**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**329

# Search results for: Scaling factor

##### 329 An Improved Performance of the SRM Drives Using Z-Source Inverter with the Simplified Fuzzy Logic Rule Base

**Authors:**
M. Hari Prabhu

**Abstract:**

This paper is based on the performance of the Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) drives using Z-Source Inverter with the simplified rule base of Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) with the output scaling factor (SF) self-tuning mechanism are proposed. The aim of this paper is to simplify the program complexity of the controller by reducing the number of fuzzy sets of the membership functions (MFs) without losing the system performance and stability via the adjustable controller gain. ZSI exhibits both voltage-buck and voltage-boost capability. It reduces line harmonics, improves reliability, and extends output voltage range. The output SF of the controller can be tuned continuously by a gain updating factor, whose value is derived from fuzzy logic, with the plant error and error change ratio as input variables. Then the results, carried out on a four-phase 6/8 pole SRM based on the dSPACEDS1104 platform, to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the devised methods and also performance of the proposed controllers will be compared with conventional counterpart.

**Keywords:**
Fuzzy logic controller,
scaling factor (SF),
switched reluctance motor (SRM),
variable-speed drives.

##### 328 Long-Term Durability of Roller-Compacted Concrete Pavement

**Authors:**
Jun Hee Lee,
Young Kyu Kim,
Seong Jae Hong,
Chamroeun Chhorn,
Seung Woo Lee

**Abstract:**

Roller-compacted concrete pavement (RCCP), an environmental friendly pavement of which load carry capacity benefitted from both hydration and aggregate interlock from roller compacting, demonstrated a superb structural performance for a relatively small amount of water and cement content. Even though an excellent structural performance can be secured, it is required to investigate roller-compacted concrete (RCC) under environmental loading and its long-term durability under critical conditions. In order to secure long-term durability, an appropriate internal air-void structure is required for this concrete. In this study, a method for improving the long-term durability of RCCP is suggested by analyzing the internal air-void structure and corresponding durability of RCC. The method of improving the long-term durability involves measurements of air content, air voids, and air-spacing factors in RCC that experiences changes in terms of type of air-entraining agent and its usage amount. This test is conducted according to the testing criteria in ASTM C 457, 672, and KS F 2456. It was found that the freezing-thawing and scaling resistances of RCC without any chemical admixture was quite low. Interestingly, an improvement of freezing-thawing and scaling resistances was observed for RCC with appropriate the air entraining (AE) agent content; Relative dynamic elastic modulus was found to be more than 80% for those mixtures. In RCC with AE agent mixtures, large amount of air was distributed within a range of 2% to 3%, and an air void spacing factor ranging between 200 and 300 μm (close to 250 μm, recommended by PCA) was secured. The long-term durability of RCC has a direct relationship with air-void spacing factor, and thus it can only be secured by ensuring the air void spacing factor through the inclusion of the AE in the mixture.

**Keywords:**
RCCP,
durability,
air spacing factor,
surface scaling resistance test,
freezing and thawing resistance test.

##### 327 A Case Study of Limited Dynamic Voltage Frequency Scaling in Low-Power Processors

**Authors:**
Hwan Su Jung,
Ahn Jun Gil,
Jong Tae Kim

**Abstract:**

Power management techniques are necessary to save power in the microprocessor. By changing the frequency and/or operating voltage of processor, DVFS can control power consumption. In this paper, we perform a case study to find optimal power state transition for DVFS. We propose the equation to find the optimal ratio between executions of states while taking into account the deadline of processing time and the power state transition delay overhead. The experiment is performed on the Cortex-M4 processor, and average 6.5% power saving is observed when DVFS is applied under the deadline condition.

**Keywords:**
Deadline,
Dynamic Voltage Frequency Scaling,
Power State Transition.

##### 326 An Additive Watermarking Technique in Gray Scale Images Using Discrete Wavelet Transformation and Its Analysis on Watermark Strength

**Authors:**
Kamaldeep Joshi,
Rajkumar Yadav,
Ashok Kumar Yadav

**Abstract:**

Digital Watermarking is a procedure to prevent the unauthorized access and modification of personal data*.* It assures that the communication between two parties remains secure and their communication should be undetected. This paper investigates the consequence of the watermark strength of the grayscale image using a Discrete Wavelet Transformation (DWT) additive technique. In this method, the gray scale host image is divided into four sub bands: LL (Low-Low), HL (High-Low), LH (Low-High), HH (High-High) and the watermark is inserted in an LL sub band using DWT technique. As the image is divided into four sub bands, a watermark of equal size of the LL sub band has been inserted and the results are discussed. LL represents the average component of the host image which contains the maximum information of the image. Two kinds of experiments are performed. In the first, the same watermark is embedded in different images and in the later on the strength of the watermark varies by a factor of s i.e. (s=10, 20, 30, 40, 50) and it is inserted in the same image.

**Keywords:**
Watermarking,
discrete wavelet transform,
scaling factor,
steganography.

##### 325 Prediction of the Torsional Vibration Characteristics of a Rotor-Shaft System Using Its Scale Model and Scaling Laws

**Authors:**
Jia-Jang Wu

**Abstract:**

This paper presents the scaling laws that provide the criteria of geometry and dynamic similitude between the full-size rotor-shaft system and its scale model, and can be used to predict the torsional vibration characteristics of the full-size rotor-shaft system by manipulating the corresponding data of its scale model. The scaling factors, which play fundamental roles in predicting the geometry and dynamic relationships between the full-size rotor-shaft system and its scale model, for torsional free vibration problems between scale and full-size rotor-shaft systems are firstly obtained from the equation of motion of torsional free vibration. Then, the scaling factor of external force (i.e., torque) required for the torsional forced vibration problems is determined based on the Newton’s second law. Numerical results show that the torsional free and forced vibration characteristics of a full-size rotor-shaft system can be accurately predicted from those of its scale models by using the foregoing scaling factors. For this reason, it is believed that the presented approach will be significant for investigating the relevant phenomenon in the scale model tests.

**Keywords:**
Torsional vibration,
full-size model,
scale model,
scaling laws.

##### 324 Up Scaling of Highly Transparent Quasi-Solid State, Dye-Sensitized Solar Devices Composed of Nanocomposite Materials

**Authors:**
Dimitra Sygkridou,
Andreas Rapsomanikis,
Elias Stathatos,
Polycarpos Falaras,
Evangelos Vitoratos

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Dye-sensitized solar devices,
inkjet printing,
quasi-solid
state electrolyte,
transparency,
up scaling.

##### 323 A New Self-Tuning Fuzzy PD Controller of a BDFIG for Wind Energy Conversion

**Authors:**
Zoheir Tir,
Rachid Abdessemed

**Abstract:**

This paper presents a new control scheme to control a brushless doubly fed induction generator (BDFIG) using back-to-back PWM converters for wind power generation. The proposed control scheme is a New Self-Tuning Fuzzy Proportional-Derivative Controller (NSTFPDC). The goal of BDFIG control is to achieve a similar dynamic performance to the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), exploiting the well-known induction machine vector control philosophy. The performance of NSTFPDC controller has been investigated and compared with the two controllers, called Proportional–Integral (PI) and PD-like Fuzzy Logic controller (PD-like FLC) based BDFIG. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and the robustness of the NSTFPDC controller.

**Keywords:**
Brushless Doubly Fed Induction Generator (BDFIG),
PI controller,
PD-like Fuzzy Logic controller,
New Self-Tuning Fuzzy Proportional-Derivative Controller (NSTFPDC),
Scaling factor,
back-to-back PWM converters,
wind energy system.

##### 322 Dynamic Slope Scaling Procedure for Stochastic Integer Programming Problem

**Authors:**
Takayuki Shiina

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
stochastic programming problem with recourse,
simple
integer recourse,
dynamic slope scaling procedure

##### 321 Modified Scaling-Free CORDIC Based Pipelined Parallel MDC FFT and IFFT Architecture for Radix 2^2 Algorithm

**Authors:**
C. Paramasivam,
K. B. Jayanthi

**Abstract:**

^{2}FFT algorithm is presented. Multipliers and adders are the most important data paths in FFT and IFFT architectures. Multipliers occupy high area and consume more power. In order to optimize the area and power overhead, modified scaling-free CORDIC based complex multiplier is utilized in the proposed design. In general twiddle factor values are stored in RAM block. In the proposed work, modified scaling-free CORDIC based twiddle factor generator unit is used to generate the twiddle factor and efficient switching units are used. In addition to this, four point FFT operations are performed without complex multiplication which helps to reduce area and power in the last two stages of the pipelined architectures. The design proposed in this paper is based on multipath delay commutator method. The proposed design can be extended to any radix 2

^{n}based FFT/IFFT algorithm to improve the throughput. The work is synthesized using Synopsys design Compiler using TSMC 90-nm library. The proposed method proves to be better compared to the reference design in terms of area, throughput and power consumption. The comparative analysis of the proposed design with Xilinx FPGA platform is also discussed in the paper.

**Keywords:**
Coordinate Rotational Digital Computer(CORDIC),
Complex multiplier,
Fast Fourier transform (FFT),
Inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT),
Multipath delay Commutator (MDC),
modified scaling free CORDIC,
complex multiplier,
pipelining,
parallel processing,
radix-2^2.

##### 320 Malaysian Multi-Ethnic Discrimination Scale: Preliminary Factor and Psychometric Analysis

**Authors:**
Chua Bee Seok,
Shamsul Amri Baharuddin,
Rosnah Ismail,
Ferlis Bahari,
Jasmine Adela Mutang,
Lailawati Madlan,
Asong Joseph

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Factor structure,
psychometric properties,
exploratory factor analysis.

##### 319 Determining the Maximum Lateral Displacement Due to Sever Earthquakes without Using Nonlinear Analysis

**Authors:**
Mussa Mahmoudi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Displacement amplification factor,
Ductility factor,
Force reduction factor,
Maximum lateral displacement.

##### 318 The Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire (W-DEQ) with Turkish Sample: Confirmatory and Exploratory Factor Analysis

**Authors:**
Oznur Korukcu,
Kamile Kukulu,
Mehmet Z. Firat

**Abstract:**

The propose of this study is to investigate the factor structures of the W-DEQ, originally developed on UK and Swedish women, were confirmed in Turkish samples, and to obtain a new modified factor structure appropriate to Turkish culture. Statistical analyses of the data obtained were performed using SPSS© for Windows version 13.0 and the SAS statistical software Version 9.1. Both confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis of W-DEQ were performed in the study. Factor analysis yielded four factors related to hope, fear, lack of positive anticipation and riskiness. The alpha estimates of the total W-DEQ score were somewhat higher, being 0.92 for the parous and 0.90 for the nulliparous sample. These are well above the accepted limit of 0.70 and indicate excellent levels of internal reliability, thus showing that the questions were appropriate to the Turkish culture and useful scale for the evaluation of fear of childbirth in Turkish pregnants.

**Keywords:**
Confirmatory factor analysis,
cross-cultural research,
exploratory factor analysis,
fear of childbirth.

##### 317 Further Investigations on Higher Mathematics Scores for Chinese University Students

**Authors:**
Xun Ge

**Abstract:**

Recently, X. Ge and J. Qian investigated some relations between higher mathematics scores and calculus scores (resp. linear algebra scores, probability statistics scores) for Chinese university students. Based on rough-set theory, they established an information system S = (U,CuD,V, f). In this information system, higher mathematics score was taken as a decision attribute and calculus score, linear algebra score, probability statistics score were taken as condition attributes. They investigated importance of each condition attribute with respective to decision attribute and strength of each condition attribute supporting decision attribute. In this paper, we give further investigations for this issue. Based on the above information system S = (U, CU D, V, f), we analyze the decision rules between condition and decision granules. For each x E U, we obtain support (resp. strength, certainty factor, coverage factor) of the decision rule C —>x D, where C —>x D is the decision rule induced by x in S = (U, CU D, V, f). Results of this paper gives new analysis of on higher mathematics scores for Chinese university students, which can further lead Chinese university students to raise higher mathematics scores in Chinese graduate student entrance examination.

**Keywords:**
Rough set,
support,
strength,
certainty factor,
coverage factor.

##### 316 Negative Slope Ramp Carrier Control for High Power Factor Boost Converters in CCM Operation

**Authors:**
T. Tanitteerapan,
E.Thanpo

**Abstract:**

This paper, a simple continuous conduction mode (CCM) pulse-width-modulated (PWM) controller for high power factor boost converters is introduced. The duty ratios were obtained by the comparison of a sensed signal from inductor current or switch current and a negative slope ramp carrier waveform in each switching period. Due to the proposed control requires only the inductor current or switch current sensor and the output voltage sensor, its circuit implementation was very simple. To verify the proposed control, the circuit experimentation of a 350 W boost converter with the proposed control was applied. From the results, the input current waveform was shaped to be closely sinusoidal, implying high power factor and low harmonics.

**Keywords:**
High power factor converters,
boost converters,
low
harmonic rectifiers,
power factor correction,
and current control.

##### 315 A Sufficient Condition for Graphs to Have Hamiltonian [a, b]-Factors

**Authors:**
Sizhong Zhou

**Abstract:**

Let a and b be nonnegative integers with 2 ≤ a < b, and let G be a Hamiltonian graph of order n with n ≥ (a+b−4)(a+b−2) b−2 . An [a, b]-factor F of G is called a Hamiltonian [a, b]-factor if F contains a Hamiltonian cycle. In this paper, it is proved that G has a Hamiltonian [a, b]-factor if |NG(X)| > (a−1)n+|X|−1 a+b−3 for every nonempty independent subset X of V (G) and δ(G) > (a−1)n+a+b−4 a+b−3 .

**Keywords:**
graph,
minimum degree,
neighborhood,
[a,
b]-factor,
Hamiltonian [a,
b]-factor.

##### 314 Analyzing the Effect of Ambient Temperature and Loads Power Factor on Electric Generator Power Rating

**Authors:**
Ahmed Elsebaay,
Maged A. Abu Adma,
Mahmoud Ramadan

**Abstract:**

This study presents a technique clarifying the effect of ambient air temperature and loads power factor changing from standard values on electric generator power rating. The study introduces an optimized technique for selecting the correct electric generator power rating for certain application and operating site ambient temperature. The de-rating factors due to the previous effects will be calculated to be applied on a generator to select its power rating accurately to avoid unsafe operation and save its lifetime. The information in this paper provides a simple, accurate, and general method for synchronous generator selection and eliminates common errors.

**Keywords:**
Ambient temperature,
de-rating factor,
electric generator,
power factor.

##### 313 Examining Herzberg-s Two Factor Theory in a Large Chinese Chemical Fiber Company

**Authors:**
Ju-Chun Chien

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Employee job satisfaction,
Job retention,
Traditional business,
Two-factor theory of motivation.

##### 312 Hamiltonian Factors in Hamiltonian Graphs

**Authors:**
Sizhong Zhou,
Bingyuan Pu

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
graph,
neighborhood,
factor,
Hamiltonian factor.

##### 311 Cognitive Weighted Polymorphism Factor: A Comprehension Augmented Complexity Metric

**Authors:**
T. Francis Thamburaj,
A. Aloysius

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Cognitive complexity metric,
cognitive weighted
polymorphism factor,
object-oriented metrics,
polymorphism factor,
software metrics.

##### 310 Investigation of Roll off Factor in Pulse Shaping Filter on Maximal Ratio Combining for CDMA 2000 System

**Authors:**
G. S. Walia,
H. P. Singh,
Padma D.

**Abstract:**

The integration of wide variety of communication services is made possible with invention of 3G technology. Code Division Multiple Access 2000 operates on various RF channel bandwidths 1.2288 or 3.6864 Mcps (1x or 3x systems). It is a 3G system which offers high bandwidth and wireless broadband services but its efficiency is lowered due to various factors like fading, interference, scattering, absorption etc. This paper investigates the effect of diversity (MRC), roll off factor in Root Raised Cosine (RRC) filter for the BPSK and QPSK modulation schemes. It is possible to transmit data with minimum Inter symbol Interference and within limited bandwidth with proper pulse shaping technique. Bit error rate (BER) performance is analyzed by applying diversity technique by varying the roll off factor for BPSK and QPSK. Roll off factor reduces the ISI and diversity reduces the Fading.

**Keywords:**
CDMA2000,
Diversity,
Root Raised Cosine,
Roll off factor.

##### 309 Contingency Screening Using Risk Factor Considering Transmission Line Outage

**Authors:**
M. Marsadek,
A. Mohamed

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Line overload,
low voltage,
probability,
risk factor,
severity.

##### 308 A High Quality Factor Filter Based on Quasi-Periodic Photonic Structure

**Authors:**
Hamed Alipour-Banaei,
Farhad Mehdizadeh

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Thue-Morse,
filter,
quality factor.

##### 307 Connectivity Characteristic of Transcription Factor

**Authors:**
T. Mahalakshmi,
Aswathi B. L.,
Achuthsankar S. Nair

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Transcription Factor Proteins,
Hub Proteins,
Shannon Index,
Transfer Free Energy to Surface (TFES).

##### 306 Introduction of Hyperaccumulator Plants with Phytoremediation Potential of a Lead- Zinc Mine in Iran

**Authors:**
M. Cheraghi,
B. Lorestani,
N. Yousefi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Enrichment factor,
Heavy metals,
Hyperaccumulator,
Phytoremediation,
Translocation factor

##### 305 Power Factor Correction Based on High Switching Frequency Resonant Power Converter

**Authors:**
B. Sathyanandhi,
P. M. Balasubramaniam

**Abstract:**

This paper presents Buck-Boost converter topology to maintain the input power factor by using the power factor stage control and regulation stage control. Suppose, if we are using the RL load the power factor will be reduced due to the presence of total harmonic distortion in the current wave. To improve the power factor the current waveform should follow the fundamental component of the voltage waveform. These can be achieved by using the high -frequency power converter. Based on the resonant circuit the converter is able to perform the function of Buck, Boost, and buck-boost converter. Here ,we have used Buck-Boost converter, because, the buck-boost converter has more advantages than the boost converter. Here the switching action of the power converter can take place by using the external zero comparator PFC stage control. The power converter consisting of the resonant circuit which is used to control the output voltage gain of the converter. The power converter is operated at a very high switching frequency in the range of 400KHz in order to overcome the switching losses of the power converter. Due to presence of high switching frequency, the power factor will improve. Therefore, the total harmonics distortion present in the current waveform has also reduced. These results has generated in the form of simulation by using MATLAB/SIMULINK software. Similar to the Buck and Boost converters, the operation of the Buck-Boost has best understood, in terms of the inductor's "reluctance" for allowing rapid change in current, which also reduces the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) in the input current waveform, which can improve the input Power factor, based on the type of load used.

**Keywords:**
Buck-boost converter,
High switching frequency,
Power factor correction,
power factor correction stage Regulation stage,
Total harmonic distortion (THD).

##### 304 Neutronic Study of Two Reactor Cores Cooled with Light and Heavy Water Using Computation Method

**Authors:**
Z. Gholamzadeh,
A. Zali,
S. A. H. Feghhi,
C. Tenreiro,
Y. Kadi,
M. Rezazadeh,
M. Aref

**Abstract:**

Most HWRs currently use natural uranium fuel. Using enriched uranium fuel results in a significant improvement in fuel cycle costs and uranium utilization. On the other hand, reactivity changes of HWRs over the full range of operating conditions from cold shutdown to full power are small. This reduces the required reactivity worth of control devices and minimizes local flux distribution perturbations, minimizing potential problems due to transient local overheating of fuel. Analyzing heavy water effectiveness on neutronic parameters such as enrichment requirements, peaking factor and reactivity is important and should pay attention as primary concepts of a HWR core designing. Two nuclear nuclear reactors of CANDU-type and hexagonal-type reactor cores of 33 fuel assemblies and 19 assemblies in 1.04 P/D have been respectively simulated using MCNP-4C code. Using heavy water and light water as moderator have been compared for achieving less reactivity insertion and enrichment requirements. Two fuel matrixes of (232Th/235U)O2 and (238/235U)O2 have been compared to achieve more economical and safe design. Heavy water not only decreased enrichment needs, but it concluded in negative reactivity insertions during moderator density variations. Thorium oxide fuel assemblies of 2.3% enrichment loaded into the core of heavy water moderator resulted in 0.751 fission to absorption ratio and peaking factor of 1.7 using. Heavy water not only provides negative reactivity insertion during temperature raises which changes moderator density but concluded in 2 to 10 kg reduction of enrichment requirements, depend on geometry type.

**Keywords:**
MCNP-4C,
Reactor core,
Multiplication factor,
Reactivity,
Peaking factor.

##### 303 Stress Intensity Factor for Dynamic Cracking of Composite Material by X-FEM Method

**Authors:**
S. Lecheb,
A. Nour,
A. Chellil,
H. Mechakra,
N. Hamad,
H. Kebir

**Abstract:**

The work involves develops attended by a numerical execution of the eXtend Finite Element Method premises a measurement by the fracture process cracked so many cracked plates an application will be processed for the calculation of the stress intensity factor SIF. In the first we give in statically part the distribution of stress, displacement field and strain of composite plate in two cases uncrack/edge crack, also in dynamical part the first six modes shape. Secondly, we calculate Stress Intensity Factor SIF for different orientation angle θ of central crack with length (2a=0.4mm) in plan strain condition, KI and KII are obtained for mode I and mode II respectively using X-FEM method. Finally from crack inclined involving mixed modes results, the comparison we chose dangerous inclination and the best crack angle when K is minimal.

**Keywords:**
Stress Intensity Factor (SIF),
Crack orientation,
Glass/Epoxy,
natural Frequencies,
X-FEM.

##### 302 On the Need to have an Additional Methodology for the Psychological Product Measurement and Evaluation

**Authors:**
Corneliu Sofronie,
Roxana Zubcov

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
complementary methodology,
connection approach,
networks without scaling,
quantum psychology.

##### 301 Latent Topic Based Medical Data Classification

**Authors:**
Jian-hua Yeh,
Shi-yi Kuo

**Abstract:**

This paper discusses the classification process for medical data. In this paper, we use the data from ACM KDDCup 2008 to demonstrate our classification process based on latent topic discovery. In this data set, the target set and outliers are quite different in their nature: target set is only 0.6% size in total, while the outliers consist of 99.4% of the data set. We use this data set as an example to show how we dealt with this extremely biased data set with latent topic discovery and noise reduction techniques. Our experiment faces two major challenge: (1) extremely distributed outliers, and (2) positive samples are far smaller than negative ones. We try to propose a suitable process flow to deal with these issues and get a best AUC result of 0.98.

**Keywords:**
classification,
latent topics,
outlier adjustment,
feature scaling

##### 300 Fatigue Analysis of Crack Growing Rate and Stress Intensity Factor for Stress Corrosion Cracking in a Pipeline System

**Authors:**
A. R. Shahani,
E. Mahdavi,
M. Amidpour

**Abstract:**

Environment-assisted cracking (EAC) is one of the most serious causes of structural failure over a broad range of industrial applications including offshore structures. In EAC condition there is not a definite relation such as Paris equation in Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM). According to studying and searching a lot what the researchers said either a material has contact with hydrogen or any other corrosive environment, phenomenon of electrical and chemical reactions of material with its environment will be happened. In the literature, there are many different works to consider fatigue crack growing and solve it but they are experimental works. Thus, in this paper, authors have an aim to evaluate mathematically the pervious works in LEFM. Obviously, if an environment is more sour and corrosive, the changes of stress intensity factor is more and the calculation of stress intensity factor is difficult. A mathematical relation to deal with the stress intensity factor during the diffusion of sour environment especially hydrogen in a marine pipeline is presented. By using this relation having and some experimental relation an analytical formulation will be presented which enables the fatigue crack growth and critical crack length under cyclic loading to be predicted. In addition, we can calculate KSCC and stress intensity factor in the pipeline caused by EAC.

**Keywords:**
Embrittlement,
Fracture mechanics,
Hydrogen diffusion,
Stress intensity factor.