro scale parts with the high dimensional accuracy and surface finish. The objective of this paper is to optimize the process parameters of wire EDM to fabricate the micro channels and to calculate the surface finish and material removal rate of micro channels fabricated using wire EDM. The material used is aluminum 6061 alloy. The experiments were performed using CNC wire cut electric discharge machine. The effect of various parameters of WEDM like pulse on time (TON) with the levels (100, 150, 200), pulse off time (TOFF) with the levels (25, 35, 45) and current (IP) with the levels (105, 110, 115) were investigated to study the effect on output parameter i.e. Surface Roughness and Material Removal Rate (MRR). Each experiment was conducted under different conditions of pulse on time, pulse off time and peak current. For material removal rate, TON and Ip were the most significant process parameter. MRR increases with the increase in TON and Ip and decreases with the increase in TOFF. For surface roughness, TON and Ip have the maximum effect and TOFF was found out to be less effective.

Keywords: Micro Channels, Wire Electric Discharge Machining (WEDM), Metal Removal Rate (MRR), Surface Finish.

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10 An Optimization of Machine Parameters for Modified Horizontal Boring Tool Using Taguchi Method

Authors: Thirasak Panyaphirawat, Pairoj Sapsmarnwong, Teeratas Pornyungyuen

Abstract:

This paper presents the findings of an experimental investigation of important machining parameters for the horizontal boring tool modified to mouth with a horizontal lathe machine to bore an overlength workpiece. In order to verify a usability of a modified tool, design of experiment based on Taguchi method is performed. The parameters investigated are spindle speed, feed rate, depth of cut and length of workpiece. Taguchi L9 orthogonal array is selected for four factors three level parameters in order to minimize surface roughness (Ra and Rz) of S45C steel tubes. Signal to noise ratio analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA) is performed to study an effect of said parameters and to optimize the machine setting for best surface finish. The controlled factors with most effect are depth of cut, spindle speed, length of workpiece, and feed rate in order. The confirmation test is performed to test the optimal setting obtained from Taguchi method and the result is satisfactory.

Keywords: Design of Experiment, Taguchi Design, Optimization, Analysis of Variance, Machining Parameters, Horizontal Boring Tool.

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9 Surface Roughness Evaluation for EDM of En31 with Cu-Cr-Ni Powder Metallurgy Tool

Authors: Amoljit S. Gill, Sanjeev Kumar

Abstract:

In this study, Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) is used to modify the surface of high carbon steel En31 with the help of tool electrode (Copper-Chromium-Nickel) manufactured by powder metallurgy (PM) process. The effect of EDM on surface roughness during surface alloying is studied. Taguchi’s Design of experiment (DOE) and L18 orthogonal array is used to find the best level of input parameters in order to achieve high surface finish. Six input parameters are considered and their percentage contribution towards surface roughness is investigated by analysis of variances (ANOVA). Experimental results show that an hard alloyed surface (1.21% carbon, 2.14% chromium and 1.38% nickel) with surface roughness of 3.19µm can be generated using EDM with PM tool. Additionally, techniques like Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) are used to analyze the machined surface and EDMed layer composition, respectively. The increase in machined surface micro-hardness (101%) may be related to the formation of carbides containing chromium.

Keywords: Electrical Discharge Machining, Surface Roughness, Powder metallurgy compact tools, Taguchi DOE technique.

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8 Suitability of Newsprint and Kraft Papers as Materials for Cement Bonded Ceiling Board

Authors: J. M. Owoyemi, O. S. Ogunrinde

Abstract:

The suitability of Newsprint and Kraft papers for the production of cement bonded ceiling board was investigated. Sample boards were produced from newsprint paper (100%), mixture of newsprint and Kraft paper (50:50) and Kraft paper (100%) at 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1 cement/paper mixing ratio respectively with 3% additive concentration of calcium chloride (CaCl2). Density, flexural and thickness swelling properties of the boards were investigated. The effects of paper type and mixing ratio on the physical and mechanical properties were also examined. The bending properties of the board which include Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) and Modulus of Rupture (MOR) increased linearly with increase in density. Modulus of rupture of boards increased as the density and mixing ratio increased. The thickness swelling property for the two paper types decreased as the board density and mixing ratio increased. Boards made from Kraft paper recorded higher strength values than the ones made from recycled newsprint paper while the mixture of kraft and newsprint papers had the best surface finish. The result of the study will help in managing the large quality of waste from paper converting/carton industry and that the ceiling boards produced could be installed with clout nails or used with suspended ceiling fittings.

Keywords: Cement, Kraft paper, Mixing ratio, Newsprint.

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7 Parametric Study on Grindability of GFRP Laminates Using Different Abrasives

Authors: P. Chockalingam, C. K. Kok, T. R. Vijayaram

Abstract:

A study on grindability of chopped strand mat glass fiber reinforced polymer laminates (CSM GFRP) have been carried out to evaluate the significant parameters on wheel performance. Performance of Aluminum oxide and c-BN wheels during grinding of CSM GFRP laminate was evaluated in terms of grinding force and surface roughness during grinding. The cubic Boron Nitride wheel experiences higher tangential grinding forces components and lower normal force component than Aluminum oxide grinding wheels. In case of surface finish, Aluminum oxide grinding wheels outdo the cubic Boron Nitride grinding wheels.

Keywords: Grinding, glass fiber reinforced polymer laminates, grinding force, surface finish.

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6 Development of Regression Equation for Surface Finish and Analysis of Surface Integrity in EDM

Authors: Md. Ashikur Rahman Khan, M. M. Rahman

Abstract:

Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a relatively modern machining process having distinct advantages over other machining processes and can machine Ti-alloys effectively. The present study emphasizes the features of the development of regression equation based on response surface methodology (RSM) for correlating the interactive and higher-order influences of machining parameters on surface finish of Titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V. The process parameters selected in this study are discharge current, pulse on time, pulse off time and servo voltage. Machining has been accomplished using negative polarity of Graphite electrode. Analysis of variance is employed to ascertain the adequacy of the developed regression model. Experiments based on central composite of response surface method are carried out. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed to investigate the surface topography of the EDMed job. The results evidence that the proposed regression equation can predict the surface roughness effectively. The lower ampere and short pulse on time yield better surface finish.

Keywords: Graphite electrode, regression model, response surface methodology, surface roughness.

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5 Influence of Composition and Austempering Temperature on Machinability of Austempered Ductile Iron

Authors: Jagmohan Datt, Uma Batra

Abstract:

Present investigations involve a systematic study on the machinability of austempered ductile irons (ADI) developed from four commercially viable ductile irons alloyed with different contents of 0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.6 wt.% of Ni. The influence of Ni content, amount of retained austenite and hardness of ADI on machining behavior has been conducted systematically. Austempering heat treatment was carried out for 120 minutes at four temperatures- 270oC, 320oC, 370oC or 420oC, after austenitization at 900oC for 120 min. Milling tests were performed and machinability index, cutting forces and surface roughness measurements were used to evaluate the machinability. Higher cutting forces, lower machinability index and the poorer surface roughness of the samples austempered at lower temperatures indicated that austempering at higher temperatures resulted in better machinability. The machinability of samples austempered at 420oC, which contained higher fractions of retained austenite, was superior to that of samples austempered at lower temperatures, indicating that hardness is an important factor in assessing machinability in addition to high carbon austenite content. The ADI with 0.6% Ni, austempered at 420°C for 120 minutes, demonstrated best machinability.

Keywords: Austempering, machinability, machining index, cutting force, surface finish.

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4 Effect of Coolant on Cutting Forces and Surface Roughness in Grinding of CSM GFRP

Authors: P Chockalingam, K Kok, R Vijayaram

Abstract:

This paper presents a comparative study on dry and wet grinding through experimental investigation in the grinding of CSM glass fibre reinforced polymer laminates using a pink aluminium oxide wheel. Different sets of experiments were performed to study the effects of the independent grinding parameters such as grinding wheel speed, feed and depth of cut on dependent performance criteria such as cutting forces and surface finish. Experimental conditions were laid out using design of experiment central composite design. An effective coolant was sought in this study to minimise cutting forces and surface roughness for GFRP laminates grinding. Test results showed that the use of coolants reduces surface roughness, although not necessarily the cutting forces. These research findings provide useful economic machining solution in terms of optimized grinding conditions for grinding CSM GFRP.

Keywords: Chopped Strand Mat GFRP laminates, Dry and Wet Grinding, Cutting Forces, Surface Finish.

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3 Evaluation of Alloying Additions on the Microstructure and IMC Formation of Sn-Ag-Cu Solder on Cu and Ni (P) Substrates

Authors: S.O. Shazlin, M.S. Nurulakmal

Abstract:

Studies have shown that the SnAgCu solder family has been widely used as a replacement for conventional Sn-Pb solders. An attractive approach is by introducing alloying additives (rare earth elements (RE), Zn, Co, Fe, Ni, Sb) into the SnAgCu solder, which helps in refining the microstructure also improving the mechanical and wetting properties of the solder. The present work focuses on the effect of additions of 0.5% Ce and Fe into Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu solder, in attempt to reduce the intermetallic compound (IMC) growth and reflow properties of the solder on Cu and Ni (P) surface finish, as well as effects thermal aging on the formation of intermetallic compound (IMC) on different surface finish. Excessive intermetallic compound growth may effect the interface and solder joint due to the brittle nature of the intermetallic compounds. Thus, by introducing alloying elements, IMC layer thickness can be decrease, resulting in better joint and solder reliability.

Keywords: Alloying Elements, Cu and Ni (P) Substrate, Intermetallic Compound (IMC), Reflow, Thermal Aging.

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2 Efficient CNC Milling by Adjusting Material Removal Rate

Authors: Majid Tolouei-Rad

Abstract:

This paper describes a combined mathematicalgraphical approach for optimum tool path planning in order to improve machining efficiency. A methodology has been used that stabilizes machining operations by adjusting material removal rate in pocket milling operations while keeping cutting forces within limits. This increases the life of cutting tool and reduces the risk of tool breakage, machining vibration, and chatter. Case studies reveal the fact that application of this approach could result in a slight increase of machining time, however, a considerable reduction of tooling cost, machining vibration, noise and chatter can be achieved in addition to producing a better surface finish.

Keywords: CNC machines, milling, optimization, removal rate.

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1 Investigation of Layer Thickness and Surface Roughness on Aerodynamic Coefficients of Wind Tunnel RP Models

Authors: S. Daneshmand, A. Ahmadi Nadooshan, C. Aghanajafi

Abstract:

Traditional wind tunnel models are meticulously machined from metal in a process that can take several months. While very precise, the manufacturing process is too slow to assess a new design's feasibility quickly. Rapid prototyping technology makes this concurrent study of air vehicle concepts via computer simulation and in the wind tunnel possible. This paper described the Affects layer thickness models product with rapid prototyping on Aerodynamic Coefficients for Constructed wind tunnel testing models. Three models were evaluated. The first model was a 0.05mm layer thickness and Horizontal plane 0.1μm (Ra) second model was a 0.125mm layer thickness and Horizontal plane 0.22μm (Ra) third model was a 0.15mm layer thickness and Horizontal plane 4.6μm (Ra). These models were fabricated from somos 18420 by a stereolithography (SLA). A wing-body-tail configuration was chosen for the actual study. Testing covered the Mach range of Mach 0.3 to Mach 0.9 at an angle-of-attack range of -2° to +12° at zero sideslip. Coefficients of normal force, axial force, pitching moment, and lift over drag are shown at each of these Mach numbers. Results from this study show that layer thickness does have an effect on the aerodynamic characteristics in general; the data differ between the three models by fewer than 5%. The layer thickness does have more effect on the aerodynamic characteristics when Mach number is decreased and had most effect on the aerodynamic characteristics of axial force and its derivative coefficients.

Keywords: Aerodynamic characteristics, stereolithography, layer thickness, Rapid prototyping, surface finish.

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