Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Search results for: Nader Dawood

27 Thermo-Mechanical Processing of Armor Steel Plates

Authors: Taher El-Bitar, Maha El-Meligy, Eman El-Shenawy, Almosilhy Almosilhy, Nader Dawood

Abstract:

The steel contains 0.3% C and 0.004% B, beside Mn, Cr, Mo, and Ni. The alloy was processed by using 20-ton capacity electric arc furnace (EAF), and then refined by ladle furnace (LF). Liquid steel was cast as rectangular ingots. Dilatation test showed the critical transformation temperatures Ac1, Ac3, Ms and Mf as 716, 835, 356, and 218 °C. The ingots were austenitized and soaked and then rough rolled to thin slabs with 80 mm thickness. The thin slabs were then reheated and soaked for finish rolling to 6.0 mm thickness plates. During the rough rolling, the roll force increases as a result of rolling at temperatures less than recrystallization temperature. However, during finish rolling, the steel reflects initially continuous static recrystallization after which it shows strain hardening due to fall of temperature. It was concluded that, the steel plates were successfully heat treated by quenching-tempering at 250 ºC for 20 min.

Keywords: Armor steel, austenitizing, critical transformation temperatures, dilatation curve, martensite, quenching, rough and finish rolling processes, soaking, tempering, thermo-mechanical processing.

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26 A Family of Affine Projection Adaptive Filtering Algorithms With Selective Regressors

Authors: Mohammad Shams Esfand Abadi, Nader Hadizadeh Kashani, Vahid Mehrdad

Abstract:

In this paper we present a general formalism for the establishment of the family of selective regressor affine projection algorithms (SR-APA). The SR-APA, the SR regularized APA (SR-RAPA), the SR partial rank algorithm (SR-PRA), the SR binormalized data reusing least mean squares (SR-BNDR-LMS), and the SR normalized LMS with orthogonal correction factors (SR-NLMS-OCF) algorithms are established by this general formalism. We demonstrate the performance of the presented algorithms through simulations in acoustic echo cancellation scenario.

Keywords: Adaptive filter, affine projection, selective regressor.

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25 Development of Monitoring Blood Bank Center Based PIC Microcontroller Using CAN Communication

Authors: Kaiwan S. Ismael, Ergun Ercelebi, Majeed Nader

Abstract:

This paper describes the design and implementation of a hardware setup for online monitoring of 24 refrigerators inside blood bank center using the microcontroller and CAN bus for communications between each node. Due to the security of locations in the blood bank hall and difficulty of monitoring of each refrigerator separately, this work proposes a solution to monitor all the blood bank refrigerators in one location. CAN-bus system is used because it has many applications and advantages, especially for this system due to easy in use, low cost, providing a reduction in wiring, fast to repair and easily expanding the project without a problem.

Keywords: Control Area Network (CAN), monitoring blood bank center, PIC microcontroller, MPLAB IDE.

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24 Neutron Flux Characterization for Radioisotope Production at ETRR-2

Authors: A. M. Hassanain, Nader M. A. Mohamed, M. Naguib Aly, Alya A. Badawi, M. A. Gaheen

Abstract:

The thermal, epithermal and fast fluxes were calculated for three irradiation channels at Egypt Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2) using CITVAP code. The validity of the calculations was verified by experimental measurements. There are some deviations between measurements and calculations. This is due to approximations in the calculation models used, homogenization of regions, condensation of energy groups and uncertainty in nuclear data used. Neutron flux data for the three irradiation channels are now available. This would enable predicting the irradiation conditions needed for future radioisotope production.

Keywords: ETRR-2, Neutron flux, Radioisotope production, CITVAP

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23 Design Alternatives for Lateral Force-Resisting Systems of Tall Buildings in Dubai, UAE

Authors: Mohammad AlHamaydeh, Sherif Yehia, Nader Aly, Ammar Douba, Layane Hamzeh

Abstract:

Four design alternatives for lateral force-resisting systems of tall buildings in Dubai, UAE are presented. Quantitative comparisons between the different designs are also made. This paper is intended to provide different feasible lateral systems to be used in Dubai in light of the available seismic hazard studies of the UAE. The different lateral systems are chosen in conformance with the International Building Code (IBC). Moreover, the expected behavior of each system is highlighted and light is shed on some of the cost implications associated with lateral system selection.

Keywords: Concrete, Dual, Dubai UAE Seismicity, Special Moment-Resisting Frames (SMRF), Special Shear Wall, Steel

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22 Key Success Factors for Managing Projects

Authors: Nader Sh. Kandelousi, Ooi. J., Abdollahi. A

Abstract:

The use and management of projects has risen to a new prominence, with projects seen as critical to economic in both the private and public sectors due challenging and dynamic business environment. However, failure in managing project is encountered regularly, which cause the waste of company resources. The impacts of projects that failed to meet stakeholders expectations have left behind long lasting negative consequences in organization. Therefore, this research aims to investigate on key success factors of project management in an organization. It is believed that recognizing important factors that contribute to successful project will help companies to increase the overall profitability. 150 questionnaires were distributed to respondents and 110 questionnaires were collected and used in performing the data analysis. The result has strongly supported the relationship between independent variables and project performance.

Keywords: Project Performance, Leadership, TopManagement Involvement

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21 Propagation of Viscous Waves and Activation Energy of Hydrocarbon Fluids

Authors: Ram N. Singh, Abraham K. George, Dawood N. Al-Namaani

Abstract:

The Euler-s equation of motion is extended to include the viscosity stress tensor leading to the formulation of Navier– Stokes type equation. The latter is linearized and applied to investigate the rotational motion or vorticity in a viscous fluid. Relations for the velocity of viscous waves and attenuation parameter are obtained in terms of viscosity (μ) and the density (¤ü) of the fluid. μ and ¤ü are measured experimentally as a function of temperature for two different samples of light and heavy crude oil. These data facilitated to determine the activation energy, velocity of viscous wave and the attenuation parameter. Shear wave velocity in heavy oil is found to be much larger than the light oil, whereas the attenuation parameter in heavy oil is quite low in comparison to light one. The activation energy of heavy oil is three times larger than light oil.

Keywords: Activation Energy, Attenuation, Crude Oil, Navier- Stokes Equation, Viscosity.

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20 Impact of Brand Origin on Brand Loyalty: A Case of Personal Care Products in Pakistan

Authors: Aimen Batool Bint-E-Rashid, Syed Muhammad Dawood Ali Shah, Muhammad Usman Farooq, Mahgul Anwar

Abstract:

As the world is progressing, the needs and demands of the consumer market are also changing. Nowadays the trends of consumer purchase decisions are dependent upon multiple factors. This study aims to identify the influential impact of country of origin over the perception and devotion towards daily personal care products specifically in reference to the knowledge and awareness regarding that particular brand in Pakistan. To corroborate this study, a 30-item brand origin questionnaire has been used with 300 purchase decision makers belonging to different age groups. To illustrate this study, a model has been developed based on brand origin, brand awareness and brand loyalty. Correlation and regression analysis have been used to find out the results which conclude the findings on the perspective of Pakistan’s consumer market as that brand origin has a direct relationship with brand loyalty provided that the consumer has a positive brand awareness. Support for the fact that brand origin impacts brand loyalty through brand awareness has been presented in this study.

Keywords: Brand awareness, brand loyalty, brand origin, personal care products, P&G, Unilever.

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19 Numerical Simulation of Lightning Strike Direct Effects on Aircraft Skin Composite Laminate

Authors: Muhammad Khalil, Nader Abuelfoutouh, Gasser Abdelal, Adrian Murphy

Abstract:

Nowadays, the direct effects of lightning to aircrafts are of great importance because of the massive use of composite materials. In comparison with metallic materials, composites present several weaknesses for lightning strike direct effects. Especially, their low electrical and thermal conductivities lead to severe lightning strike damage. The lightning strike direct effects are burning, heating, magnetic force, sparking and arcing. As the problem is complex, we investigated it gradually. A magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model is developed to simulate the lightning strikes in order to estimate the damages on the composite materials. Then, a coupled thermal-electrical finite element analysis is used to study the interaction between the lightning arc and the composite laminate and to investigate the material degradation.

Keywords: Composite structures, lightning multiphysics, magnetohydrodynamics, coupled thermal-electrical analysis, thermal plasmas.

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18 Effect Comparison of Speckle Noise Reduction Filters on 2D-Echocardigraphic Images

Authors: Faten A. Dawood, Rahmita W. Rahmat, Suhaini B. Kadiman, Lili N. Abdullah, Mohd D. Zamrin

Abstract:

Echocardiography imaging is one of the most common diagnostic tests that are widely used for assessing the abnormalities of the regional heart ventricle function. The main goal of the image enhancement task in 2D-echocardiography (2DE) is to solve two major anatomical structure problems; speckle noise and low quality. Therefore, speckle noise reduction is one of the important steps that used as a pre-processing to reduce the distortion effects in 2DE image segmentation. In this paper, we present the common filters that based on some form of low-pass spatial smoothing filters such as Mean, Gaussian, and Median. The Laplacian filter was used as a high-pass sharpening filter. A comparative analysis was presented to test the effectiveness of these filters after being applied to original 2DE images of 4-chamber and 2-chamber views. Three statistical quantity measures: root mean square error (RMSE), peak signal-to-ratio (PSNR) and signal-tonoise ratio (SNR) are used to evaluate the filter performance quantitatively on the output enhanced image.

Keywords: Gaussian operator, median filter, speckle texture, peak signal-to-ratio

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17 Prioritizing Influential Factors on the Promotion of Virtual Training System

Authors: Nader Gharibnavaz, Mostafa Mosadeghi, Naser Gharibnavaz

Abstract:

In today's world where everything is rapidly changing and information technology is high in development, many features of culture, society, politic and economy has changed. The advent of information technology and electronic data transmission lead to easy communication and fields like e-learning and e-commerce, are accessible for everyone easily. One of these technologies is virtual training. The "quality" of such kind of education systems is critical. 131 questionnaires were prepared and distributed among university student in Toba University. So the research has followed factors that affect the quality of learning from the perspective of staff, students, professors and this type of university. It is concluded that the important factors in virtual training are the quality of professors, the quality of staff, and the quality of the university. These mentioned factors were the most prior factors in this education system and necessary for improving virtual training.

Keywords: Training , Virtual Training, Strategic Positioning, Positioning Mapping, Unique Selling Proposition, Strong Brands, Indoors industry

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16 Effect of Cowpea (Vigna sinensis L.) with Maize (Zea mays L.) Intercropping on Yield and Its Components

Authors: W. A. Hamd Alla, E. M. Shalaby, R. A. Dawood, A. A. Zohry

Abstract:

A field experiment was carried out at Arab El- Awammer Research Station, Agric. Res. Center. Assiut Governorate during summer seasons of 2013 and 2014. The present study assessed the effect of cowpea with maize intercropping on yield and its components. The experiment comprised of three treatments (sole cowpea, sole maize and cowpea-maize intercrop). The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replications. Results indicated that intercropped maize plants with cowpea, exhibited greater potentiality and resulted in higher values of most of the studied criteria viz., plant height, number of ears/plant, number of rows/ear, number of grains/row, grains weight/ear, 100–grain weight and straw and grain yields. Fresh and dry forage yields of cowpea were lower in intercropping with maize than sole. Furthermore, the combined of the two seasons revealed that the total Land Equivalent Ratio (LER) between cowpea and maize was 1.65. The Aggressivity (A) maize was 0.45 and cowpea was -0.45. This showed that maize was the dominant crop, whereas cowpea was the dominated. The Competitive Ratio (CR) indicated that maize more competitive than cowpea, maize was 1.75 and cowpea was 0.57. The Actual Yield Loss (AYL) maize was 0.05 and cowpea was -0.40. The Monetary Advantage Index (MAI) was 2360.80.

Keywords: Intercropping, cowpea, maize, land equivalent ratio (LER).

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15 High Efficiency, Selectivity against Cancer Cell Line of Purified L-Asparaginase from Pathogenic Escherichia coli

Authors: Hazim Saadoon Aljewari, Mohammed Ibraheem Nader, Abdul Hussain M. Alfaisal, NatthidaWeerapreeyakul, Sahapat

Abstract:

L-asparaginase was extracted from pathogenic Escherichia coli which was isolated from urinary tract infection patients. L-asparaginase was purified 96-fold by ultrafiltration, ion exchange and gel filtration giving 39.19% yield with final specific activity of 178.57 IU/mg. L-asparaginase showed 138,356±1,000 Dalton molecular weight with 31024±100 Dalton molecular mass. Kinetic properties of enzyme resulting 1.25×10-5 mM Km and 2.5×10-3 M/min Vmax. L-asparaginase showed a maximum activity at pH 7.5 when incubated at 37 ºC for 30 min and illustrated its full activity (100%) after 15 min incubation at 20-37 ºC, while 70% of its activity was lost when incubated at 60 ºC. L-asparaginase showed cytotoxicity to U937 cell line with IC50 0.5±0.19 IU/ml, and selectivity index (SI=7.6) about 8 time higher selectivity over the lymphocyte cells. Therefore, the local pathogenic E. coli strains may be used as a source of high yield of L-asparaginase to produce anti cancer agent with high selectivity.

Keywords: L-asparaginase, Purification, Cytotoxicity, selectivity index

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14 Comparison among Various Question Generations for Decision Tree Based State Tying in Persian Language

Authors: Nasibeh Nasiri, Dawood Talebi Khanmiri

Abstract:

Performance of any continuous speech recognition system is highly dependent on performance of the acoustic models. Generally, development of the robust spoken language technology relies on the availability of large amounts of data. Common way to cope with little data for training each state of Markov models is treebased state tying. This tying method applies contextual questions to tie states. Manual procedure for question generation suffers from human errors and is time consuming. Various automatically generated questions are used to construct decision tree. There are three approaches to generate questions to construct HMMs based on decision tree. One approach is based on misrecognized phonemes, another approach basically uses feature table and the other is based on state distributions corresponding to context-independent subword units. In this paper, all these methods of automatic question generation are applied to the decision tree on FARSDAT corpus in Persian language and their results are compared with those of manually generated questions. The results show that automatically generated questions yield much better results and can replace manually generated questions in Persian language.

Keywords: Decision Tree, Markov Models, Speech Recognition, State Tying.

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13 GSM Position Tracking using a Kalman Filter

Authors: Jean-Pierre Dubois, Jihad S. Daba, M. Nader, C. El Ferkh

Abstract:

GSM has undoubtedly become the most widespread cellular technology and has established itself as one of the most promising technology in wireless communication. The next generation of mobile telephones had also become more powerful and innovative in a way that new services related to the user-s location will arise. Other than the 911 requirements for emergency location initiated by the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) of the United States, GSM positioning can be highly integrated in cellular communication technology for commercial use. However, GSM positioning is facing many challenges. Issues like accuracy, availability, reliability and suitable cost render the development and implementation of GSM positioning a challenging task. In this paper, we investigate the optimal mobile position tracking means. We employ an innovative scheme by integrating the Kalman filter in the localization process especially that it has great tracking characteristics. When tracking in two dimensions, Kalman filter is very powerful due to its reliable performance as it supports estimation of past, present, and future states, even when performing in unknown environments. We show that enhanced position tracking results is achieved when implementing the Kalman filter for GSM tracking.

Keywords: Cellular communication, estimation, GSM, Kalman filter, positioning

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12 Modeling, Analysis and Control of a Smart Composite Structure

Authors: Nader H. Ghareeb, Mohamed S. Gaith, Sayed M. Soleimani

Abstract:

In modern engineering, weight optimization has a priority during the design of structures. However, optimizing the weight can result in lower stiffness and less internal damping, causing the structure to become excessively prone to vibration. To overcome this problem, active or smart materials are implemented. The coupled electromechanical properties of smart materials, used in the form of piezoelectric ceramics in this work, make these materials well-suited for being implemented as distributed sensors and actuators to control the structural response. The smart structure proposed in this paper is composed of a cantilevered steel beam, an adhesive or bonding layer, and a piezoelectric actuator. The static deflection of the structure is derived as function of the piezoelectric voltage, and the outcome is compared to theoretical and experimental results from literature. The relation between the voltage and the piezoelectric moment at both ends of the actuator is also investigated and a reduced finite element model of the smart structure is created and verified. Finally, a linear controller is implemented and its ability to attenuate the vibration due to the first natural frequency is demonstrated.

Keywords: Active linear control, Lyapunov stability theorem, piezoelectricity, smart structure, static deflection.

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11 Implementation of State-Space and Super-Element Techniques for the Modeling and Control of Smart Structures with Damping Characteristics

Authors: Nader Ghareeb, R¨udiger Schmidt

Abstract:

Minimizing the weight in flexible structures means reducing material and costs as well. However, these structures could become prone to vibrations. Attenuating these vibrations has become a pivotal engineering problem that shifted the focus of many research endeavors. One technique to do that is to design and implement an active control system. This system is mainly composed of a vibrating structure, a sensor to perceive the vibrations, an actuator to counteract the influence of disturbances, and finally a controller to generate the appropriate control signals. In this work, two different techniques are explored to create two different mathematical models of an active control system. The first model is a finite element model with a reduced number of nodes and it is called a super-element. The second model is in the form of state-space representation, i.e. a set of partial differential equations. The damping coefficients are calculated and incorporated into both models. The effectiveness of these models is demonstrated when the system is excited by its first natural frequency and an active control strategy is developed and implemented to attenuate the resulting vibrations. Results from both modeling techniques are presented and compared.

Keywords: Finite element analysis, super-element, state-space model.

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10 A Model of Market Segmentation for the Customers of Mellat Bank in Iran

Authors: Nader Gharibnavaz, Hossein Yazdi

Abstract:

If organizations like Mellat Bank want to identify its customer market completely to reach its specified goals, it can segment the market to offer the product package to the right segment. Our objective is to offer a segmentation model for Iran banking market in Mellat bank view. The methodology of this project is combined by “segmentation on the basis of four part-quality variables" and “segmentation on the basis of different in means". Required data are gathered from E-Systems and researcher personal observation. Finally, the research offers the organization that at first step form a four dimensional matrix with 756 segments using four variables named value-based, behavioral, activity style, and activity level, and at the second step calculate the means of profit for every cell of matrix in two distinguished work level (levels α1:normal condition and α2: high pressure condition) and compare the segments by checking two conditions that are 1- homogeneity every segment with its sub segment and 2- heterogeneity with other segments, and so it can do the necessary segmentation process. After all, the last offer (more explained by an operational example and feedback algorithm) is to test and update the model because of dynamic environment, technology, and banking system.

Keywords: market segmentation model, banking system, Mellat bank

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9 Optimizing Logistics for Courier Organizations with Considerations of Congestions and Pickups: A Courier Delivery System in Amman as Case Study

Authors: Nader A. Al Theeb, Zaid Abu Manneh, Ibrahim Al-Qadi

Abstract:

Traveling salesman problem (TSP) is a combinatorial integer optimization problem that asks "What is the optimal route for a vehicle to traverse in order to deliver requests to a given set of customers?”. It is widely used by the package carrier companies’ distribution centers. The main goal of applying the TSP in courier organizations is to minimize the time that it takes for the courier in each trip to deliver or pick up the shipments during a day. In this article, an optimization model is constructed to create a new TSP variant to optimize the routing in a courier organization with a consideration of congestion in Amman, the capital of Jordan. Real data were collected by different methods and analyzed. Then, concert technology - CPLEX was used to solve the proposed model for some random generated data instances and for the real collected data. At the end, results have shown a great improvement in time compared with the current trip times, and an economic study was conducted afterwards to figure out the impact of using such models.

Keywords: Travel salesman problem, congestions, pick-up, integer programming, package carriers, service engineering.

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8 Developing Marketing Strategy in Nonmetallic Mineral Industry at the Business Level

Authors: Nader Gharibnavaz, Naser Gharibnavaz

Abstract:

This study extends research on the relationship between marketing strategy and market segmentation by investigating on market segments in the cement industry. Competitive strength and rivals distance from the factory were used as business environment. A three segment (positive, neutral or indifferent and zero zones) were identified as strategic segments. For each segment a marketing strategy (aggressive, defensive and decline) were developed. This study employed data from cement industry to fulfill two objectives, the first is to give a framework to the segmentation of cement industry and the second is developing marketing strategy with varying competitive strength. Fifty six questionnaires containing close-and open-ended questions were collected and analyzed. Results supported the theory that segments tend to be more aggressive than defensive when competitive strength increases. It is concluded that high strength segments follow total market coverage, concentric diversification and frontal attack to their competitors. With decreased competitive strength, Business tends to follow multi-market strategy, product modification/improvement and flank attack to direct competitors for this kind of segments. Segments with weak competitive strength followed focus strategy and decline strategy.

Keywords: Marketing strategy, Competitive strength, Market Segmentation

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7 Numerical Study of Cyclic Behavior of Shallow Foundations on Sand Reinforced with Geogrid and Grid-Anchor

Authors: Alireza Hajiani Boushehrian, Nader Hataf, Arsalan Ghahramani

Abstract:

When the foundations of structures under cyclic loading with amplitudes less than their permissible load, the concern exists often for the amount of uniform and non-uniform settlement of such structures. Storage tank foundations with numerous filling and discharging and railways ballast course under repeating transportation loads are examples of such conditions. This paper deals with the effects of using the new generation of reinforcements, Grid-Anchor, for the purpose of reducing the permanent settlement of these foundations under the influence of different proportions of the ultimate load. Other items such as the type and the number of reinforcements as well as the number of loading cycles are studied numerically. Numerical models were made using the Plaxis3D Tunnel finite element code. The results show that by using gridanchor and increasing the number of their layers in the same proportion as that of the cyclic load being applied, the amount of permanent settlement decreases up to 42% relative to unreinforced condition depends on the number of reinforcement layers and percent of applied load and the number of loading cycles to reach a constant value of dimensionless settlement decreases up to 20% relative to unreinforced condition.

Keywords: Shallow foundation, Reinforced soil, Cyclic loading, Grid-Anchor, Numerical analysis.

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6 The Risk Assessment of Nano-particles and Investigation of Their Environmental Impact

Authors: Nader Nabhani, Amir Tofighi

Abstract:

Nanotechnology is the science of creating, using and manipulating objects which have at least one dimension in range of 0.1 to 100 nanometers. In other words, nanotechnology is reconstructing a substance using its individual atoms and arranging them in a way that is desirable for our purpose. The main reason that nanotechnology has been attracting attentions is the unique properties that objects show when they are formed at nano-scale. These differing characteristics that nano-scale materials show compared to their nature-existing form is both useful in creating high quality products and dangerous when being in contact with body or spread in environment. In order to control and lower the risk of such nano-scale particles, the main following three topics should be considered: 1) First of all, these materials would cause long term diseases that may show their effects on body years after being penetrated in human organs and since this science has become recently developed in industrial scale not enough information is available about their hazards on body. 2) The second is that these particles can easily spread out in environment and remain in air, soil or water for very long time, besides their high ability to penetrate body skin and causing new kinds of diseases. 3) The third one is that to protect body and environment against the danger of these particles, the protective barriers must be finer than these small objects and such defenses are hard to accomplish. This paper will review, discuss and assess the risks that human and environment face as this new science develops at a high rate.

Keywords: Nanotechnology, risk assessment, environment.

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5 Heat Transfer and Entropy Generation in a Partial Porous Channel Using LTNE and Exothermicity/Endothermicity Features

Authors: Mohsen Torabi, Nader Karimi, Kaili Zhang

Abstract:

This work aims to provide a comprehensive study on the heat transfer and entropy generation rates of a horizontal channel partially filled with a porous medium which experiences internal heat generation or consumption due to exothermic or endothermic chemical reaction. The focus has been given to the local thermal non-equilibrium (LTNE) model. The LTNE approach helps us to deliver more accurate data regarding temperature distribution within the system and accordingly to provide more accurate Nusselt number and entropy generation rates. Darcy-Brinkman model is used for the momentum equations, and constant heat flux is assumed for boundary conditions for both upper and lower surfaces. Analytical solutions have been provided for both velocity and temperature fields. By incorporating the investigated velocity and temperature formulas into the provided fundamental equations for the entropy generation, both local and total entropy generation rates are plotted for a number of cases. Bifurcation phenomena regarding temperature distribution and interface heat flux ratio are observed. It has been found that the exothermicity or endothermicity characteristic of the channel does have a considerable impact on the temperature fields and entropy generation rates.

Keywords: Entropy generation, exothermicity, endothermicity, forced convection, local thermal non-equilibrium, analytical modeling.

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4 Nebulized Magnesium Sulfate in Acute Moderate to Severe Asthma in Pediatric Patients

Authors: Lubna M. Zakaryia Mahmoud, Mohammed A. Dawood, Doaa A. Heiba

Abstract:

A prospective double-blind placebo controlled trial carried out on 60 children known to be asthmatic who presented to the emergency department at Alexandria University of Children’s Hospital at El-Shatby with acute asthma exacerbations to assess the efficacy of adding inhaled magnesium sulfate to β-agonist, compared with β-agonist in saline, in the management of acute asthma exacerbations in children. The participants in the study were divided in two groups; Group A (study group) received inhaled salbutamol solution (0.15 ml/kg) plus isotonic magnesium sulfate 2 ml in a nebulizer chamber. Group B (control group): received nebulized salbutamol solution (0.15 ml/kg) diluted with placebo (2 ml normal saline). Both groups received inhaled solution every 20 minutes that was repeated for three doses. They were evaluated using the Pediatric Asthma Severity Score (PASS), oxygen saturation using portable pulse oximetry and peak expiratory flow rate using a portable peak expiratory flow meter at initially recorded as zero-minute assessment and every 20 minutes from the end of each nebulization (nebulization lasts 5-10 minutes) recorded as 20, 40 and 60-minute assessments. Regarding PASS, comparison showed non-significant difference with p-value 0.463, 0.472, 0.0766 at 20, 40 and 60 minutes. Regarding oxygen saturation, improvement was more significant towards group A starting from 40 min with significant p-value=0.000. At 60 min p-value=0.000. Although mean PEFR significantly improved from zero-min in both groups; however, improvement was more significant in group A with significant p-value = 0.015, 0.001, 0.001 at 20 min, 40 min and 60 min, respectively. The conclusion this study suggests is that inhaled magnesium sulfate is an efficient add on drug to standard β- agonist inhalation used in the treatment of moderate to severe asthma exacerbations.

Keywords: Nebulized, magnesium sulfate, acute asthma, pediatric.

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3 A Review of Pharmacological Prevention of Peri-and Post-Procedural Myocardial Injury after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

Authors: Syed Dawood Md. Taimur, Md. Hasanur Rahman, Syeda Fahmida Afrin, Farzana Islam

Abstract:

The concept of myocardial injury, although first recognized from animal studies, is now recognized as a clinical phenomenon that may result in microvascular damage, no-reflow phenomenon, myocardial stunning, myocardial hibernation and ischemic preconditioning. The final consequence of this event is left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction leading to increased morbidity and mortality. The typical clinical case of reperfusion injury occurs in acute myocardial infarction (MI) with ST segment elevation in which an occlusion of a major epicardial coronary artery is followed by recanalization of the artery. This may occur spontaneously or by means of thrombolysis and/or by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with efficient platelet inhibition by aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), clopidogrel and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. In recent years, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has become a well-established technique for the treatment of coronary artery disease. PCI improves symptoms in patients with coronary artery disease and it has been increasing safety of procedures. However, peri- and post-procedural myocardial injury, including angiographical slow coronary flow, microvascular embolization, and elevated levels of cardiac enzyme, such as creatine kinase and troponin-T and -I, has also been reported even in elective cases. Furthermore, myocardial reperfusion injury at the beginning of myocardial reperfusion, which causes tissue damage and cardiac dysfunction, may occur in cases of acute coronary syndrome. Because patients with myocardial injury is related to larger myocardial infarction and have a worse long-term prognosis than those without myocardial injury, it is important to prevent myocardial injury during and/or after PCI in patients with coronary artery disease. To date, many studies have demonstrated that adjunctive pharmacological treatment suppresses myocardial injury and increases coronary blood flow during PCI procedures. In this review, we highlight the usefulness of pharmacological treatment in combination with PCI in attenuating myocardial injury in patients with coronary artery disease.

Keywords: Coronary artery disease, Percutaneous coronary intervention, Myocardial injury, Pharmacology.

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2 Modeling and Simulation of Honeycomb Steel Sandwich Panels under Blast Loading

Authors: Sayed M. Soleimani, Nader H. Ghareeb, Nourhan H. Shaker, Muhammad B. Siddiqui

Abstract:

Honeycomb sandwich panels have been widely used as protective structural elements against blast loading. The main advantages of these panels include their light weight due to the presence of voids, as well as their energy absorption capability. Terrorist activities have imposed new challenges to structural engineers to design protective measures for vital structures. Since blast loading is not usually considered in the load combinations during the design process of a structure, researchers around the world have been motivated to study the behavior of potential elements capable of resisting sudden loads imposed by the detonation of explosive materials. One of the best candidates for this objective is the honeycomb sandwich panel. Studying the effects of explosive materials on the panels requires costly and time-consuming experiments. Moreover, these type of experiments need permission from defense organizations which can become a hurdle. As a result, modeling and simulation using an appropriate tool can be considered as a good alternative. In this research work, the finite element package ABAQUS® is used to study the behavior of hexagonal and squared honeycomb steel sandwich panels under the explosive effects of different amounts of trinitrotoluene (TNT). The results of finite element modeling of a specific honeycomb configuration are initially validated by comparing them with the experimental results from literature. Afterwards, several configurations including different geometrical properties of the honeycomb wall are investigated and the results are compared with the original model. Finally, the effectiveness of the core shape and wall thickness are discussed, and conclusions are made.

Keywords: Blast loading, finite element modeling, steel honeycomb sandwich panel.

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1 Angiographic Evaluation of ETT (Treadmill) Positive Patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Bangladesh

Authors: Syed Dawood Md. Taimur, Saidur Rahman Khan, Farzana Islam

Abstract:

To evaluate the factors which predetermine the coronary artery disease in patients having positive Exercise Tolerance Test (ETT) that is treadmill results and coronary artery findings. This descriptive study was conducted at Department of Cardiology, Ibrahim Cardiac Hospital & Research Institute, Dhaka, Bangladesh from 1st January, 2014 to 31st August, 2014. All patients who had done ETT (treadmill) for chest pain diagnosis were studied. One hundred and four patients underwent coronary angiogram after positive treadmill result. Patients were divided into two groups depending upon the angiographic findings, i.e. true positive and false positive. Positive treadmill test patients who have coronary artery involvement these are called true positive and who have no involvement they are called false positive group. Both groups were compared with each other. Out of 104 patients, 81 (77.9%) patients had true positive ETT and 23 (22.1%) patients had false positive ETT. The mean age of patients in positive ETT was 53.46± 8.06 years and male mean age was 53.63±8.36 years and female was 52.87±7.0 years. Sixty nine (85.19%) male patients and twelve (14.81%) female patients had true positive ETT, whereas 15 (65.21%) males and 8 (34.79%) females had false positive ETT, this was statistically significant (p<0.032) in the two groups (sex) in comparison of true and false positive ETT. The risk factors of these patients like diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, family history and smoking were seen among these patients. Hypertensive patients having true positive which were statistically significant (p<0.004) and diabetic, dyslipidemic patients having true positive which were statistically significant (p<0.032 & 0.030).True positive patients had family history were 68(83.95%) and smoking were 52 (64.20%), where family history patients had statistically significant (p<0.017) between two groups of patients and smokers were significant (p<0.012). 46 true positive patients achieved THR which was not statistically significant (P<0.138) and 79 true patients had abnormal resting ECG whether it was significant (p<0.036). Amongst the vessels involvement the most common was LAD 55 (67.90 %) followed by LCX 42 (51.85%), RCA 36 (44.44%), and the LMCA was 9 (11.11%). 40 patients (49.38%) had SVD, 26 (30.10%) had DVD, 15(18.52%) had TVD and 23 had normal coronary arteries. It can be concluded that among the female patients who have positive ETT with normal resting ECG, who had achieved target heart rate are likely to have a false positive test result. Conversely male patients, resting abnormal ECG who had not achieved THR, symptom limited ETT, have a hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, family history and smoking are likely to have a true positive treadmill test result.

Keywords: Exercise tolerance test, Coronary artery disease, Coronary angiography, True positive, False positive.

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