Thermo-Mechanical Processing of Armor Steel Plates
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32856
Thermo-Mechanical Processing of Armor Steel Plates

Authors: Taher El-Bitar, Maha El-Meligy, Eman El-Shenawy, Almosilhy Almosilhy, Nader Dawood


The steel contains 0.3% C and 0.004% B, beside Mn, Cr, Mo, and Ni. The alloy was processed by using 20-ton capacity electric arc furnace (EAF), and then refined by ladle furnace (LF). Liquid steel was cast as rectangular ingots. Dilatation test showed the critical transformation temperatures Ac1, Ac3, Ms and Mf as 716, 835, 356, and 218 °C. The ingots were austenitized and soaked and then rough rolled to thin slabs with 80 mm thickness. The thin slabs were then reheated and soaked for finish rolling to 6.0 mm thickness plates. During the rough rolling, the roll force increases as a result of rolling at temperatures less than recrystallization temperature. However, during finish rolling, the steel reflects initially continuous static recrystallization after which it shows strain hardening due to fall of temperature. It was concluded that, the steel plates were successfully heat treated by quenching-tempering at 250 ºC for 20 min.

Keywords: Armor steel, austenitizing, critical transformation temperatures, dilatation curve, martensite, quenching, rough and finish rolling processes, soaking, tempering, thermo-mechanical processing.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1250


[1] P.K. Jena, Bidyapati Mishra, M. Ramesh Babu, Arvindha Babu, A.K. Singh, K. SivaKumar, T. Balakrishna Bhat, Effect of heat treatment on mechanical and ballistic properties of a high strength armour steel, Int. J. Impact Eng. 37 (2010) 242–249.
[2] T. Balakrishna Bhat, Principles of armour design, Trans Indian Inst Met. 57(1984) 313–334.
[3] T. Balakrishna Bhat, Science of armour materials, Def. Sci. J. 35(1985) 219–23.
[4] K. Maweja, W. Stumpf, Fracture and ballistic-induced phase transformation in tempered martensite low-carbon armour steels, Mater. Sci. Eng. A. 432 (2006) 158-69.
[5] K. Maweja, W. Stumpf, The design of advanced performance high strength low-carbon martensitic armour steels: microstructural considerations, Mat. Sci. Eng. A. 480 (2008) 160-166.
[6] SN. Dikshit, VV. KutumbaRao, G. Sundararajan, The influence of plate hardness on the ballistic penetration of thick steel plates, Int. J. Impact Eng. 16 (1995) 293-320.
[7] MR. Staker, The relation between adiabatic shear instability strain and material properties, Acta Metall. 29 (1981) 683-689.
[8] T. El-Bitar, E. El-Shenawy, M. El_Meligy, A. Almosilhy, N. Dawood, Development of Armor High Strength Steel (HSS) Martensitic Plates for Troops Carriers, submitted to Materials Science Form, Trans Tech Publications. (2017).
[9] G.M. Megahed, S.K. Paul, T.A. El-Bitar, F. Ibrahim, Development of X60/X70 Line Pipe Steels through EAF-Thin Slab Casting Technology at Ezz Flat Steel Ain Sukhna Egypt, Materials Science Forum. 500 (2005) 261-268.
[10] B.G. Thomas, I. V. Samarasekera, J. K. Brimacombe, Mathematical Model of the Thermal Processing of Steel Ingots: Part I. Heat Flow Model, Metall. Trans. B. 18B (1987) 119.
[11] F. G. Caballero, A. G. Junceda, C. Capdevila, C. G. de Andre, Evolution of Microstructural Banding during the Manufacturing Process of Dual Phase Steels, Mater. Trans. 47 (2006) 2269-2276.
[12] T. El-Bitar, A. Ismail, A. Ghaneya, A. Amer, M. Haridy, Inadequate Hot Working Parameters and its Effect on the Microstructure Banding of Wrought Carbon-Steel, 43rd Mechanical Working and Steel Processing Conference, USA, 2001.
[13] T. A. El-Bitar, Modification of Roll Pass Design of Low Pearlite, Fine-Grained Sheet Steel using Numerical Modeling and Processing Maps, Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly. 39 (2000) 319-324.
[14] R. Ramesh, N. J. Kim, G. Thomas, Improvement in toughness of Fe-Cr-Mn-C steel by thermal-mechanical treatments, Metall. Trans. A. 21A (1990) 683-695.
[15] B. V. Narasimha Rao, G. Thomas, Structure – property relations and the design of Fe-4Cr-C base structure steels for high strength and toughness, Metall. Trans. A. 11A (1980) 441-457.
[16] K. S. Han, T. J. Song, B. C. De Cooman, Hot Deformation Behavior of Fe-2%Si, ISIJ International, 53 (2013) 294 –303.
[17] T. El-Bitar, M. El-meligy, E. El-Shenawy, Detection of dynamic softening during hot deformation of medium Si-steels by a thermo- mechanical simulator (Gleeble 3500), International Journal of Mechanical and Production Engineering Research and Development (IJMPERD). 5 (2015) 65-74.
[18] D. C. Wen, Effect of Prior Hot Rolling on the Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Duplex Stainless Steel Containing Tempered Martensite and Ferrite, Met. Mater. Int. 15 (2009) 365-372